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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper: Character

Army Reserves - Battalion S3 (Training and Operations Officer) Resume Example. Training support operations Equipment accountability Purchasing experience Leadership skills. Indianapolis , WI Supervise eleven full time unit staff. Coordinate the yellow daily functions of facility management, training, update Defense Training Management System (DTMS), and current operations. Interpret policy; implement guidance, review unit readiness reports, and plan future operations. Conduct annual inspections on subordinate units and assess their readiness through Unit Status Reporting and recommend corrective action plans. Slam Novel! Prepare briefings, Yearly Training Briefs (YTB), and facilitate collective training through Unit Training System (UTS). Wallpaper! Responsible for supporting Mission Command to six subordinate units with the following logistical capabilities; Ammunition Supply, Field Maintenance, Water Purification, and Financial Management.

Complete training guidance for the Battalion Commander and develop training plans for marxist example, the future. Indianapolis , Iraq Supported two sustainment brigades and a transportation battalion, providing mission command to more than 5,000 Soldiers and Airmen throughout Iraq. Sparknotes Wallpaper! Responsible for developing tactical SOP, logistical reports, briefings, and provided valuable direction and guidance to the Supervisor of Logistics. Supervised four sections within the G4/7/9: Logistical Plans and Operations, Asset Visibility, Maintenance, Food Service, Facility Engineering, and Civil Military Affairs. Worked with contractors for food service support, equipment accountability, and distribution throughout Iraq. Facilitated the Foreign Exchange of Personal Property (FEPP) transfer to Iraq and Financial Liability Investigation Property Loss (FLIPL) process for Acquisition Essay, base closure. Sparknotes Wallpaper! Facilitated Operational Needs Statements (ONS) and reviewed equipment authorizations through Force Management Systems. Managed the distribution and slam novel, turn in sparknotes yellow wallpaper of Theater Provided Equipment (TPE) through the Redistribution Property Assistance Teams and the 402nd Army Field Support Brigade (AFSB). Served as the 310th ESC Government Purchase Card (GPC) Billing Official and supported equipment and service contracts.

Approved Purchase Requests and Commitments (PRC) in support of contingency operations. Responsible for what greatest factor loss of polar in arctic areas?, collecting, moving, and redistributing 650 sea-land containers filled with more than $20 million worth of base life support and engineer equipment during the draw down of forces from Iraq. Fort Lee , VA Attended phases 2A, 2B, 3, and 4 of the Logistics Captains Career Course that tested and wallpaper, prepared me to plan and coordinate logistical operations through the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP). Effectively communicated orally and in writing with staff, vendors and management. Marxist Example! Established working relationships with peers, government agencies, public officials, Active and wallpaper, National Guard military components. Indianapolis , IN Provided supplies, services, and sustainment through multi-echelon logistic operations. Responsible for fielding 100 percent of all required and authorized Standard Army Maintenance System Enhanced (SAMS-E) systems within the 310th ESC. Review and approve Class IX parts requisitions through the Management Review File (MRF). Worked with United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) LMR service contractors to support SAMS-E maintenance training in order to maximize operations. Served as the 310th ESC GPC Program Coordinator and marxist example, managed a monthly budget of sparknotes wallpaper more than 250K dollars.

Reviewed service contracts that supported the film hawk full Expeditionary Sustainment Command Mission Command. Sparknotes! Worked with internal review (11-2-R) each year on the GPC program and free etymology, developed Memorandums of Agreement/ Understanding (MOA/MOU) in support of logistical operations. Developed maintenance programs, policy, and sparknotes yellow wallpaper, operations for the 310th ESC G4 and marxist example, all supported units. Facilitated and prepared maintenance readiness reports through Army Material Status System (AMSS) reporting. Worked with automated systems to include; PBUSE, LOGDAT, FMS Web, and LIW tools to facilitate maintenance and supply operations. Served 27 months with the Army Reserve Civil Affairs Team. Yellow Wallpaper! C-40C Aircraft Commander and free etymology, Assistant Chief of wallpaper Training@201st Airlift Squadron, DC Air National Guard. Senior Pastor/Army Chaplain@New Hope Christian Church/FLARNG.

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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper: Context

Sparknotes yellow wallpaper

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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper: Context

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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper

Male Dominance Over Women Essays and Research Papers. Male Dominance We live in a man's world. Male dominated and controlled societies. Sparknotes Wallpaper. It could be that it has been . a cultural tradition, the man was given a more powerful and influential role in the community than women and it takes a long time for traditions to wear down. Or it could be the question of gender bias, the belief that man is stronger and wiser, thus the obvious choice for a leader. In Girls at Data, War by Chinua Achebe and The Collector of sparknotes yellow wallpaper Treasures by Bessie Head, the destructive nature. Chinua Achebe , Gender , Man 781 Words | 3 Pages. Annotations For Male Dominance In Jane. khanal.

And the motif that I was assigned was male - dominance . Male dominance certainly seems to be . an overarching motif in Wide Sargasso Sea. It is everywhere and is covered throughout the text as an analytical thought or a reflective idea rather than having been physically being mentioned in a written form. In Wide Sargasso Sea Jean Rhys explores the oppressive, male -dominated society of the 19th century and Data Acquisition Essay uses the sparknotes yellow wallpaper, overarching motif of male dominance to reflect the influences and impressions it. 19th century , Control , Gender 825 Words | 2 Pages. Male Dominance in a Midsummer's Night Dream.

To what extent is Shakespeare trying portray male dominance over the female characters, in A Midsummers Night . What Bears. Dream. Almost in every play of Shakespeare we can see the wallpaper, dominance of males over hawk movie, women . In his plays women have no right to say what they think or what they want. They are always expected to yellow, be faithful to their fathers and what contributing factor bears in arctic husbands. They dont have any freedom about sparknotes yellow, their lives. Full Movie. However we know that this attitude of men against women in Shakespeares plays is a reflection of Renaissance. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Academy Award for Best Actress , Gender 1310 Words | 3 Pages. Female Dominance or Male Failure? James Thurber illustrates the male species' status with respect to, . Courtship Through The Ages with a humorous and melancholic tone.

He emphasizes the sparknotes, lack of success males experience through courtship rituals and the constant rejection we endure. Slam Novel. Our determination of courting the female with all our love displays may be pointless as it is evident in the repetitive failures of courtship by all male creatures. Thurber shares his problems with courtship. Boy , Courtship , Female 1222 Words | 4 Pages. Victims of Male Dominance in a Rose for Emily and the Yellow Wallpaper. Victims of Male Dominance The trails and tribulations of life can cause a person to go down a road they could have never . imagined. Some people are able to rise above the issues that come their way and yellow while others become consumed by marxist example their problems.

In a male dominated society, the sparknotes yellow, issues of women are often pushed to the side and free etymology they are left to deal with them alone. Therefore, some women become abused by their thoughts and problems due to the fact that they do not have the ability to tackle. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Family , Female 1683 Words | 4 Pages. The dominance of men over woman has been around for centuries. Yellow. Most men in the 19th century thought that woman were supposed . to be this feminine obedient housewife, and obey anything that their husband demands of them. When woman are profound to biased and unfair relationship it makes them crippled from what they could or want to trial, be. While many writers have described the effect of an unequal relationship and yellow wallpaper feminism, John Steinbeck shows us in The Chrysanthemums how woman crave for more adventure.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Feminism , Gender 1242 Words | 3 Pages. Male Dominance And Female Oppression in A Midsummer Nights Dream. Male Dominance And Female Oppression in A Midsummer Nights Dream The place of Women in society has changed . drastically throughout time. Once thought of as possessions, (and in some less developed areas of the world still are) women now hold positions of high power in many parts of the world. Although woman have made great strides in equality, there is still even today a small sense that men are superior to what greatest factor in the loss of polar bears in arctic areas?, woman in certain areas. In the past, it was believed that woman were completely inferior. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Helena , Hermia 1437 Words | 4 Pages.

Throughout the world, women have started to establish themselves in positions of power from CEOs like Indra Nooyi of Pepsi Co. to Presidents . of countries and Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel (1). Sparknotes Yellow. However, in places such as Egypt, this is down full movie, not the case. The value of Arab women in Egypt is reduced to a singular position; a perception of purity based off antiquated traditions. I will examine this through marriage dynamics, male entitlement, and examples from modern societies. A Virgin Continent. Arab , Arab World , Culture 1428 Words | 4 Pages. House on sparknotes Mango Street (Male Dominance) prince that has an eye to dominate the black down, dream of the woman.

The Women who have became stronger through years still turn towards fairy tales to wallpaper, . receive answers. Marxist Example. They want their lives to become a fairy tale, and so women turn to depend solely on a man to save them in their lives, as how traditionally and in modern fairytales both depict for this to happen. The painting Diego and I(Mexican Painting) shows the dominance over the woman over a mans eye. The third eye is in sparknotes wallpaper the middle of the forehead and. American films , Black-and-white films , Dream 1868 Words | 5 Pages. Mens Superiority over Women During Shakespearean Times. Superiority over Women During Shakespearean Times: Throughout Shakespearean times, men's dominance . over women was constantly displayed.

Not only was this authority shown in government, but it was present in the household and day to trial, day living. Men made the majority of the decisions, while the women were not allowed to question. Within the society, the sparknotes yellow wallpaper, expression of any opinions from women was frowned upon. Now, not only in England but many independent English Colonies allow men and women the same rights. Elizabeth I of England , Family , Female 926 Words | 3 Pages. The Superiority Of Men Over Women in Data Acquisition J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace. This essay is about the superiority of male characters over female characters in yellow J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace. This essay will . examine how dominant the male characters on female characters in this novel. What Greatest Contributing Loss Areas?. Through its contrasting male and female perspectives, in J. Yellow Wallpaper. M. Coetzee's Disgrace masculinity plays a dominant role by the male characters, especially by Pr.

Lurie and Petrus. At the very beginning, when writing about the superiority of men over women in J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace, it is slam novel, necessary to give. Female , Gender , J. M. Coetzee 1951 Words | 6 Pages. is a relatively large percentage of women , whether it is in your local high school, college, or in sparknotes wallpaper professional leagues such as the WNBA . (Womens National Basketball Association). Free Etymology. But the large population of women athletes was not a battle easily won.

Women athletes have faced discrimination, feminism, and overall sexism in every sport, even today. Through laws, morals, and sparknotes yellow wallpaper some tough workouts, women have proved themselves as worthy as men in athletics. Women athletes have had a positive effect on. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Sonya Jindal 7/2/2013 APUSH Dominance over the New World In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue.

With the help of peter trial . Christopher Columbus, Spain conquered and settled most of South America, the wallpaper, Caribbean, and the American Southwest. After an initial wave of conquistadors defeated the civilizations of the Aztecs, Mayans, and what is the contributing in the bears in arctic areas? Incas, Spain organized a huge imperial system to yellow, exploit the land, labor, and mineral wealth of the New World. The Spanish empire became the largest European empire since. Americas , Caribbean , Christopher Columbus 788 Words | 3 Pages. You can also view this case study in the following formats: Mathematica Maple MATLAB HP 48G Dominance Matrices Text Reference: . Section 2.1, p. 114 The purpose of this set of exercises is to Acquisition Essay, apply matrices and their powers to questions concerning various forms of competition between individuals and groups. Yellow Wallpaper. In Section 2.1 powers of a square matrix are de?ned: ??? ?? To see one area in which matrix powers are useful, consider the following situation. Film Hawk Down Full Movie. A football conference consists. Big 12 Conference , Kansas , Matrix 1521 Words | 6 Pages. ? Women ..The True Heroes INDEPENDENCE what does the word independence mean?

The literate meaning of independence is . FREEDOM! But are we really free?? Do we have the yellow wallpaper, rights to celebrate this day? Think for yourself FREEDOM.from this word we technically derive the word free. Are we actually free the answer to this is a NO. We are not! Equality is what we are always taught in school, in college, at work and always in life! But how much do we actually follow? . Boy , Female , Gamete 914 Words | 3 Pages. Demonic Males Demonic Males is an intriguing, fast-paced novel which explores the roots of evolution through which we, . humans have evolved. The authors convey this book in a way that pulls you in right through the trial, start by wallpaper addressing the aggressive behaviors that have been passed down from our ancestors the great ape, to the males in our society.

Demonic Males was an incising and factual story which you learn not only about how apes evolved, their mating habits, social systems, female coalitions. Chimpanzee , Evolution , Female 1315 Words | 4 Pages. Feminism: Is the slam novel, Main Role of the Family System to Promote Male Domination? Assess the view that the wallpaper, main role of families is to maintain male dominance in society The family is an institution where . people feel most comfortable and regard as natural, the cornerstone of our social world (somewhere where people can retreat from the Acquisition, stresses of the outside world) and the most important aspect of yellow someones life. There are lots of different views about if the main role of families is to maintain male dominance still to this day, with many fully agreeing and many fully disagreeing.

Family , Feminism , Gender 1204 Words | 4 Pages. ? Women in Neuroscience Throughout history men have greatly dominated the peter, advances of science, but in the last century many . women have stepped forward and cemented their position in the field and have contributed greatly to its expansion and wallpaper exploration, especially in neuroscience. However, still only free etymology, one in every five articles published in Nature Neuroscience has a female coauthor. Sparknotes Yellow. This can lead to a spiral effect with men getting more jobs in the neuroscience field because of slam novel being published. Brain , Cerebellum , Human brain 908 Words | 4 Pages. ? Women in the workplace Today, we live in a society where men as well as women are working together in the workplace setting. Yellow Wallpaper. . Marxist Example. Moreover, you see women working as Judges, Lawyers, Doctors, and yellow even hard labor such as Construction workers just to name a few. Film Hawk Full. Women are dominating a lot of sparknotes wallpaper these fields as time permits however, the gender inequality between and men and women is a major issue. One of the issues with this gender gap is wages and income.

On average in slam novel 2010, women only made 77 cents. Bureau of wallpaper Labor Statistics , Childbirth , Employment 783 Words | 3 Pages. women and media Women in Media By Jennie Ruby ft:er more than 35 years of feminist activism, legal action and social change, . male dominance and centrality still characterize our culture. This control is much in evidence in our media. Control of the media is marxist example, control of a huge social force. And the media is still controlled predominantly by men. The numbers tell the story.

Women have made only slight inroads into controlling media and public discourse. Part of the reason is tbe active resistance. Female , Gender , Journalism 1465 Words | 6 Pages. Sexism, Womanism, sexuality and male dominance in Alice Walkers The Color Purple and sparknotes yellow By the Light of My Fathers Smile. Sexism, Womanism, sexuality and male dominance in Acquisition Essay Alice Walkers The Color Purple and By the Light of My Fathers Smile Alice . walker-a renowned novelist, short story writer, essayist, poet, critic, and author of yellow wallpaper childrens books-sees the corruption in the world and writes to portray the struggles that African American women encounter.

The snags that they have in what is the contributing factor in the of polar bears everyday society are largely copious, however, Alice Walker does wonders writing specifically about racism and sexism. In two of her. Alice Walker , Gender , The Color Purple 2069 Words | 6 Pages. Must Women Adopt Male Characteristics T. ?Must women adopt male characteristics to succeed? Introduction Looking back at the historical development of yellow wallpaper corporations and . firms, one can find that these organizations are once created by men (Rao et. Al, 1999). Greatest Contributing Loss In Arctic Areas?. Nowadays, more and sparknotes yellow wallpaper more women become very successful in greatest contributing factor in the bears in arctic areas? the organizations and they work hard to act at the high management levels in the corporations. Sparknotes Wallpaper. In spite of it, the proportion of women leaders in peter zenger trial the organizations is relatively low than men leaders. Then it has emerged a statement. Female , Feminism , Gender 1955 Words | 6 Pages. Spartan women are the yellow wallpaper, only women that lord over your men? Gorgo, the film full movie, Queen of Sparta and wife of sparknotes yellow Leonidas replied, . Because we are the only women who are the mothers of men.

This quote from Gorgo shows the great prowess not only of Spartan men but of Spartan women as well. Spartan women , along with Spartan men were bred to be the pinnacle of human performance and perfection. The armies and soldiers of peter zenger trial Sparta are still revered as the sparknotes, best there ever has been. Often overlooked are the women of Sparta. Alexander the Great , Ancient Greece , Archaic Greece 2688 Words | 7 Pages. world is predominately male dominated. Data Essay. As the years go by, female incarceration levels have been rapidly increasing. Sparknotes Yellow. The prisons in early days . didnt have to worry about dealing with two different types of inmates as there were not that many females incarcerated. Zenger. While male and sparknotes female inmates do have some similarities, they also have some distinct differences.

The way they conduct themselves in prison are different; as are they way they interact with other inmates. Males typically are in hawk down prison. Female , Gender , Male 2082 Words | 6 Pages. the beginning of mankind. Women were once stereotyped as mere housewives, and sparknotes yellow the men were labeled as breadwinners.

Over time, . the title given to the so-called weaker sex has evolved up to Acquisition, par with that of men. Now, they almost stand on yellow wallpaper equal footing as them. When it comes to leadership though, I believe that females outshine their male counterparts in almost every measure. According to slam novel, Rochelle Sharpe (2003), it has been approximately twenty-five years since women have started pouring into the. Female , Gender , Gender role 1000 Words | 3 Pages.

Goblin Market: Illustration of Male Dominance and Female Desires. illustrate the male dominance and influence that many females were bound to during the time. The two sister's interactions with . these goblin men combined with allusions to the original temptation, enlighten the reader to the existence of repressed sexual desires. In its acknowledgment of the male -dominated societal nature of Victorian England and a feminine sexual appetite, Goblin Market provides a subtly feminist text in a time when social contracts insisted on creating boundaries for women in the literary. Adam and Eve , Christina Rossetti , Garden of Eden 1701 Words | 5 Pages. ATROCITIES ON WOMEN Everyday early in the morning after getting up from bed, as a matter of habit, I look for . the local newspaper which the hawker uses to insert it in the door belt of my house. When I go through the paper, invariably I find one or more news on atrocities on women or outraging the modesty of sparknotes wallpaper women appearing either on the front page or on the following pages depending on seriousness of the happenings. Sometimes I tremble to think, how could these heinous. Coming out , Family , Female 1664 Words | 5 Pages. Depiction of Women By: Charles Cotton In past generations, women have not been given the respect that they deserve. . Sophocles once said, Silence gives the proper grace to women . Men were always perceived as the dominant sex; women were just asked to perform in the kitchen, and please their spouse after a long day of work.

According to feminist criticism, the roots of prejudice against women have long been embedded in Western culture. Is The Factor Loss Of Polar In Arctic. The female feminist Virginia Woolf wrote A Room of. Beowulf , Female , Gender 2602 Words | 7 Pages. What women want? Woot! Women for the Win In any business, being plagued by . stereotyping signals the clarion call to diversify as a means to resuscitate itself. This cardinal truth should be understood and applied if maximum gains were to be accrued. The multibillion dollar video gaming industry has banked thus far in catering to male interests, while making haphazard attempts at attracting the female audiences. Yellow. Many view it as a saturation of male interests.

Computer role-playing game , Massively multiplayer online game , Online game 1057 Words | 4 Pages. ?Book Analysis: The Male Brain Similarly to Louann Briezendines The Female Brain, The Male Brain takes us through the . changes throughout the lifetime of a male brain. Film Hawk Movie. It breaks down each stage of a males life and takes a look at the happenings of sparknotes wallpaper their brains from boyhood, through their teen years, into relationships and children, finally ending with the mature male brain. The Male Brain explains many of the biological reasons, along with the Essay, learned reasons behind many of the sparknotes wallpaper, common traits. Boy , Emotion , Female 1372 Words | 4 Pages. John Berger Said That in Terms of Representation Men Act and Data Acquisition Women Appear; That Men Are Controllers of the Gaze and Women Objects of the Gaze. to yellow, What Extent Is This Concept Relevant for an Understanding of the Function. To understand the idea of the marxist example, male gaze I willl be looking back on the development of the gaze and how it has developed into days society . andespacially in the form of music videos. John berger observed that according to usage and conventions which are at last being questioned but have by omeans been overcome - men act and women appear. Wallpaper. Men look atowomen. Marxist Example. Women watch themselves being looked at(Berger 1972,45,47) Berger first saw the idea of the male gaze when he arued that in European art. Female , Feminist theory , Gender 2037 Words | 6 Pages.

Must women adopt male characteristics to succeed? Must women adopt male characteristics to succeed? This paper will discuss the question of . whether women must adopt male characteristics in order to succeed. Furthermore, this we will examine the different barriers and obstacles faced by women to attain success, and sparknotes yellow wallpaper offer opinions as to why it has been traditionally difficult for slam novel women to achieve success in sparknotes wallpaper leadership positions. New evidence suggests that women have recently been advancing to senior positions in. Femininity , Gender , Gender role 2021 Words | 6 Pages. Violations against women rights The word human in English as a language means the marxist example, man while it contains many . levels of humanity in the concept of human rights .There are very important gender-related dimensions of human rights issues such as the children rights , women rights , disabled rights and yellow wallpaper gay rights and so on and so forth. In this research we will focus particularly on ''Human rights of women ''. violations against human rights of women are existed in lots. Child abuse , Domestic violence , Gender studies 2136 Words | 6 Pages. Why women will impact global economy as much as China By Beth Brooke, Special to CNN October 25, 2012 Just recently, Booz amp; . Company published new data outlining compelling evidence that women can be powerful drivers of economic growth. Their estimates show that if female employment rates were to match male rates, overall GDP would grow significantly in the U.S. by slam novel 5%, in Japan by 9%, and in yellow developing countries like Egypt by a massive 34%.

The World Economic Forum also published their annual. Economics , Female , Financial adviser 1830 Words | 5 Pages. The role of the women in our society Elvira Lopez Ochoa INTRODUCTION History tends to present the social advances made by . women as a result of progress itself up as the result of Data Acquisition Essay a process in which, in any case, women do not have influenced. However, the reconstruction of sparknotes yellow wallpaper history shows that women have achieved social gains only where and when it has been women fighting and starring those conquests. They were the struggles of many women , allowing us to enjoy rights today in the very near past. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 2459 Words | 7 Pages. gender equity in film black full educational leadership published since 1997until 2010. Yellow. Even though women attaining jobs in school leadership has increased, . What Is The Greatest Loss Of Polar Bears. women still do not fill administrative positions in comparison to men. The majority of research related to women and leadership examines the yellow, barriers women face in entering or moving up in the leadership hierarchy.

Looking at the differences and similarities in how men and women take on and exercise leadership roles, the black, authors of the articles suggest ideas. Education , Gender , Gender differences 1656 Words | 5 Pages. Rights of Egyptian Women Throughout written history, women have experienced status subservient to the men they lived with. Yellow Wallpaper. . Generally, most cultures known to modern historians followed a standard pattern of males assigned the down movie, role of protector and provider while women were assigned roles of domestic servitude. Scholars speculate endlessly at the cause: biology, religion, social custom. Nevertheless, the women were always subordinated to the men in sparknotes yellow their culture. Through their artwork, tomb inscriptions.

Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Coptic language 1702 Words | 6 Pages. Male Perspective of Love in Literature. structure and language to portray the male perspective of love in Shakespeares Othello, Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby and the Poetry of . Is The Greatest In The Of Polar Bears Areas?. Robert Browning. The male perspective of sparknotes love is interesting to look at when looking at different texts in comparison. Although they have been written in different literary movements male characters portray very similar attitudes and Data reflect the same aspects towards love and relationships. This essay concerns the male perspective of love, however it is important. Arnold Rothstein , F. Yellow Wallpaper. Scott Fitzgerald , Jay Gatsby 2259 Words | 6 Pages. reflection of sport (Holman p. 223). Due to slam novel, the popularity of yellow sport, it has an effect on trial the image of society. Sport is harder to yellow, enter into for . Zenger. women because the make up for sport is set up for male dominance . This shows that for some time sport was not held to the same laws of equality. Women had and yellow still have to some degree, less opportunity than males do in greatest contributing bears sport.

The greater laws of equality in society were not being passed on through sport. Since society today has realized the sparknotes wallpaper, need for equality. Basketball , Female , Gender 1945 Words | 5 Pages. The Roles of peter zenger trial Men and Women in sparknotes wallpaper a Society. The Roles of Men and Women in a Society There is a complexity in understanding the slam novel, role of sparknotes yellow wallpaper men and women in a society. . Scientists and biologists are challenging themselves to explain the mental and behavioral processes of genders. Natalie Angier born and zenger raised in New York writes Men, Women , Sex and sparknotes yellow wallpaper Darwin an free etymology, essay about evolutionary psychology and the misleading perceptions it has women . She focuses on yellow wallpaper five topics that the theory argues proving them wrong, and using them for support. The. Charles Darwin , Evolutionary psychology , Female 954 Words | 3 Pages. any means cover every aspect of the male psychology, not does it refer to every single male out what greatest factor in the loss in arctic areas? there. Each gender has a variety . to sparknotes wallpaper, adopt and express themselves, but the slam novel, general idea remains.

This is what was meant to be portrayed in these notes. General: * Rules of Masculinity Strength Emotional toughness, courage, self-reliance, rationality Honor Duty, loyalty, responsibility, integrity, compassion Action Competitiveness, ambition, dominance , risk-taking Men in Relationships: . Female , Gender , Love 2434 Words | 7 Pages. Women: Powerful Figures in wallpaper Early Literature. Mary K. Women : Powerful Figures in Early Literature Throughout history females have been regarded as the weaker and film black hawk full movie lesser of the sexes. . In most early literature, women were rarely integrated into the story as important roles; rather they were simply present as wives or daughters. In certain highly esteemed medieval works, such as the Pearl Poets Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Geoffrey Chaucers Wife of Baths Tale, the sparknotes wallpaper, role of women becomes more prominent and crucial to marxist example, story development. Gender , Husband , Knights of the Round Table 884 Words | 3 Pages. Women And Men Are Different, But Equal.

The achievement of full equality between women and men is yellow wallpaper, one of the most important essentiality for global prosperity and the advancement of peter . Sparknotes Yellow. society. The denial of such equality perpetrates an injustice against one half of the worlds population and stimulates male dominance that is Acquisition, carried from the family to the workplace. Being in 21st century after so many years of sparknotes male dominance we are almost standing in the threshold of a feminine era, but there are still some signs of gender discrimination. Female , Gender , Gender role 812 Words | 3 Pages. WOMEN AND PATRIARCHY TONI LEANN GIBSON GLOBAL HISTORY UP TO 1500 February 1, 2013 Patriarchy is defined as the institutions and values . of male dominance . According to the text, Historian Gerda Lerner states that by free etymology the second millennium B.C.E , written laws codified and sought to enforce a patriarchal family life that offered women a measure of paternalistic protection while insisting on their submission to the unquestioned authority of men. From that point in history, possibly before, and.

Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Civilization 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Significance of Women in Waterland. something other than being a character. These includes them being a object of sexual pleasure, as seen from Mary and the land girls. Women . present in wallpaper the novel also signify the mens devotion to women . Their minor presence and functions in the novel also signify the novels male predominance In Waterland, the female characters serves as sexual objects to black down, the rest of the male characters. This can be seen in page 46 where Farmer Metcalf regarded the land girls as replacement labour and made no concessioning. Female , Gender , Gender role 978 Words | 3 Pages. The Dominance of Spartan Warriors in Ancient Greece.

Bennett Gunn Ms. Basacco LVV4U 7 June 2013 The Dominance of Spartan Warriors in Ancient Greece In 5th century B.C., there was a . clear ruler of yellow Greece, because of their military force and their dedication to the army the Spartan nation was the number one force in ancient Greece at the time. The powerful military force was not gained by mere luck, but by the government policies they had there at the time. This power went untouched for of polar bears in arctic areas? many years and is still a great example today of how. Ancient Greece , Army , Battle of Plataea 1538 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jane Eyre: Close Reading and Male Dominance in the Victorian Era There's a passage from yellow, Bronte's Jane Eyre that brings light . to slam novel, the patriarchal relationship between Jane and Rochester. Yellow Wallpaper. Although Rochester has shown on multiple occasions that he has minimal control over his emotions and has the capacity to free etymology, lash out, Jane admits her love for him and her feelings of yellow wallpaper safety around him. What Is The Factor Loss. The scene depicts Rochester's dominance over Jane as he holds her, and without a word, she falls completely useless. BDSM , Birmingham , Charles Dickens 435 Words | 2 Pages.

Representation of Women in yellow Othello. ?Discuss the representation of women in the patriarchal world of Othello Shakespeares play, Othello, represents women as . victims of the patriarchal society in which they live. Marxist Example. Early modern England, founded on Christian theology, viewed women , daughters of Eve, as sexual temptresses who needed to be ruled over by men in order to have their innate tendency of sparknotes yellow wallpaper lasciviousness restrained (Marriot 10). Consequently, social expectations were placed on women to be chaste, silent and gentle in demeanor. Abuse , Bullying , Feminism 1490 Words | 6 Pages.

Media Objectification of film down Women Dreamworlds 3 To be sociologically mindful is to look for yellow patterns in Essay the society, observe all sides of the sparknotes yellow wallpaper, . social life, ask questions, and seek answers. Being sociologically mindful can lead us to looking into matters that are complex and allow us the slam novel, opportunity to understand the mechanism behind the division of our society. Race and sparknotes yellow wallpaper gender seems to be the most obvious divide lines for this society. While race can sometimes be overlooked in society, discrimination. Female , Feminist theory , Gender 1389 Words | 4 Pages. Students name here Male Circumcision Although the origins of circumcisions are unknown, it is commonly believed that the practice . Film Black Full. began about 12,000 years ago whereby a stone knife was used to chop off the extraneous skin at the tip of a males penis.

The primary reason given in ancient societies for this practice was that they believed difficulties in retracting the foreskin were detrimental to yellow, the fertilization process (Morse, 2004). In another instance, the act of circumcision was widely. Brit milah , Circumcision , Female genital cutting 1391 Words | 4 Pages. Women in Contemporary Horror Films. FEMINITY IN CONTEMPORARY HORROR FILM One might say that horror film- genre has been invented by feminists. Horror films seem to be one of the only genres . that have women as heroines instead of dominated side characters. Data Essay. In horror genre women are the ones fighting against evil and men are the ones dying trying to yellow wallpaper, help these heroines.

Or perhaps the free etymology, horror genre uses heroines to differ it self from hero dominant action genre. Or maybe horror films were created to represent the ultimate horror of. Female , Film , Gender 1741 Words | 5 Pages. similar themes of the evils of patriarchy and sparknotes yellow wallpaper the importance of empowering women to assert their identity in this time period. What Is The Greatest Of Polar Bears Areas?. Both Jane Eyre . and Laura are characters that are affected by the issues that mainly affected women in the male -dominated Victorian society. This is clearly portrayed when the yellow, men in both texts try to confine women physically and emotionally through deception and force. The different portrayal of both male and female characters also plays a very important role in communicating. Black-and-white films , Charlotte Bronte , Goblin 2115 Words | 6 Pages. Indian Women and marxist example Reproductive Health. INDIAN WOMEN AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Introduction The reality of womens life remains invisible to sparknotes, men and women alike and this . invisibility persists at film hawk down full movie, all levels beginning with the family to yellow, the nation. The more fact that women hold up half the sky- does not appear to film black down movie, give them a position of dignity and equality.

Health Health is sparknotes, not mainly an issue of doctors, social services and hospitals. What Contributing Factor Loss Of Polar In Arctic Areas?. It is an issue of social justice. WHO defined health as a state of complete physical, mental. Abortion , Abuse , Demography 925 Words | 3 Pages. Role of women in ancient civilizations. ? Women in Ancient India and wallpaper Greece Tutorial 02 Short Essay Thursday, November 14th, 2013 . Throughout history women have been oppressed and discriminated against. Barriers against women have been originated from more powerful institutions and by peter trial a greater male society that has set limits on the potential of women . Sparknotes. The status of women has evolved greatly as agriculture advanced. In the two civilizations, India and Greece, the status of film black hawk down full movie women has evolved. Female , Gender , Gender role 1021 Words | 3 Pages. There are four great ape species in the world: orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos. Chimpanzees are believed to be the closest cousins of Homo . sapiens due to their skull shape, male -bonded communities, and sparknotes aggression patterns.

Humans are separated from chimpanzees by bipedalism and marxist example brain size. Bipedalism, the ability to walk on two legs, allowed Homo sapiens ancestors to easily travel long distances, locate food, and avoid predators. Larger brains allowed themto problem solve. Chimpanzee , Female , Hominidae 1130 Words | 4 Pages. Gender inequality: Male underachievement. Worldwide, women are achieving higher representation and success. At the wallpaper, post-secondary level women . are earning most of the degrees awarded.

Where did our males disappear to? Gender inequality is an extensive, complex and often vague concept. Simply it is defined as the ranking of a particular gender, whether male or female, over the other and how they are treated based on their gender. Gender inequality and the result of peter trial male underperformance in schools have become major. Caribbean , Education , Female 1319 Words | 4 Pages. Aristophanes play Lysistrata provides the audience with a comedic relief to one of the more pervading themes of war and peace, while also highlighting the . empowerment of women . The setting of this play takes place during a time when war was customary and fighting between countrymen was familiar.

Aristophanes wrote the sparknotes yellow, play during the Peloponnesian War when Athens and Data Acquisition Sparta were engaging in sparknotes yellow continuous battles that weakened supplies and destroyed cities. Down Full Movie. Athens unfortunately was suffering a great. Ancient Greece , Aristophanes , Classical Athens 1086 Words | 3 Pages. No matter which way you state it, women have struggled to be their own person through literature. Obstacles have always been . present when women have to yellow wallpaper, try to find themselves. Their roles have either been the crazy feminist or the film full movie, obedient wife, with many other roles in sparknotes mind. Women have always struggled in literature due to male dominance and societal views. What truly is their role? Many authors have tried to answer this question.

Others have shown their idea of womens roles through. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Edvard Grieg , Fiction 1537 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment: How have women been portrayed through photography? 16/01/2009 How have women been portrayed through photography? . The gaze deals with how the free etymology, audience views the people presented in visual culture, in sparknotes yellow wallpaper this case, adverts, magazines and free etymology Cinema. Sparknotes Yellow. The male gaze is the male ability to free etymology, exercise control over women by representing them in visual means as passive, sexual objects of yellow wallpaper male desire. The power of men over women has always existed.

They are seen as the more powerful and clever species. Cindy Sherman , Female , Feminist theory 2597 Words | 6 Pages. Women in slam novel Indian Politics: Political participation of Indian women , though on a small scale, started with the yellow wallpaper, freedom movement. Data Essay. . Mahatma Gandhi was mostly instrumental for arousing political consciousness in the educated women of the upper classes as well as the illiterate women of the lower classes and making them take part in the freedom movement. Political participation may be defined as voluntary participation in sparknotes wallpaper political affairs through membership, voting and partaking in the activities of. India , Indian National Congress , Legislature 1600 Words | 4 Pages.

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A Complete Guide to sparknotes, Hobbies in Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section - 3. Free Etymology? February 2015. Famous Last Words of yellow, a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015. I was on that ship when I was 15, so Ill put that in marxist example, a resume. I bet theyre going to ask me about sailing on an interview. Touche! A point for me already.

What else, let me see Ah, yes, I went up that hill once. Mountain climbing it is. In the end, Im going to write about these travels and reading things. Sparknotes? Everybody loves that. Marxist Example? There you go! A perfect resume! Did your chain of thought ever go down that alley or somewhere similar? Come on, admit it.

Yup, I can see that smile at the end of your lips. Ok, dont be ashamed, the Hobbies and Interests section is by far the yellow, most controversial and most polarized topic in what is the greatest factor loss in arctic, the world of resume writing. One group of authors claim that you should include hobbies, the sparknotes, other one is film down movie strictly against it. So, what are you going to do? How to know whos right? Are your years of playing chess or thousands of collected stamps all in sparknotes wallpaper, vain when it comes to your resume? Lets find out. So, Should You Include Hobbies or Not? It depends on who you ask.

Talking with recruiters of all kinds I found out that they rarely care about your favorite pastime and interests. Free Etymology? Their job is to yellow, find a candidate that will know how to do the job for the employer. They are not a part of the company and peter trial cant really feel the companys culture. This is how some recruiters look at your Hobbies section. So, regarding that, recruiters cant know if you will fit in or not within corporate culture of sparknotes yellow wallpaper, a given employer no matter how much personality messages you convey to what greatest contributing in the of polar, them. Yellow Wallpaper? Thats why they usually dont care for your hobbies.

On the other side are hiring managers and HR people from within a company. They are insiders and, besides your technical skills, they want to know who you are and is the in arctic will you be a valuable part of yellow, their internal community. Thats why they are much more interested to Acquisition, find out what kind of a person you are. For example, if your skills check all required boxes but youre shortlisted with another candidate who is yellow wallpaper more or less similarly qualified, the fact that youre a squash addict may be crucial if a hiring manager also plays squash. Is The Greatest Factor Bears In Arctic? Theres no general consensus on whether you should include your hobbies in a resume or not. However, its important to sparknotes wallpaper, notice that no recruiter or hiring manager will see that part of free etymology, your resume as something negative. In the worst case scenario they will not care and skip it altogether. In the yellow, best case, theyll be thrilled with your interests and itll come up in the interview and give you a chance to impress the interviewer a little bit more. Free Etymology? Besides, hobbies in a resume could produce a couple of benefits for you: Its a chance for sparknotes yellow wallpaper, your resume to stand out, if you execute Hobbies section properly.

You have to slam novel, stand out. Just make sure it#8217;s in a proper way. It can further illustrate your skills. If you list your hobbies and interests in a right way, itll pop up in the interview for sure. Besides the fact that its a conversation starter and sparknotes wallpaper ice breaker, it gives you a further chance to connect to an interviewer and leave a lasting positive impression. If somebodys going to spend 40 hours with you per week, they will for sure look for what factor loss bears in arctic, candidates that have a life besides a job. Its just common sense.

Nobody can socialize with a robot. So, if youve got nothing to yellow, lose and have room for that section in your resume, I dont see why you shouldnt include it. Principles of Including Hobbies into Your Resume. If you decided to give your resume a human touch and try to express your personality through Hobbies section, there are some rules you must obey in order to convey the slam novel, right message. Sparknotes Wallpaper? As with everything resume related, its all in details. Lets see the zenger trial, main principles of including hobbies into your resume: List down only relevant hobbies When crafting your resume, you always have to think how any detail that you add provides additional value to the message youre trying to convey. Sparknotes Yellow? Its completely the slam novel, same with hobbies. If you want to add a Hobbies section, be sure that youre going to list only hobbies that can illustrate a skill or an attribute required in the job advertisement.

For example, collecting coins means little for a job of a truck driver. On the yellow wallpaper, other side, collectors mindset can be easily utilized and connected for the job in a comic shop. Remember, you need to translate your hobbies into skills. Otherwise, the value of Acquisition, this section of a resume will drop significantly and it can be utilized only yellow as a conversation starter. Customize As with any part of a resume, Hobbies need customization for Acquisition, every separate job application. You will definitely write about your weekly football session when applying for a job that needs a strong team involvement. However, if youre applying for sparknotes yellow wallpaper, a librarian position, football doesnt play a big role. Be specific If you list music as one of your occupations outside a job, youll fall into just 97% of marxist example, other candidates. Sparknotes Yellow Wallpaper? Everybody listens to music. From prehistoric tribal trance magic rituals till now.

Got it? You need to differentiate yourself and to list specific genre or an author. Just then it puts some light to your personality. Be unique The purpose of the whole resume is to explain to a recruiter or a hiring manager why to call you and not someone else for an interview. If your resume is the same as hundreds of others, theres simply no reason to marxist example, end up in the call for sparknotes yellow wallpaper, an interview pile. This applies to hobbies also. Try to Data Acquisition Essay, present your leisure occupation as something unique and interesting. It will serve the purpose of making yourself memorable. Be relatable Humans are social beings. Sparknotes Wallpaper? They like to socialize and to exchange experiences with each other. Marxist Example? In order to achieve this level of connection with a recruiter, your hobbies need to be something that he or she can find themselves in.

For example, if you do a little research on your recruiter and find out that hes avid fan of fishing, it wont do harm to your application if you mention that you like weekend sessions of fishing with your friends. Of course, dont even think of making thins up. Yellow Wallpaper? Above all, stay honest. Just align your hobbies a little. Quantify achievements in hobbies This is black full movie absolutely the same advice as youll get for your work experience. In order to illustrate how your interests support work related skills, list some of the achievements you accomplished in yellow wallpaper, your hobbies. Also, express them in numbers (percentages, amounts of money etc). By doing this youll show commitment and excellence in your side activities. Every positive information counts and Data Acquisition could contribute to your self-branding. Quantify your achievements in yellow, hobbies as you would in slam novel, professional experience section.

Align with companys values Do your homework properly. Find out what are the basic values the company youre applying to is built on sparknotes yellow and align your hobbies to that. Its always useful for factor in arctic areas?, a hiring manager to know that future employer is already in the same line with the company. Include hobbies that represent variety of characteristics While overdoing this can be counterproductive, always have in mind that this section of your resume is yellow there to show the employer that youre a well rounded person who has life outside of black hawk down full movie, work. If you talk only about basketball, for example, in this part, youll present yourself as a one-dimensional character. Common Mistakes in Listing Hobbies in sparknotes yellow, a Resume. If you decide to put hobbies in your resume, you need to do it properly. By my free judgment, 60-90% of resumes fail to comply with this.

Thats good news for Acquisition Essay, you. If you read and apply what you read here, your resume will automatically be in a top tier. So, without further delay, lets see what you shouldnt do with hobbies section in your resume: Do not call that section Hobbies, Interests, Leisure or something like that Sounds a little bit contradictory but always have in wallpaper, mind that your resume is, after all, a marketing brochure about your professional skills and marxist example capabilities. Terms hobbies or leisure are not very connectable to the previous statement. So, name that section of your resume Additional Activities and youll be on yellow a safe side. Trial? Work? Oh, yes, I like to sparknotes yellow, work too. Dont lie Have you ever thought that listing underwater photography or something like that would be an immediate ice breaker in an interview? Or you saw that your friend has running in his interest section?

Wouldnt it be nice if you could write the same? Why wouldnt you, how could the interviewer know? DONT DO THAT. Imagine your interviewer is a passionate lover of marxist example, underwater photography and sends a couple of technical questions about it your way. Wallpaper? How embarrassing would that be? Not to mention that you would never get a job. Dont be weird Remember when I told you to be unique in the previous paragraph? Be careful with that.

If your uniqueness means that you like to tattoo cats or to watch only horror movies with lots of blood, just skip it. You dont want to be seen as a weirdo, no matter how much you enjoy your pastime. Free Etymology? Dont be generic On the other side, if you write that you enjoy traveling, music and reading, guess what? Its better to leave it out of your resume. Its directly opposite to yellow wallpaper, the principle of Data, being specific in your hobbies section. Too much space Always remember that your resume is a document about your professional capabilities. Sparknotes Yellow? Half a page about hobbies on a one -page resume definitely doesnt support your professionalism.

Be sure to stay concise, as you should be in the whole resume, by the way. Just listed without explanation On the other side of the previous mistake is just listing your hobbies and end there. By doing this, youre losing an opportunity to show why your hobbies are important for peter trial, this job and yellow youre neglecting the whole purpose of the section. Politics and marxist example religion These are really delicate and sensitive topics and its better to stay away from them. Unless youre applying for a position in sparknotes wallpaper, a political or religious institution, mentioning these in a resume is subject to possible discrimination law issues. Some recruiters and is the greatest factor in the of polar in arctic hiring managers tend to neglect these resumes completely, just to stay on a safe side. Polarizing topics Topics as hunting, LGBT activism, weapons etc. are polarizing in general.

You just dont want to risk finding out that the yellow, reviewer of slam novel, your resume doesnt share your opinion on the subject. Possible bad implications heavily outweigh positive aspects of mentioning these in your resume. Just leave this out. Jargon Depending on sparknotes yellow wallpaper your hobby, theres possibility that the zenger trial, community around that activity uses a specific jargon. Since recruiters and hiring managers dont have to sparknotes yellow wallpaper, know what it means, write in plain language without jargon.

Its always better to slam novel, explain something in person then to be misunderstood and never have the wallpaper, chance to Data Acquisition Essay, land an interview. Sparknotes? Too many hobbies listed In the slam novel, end, one of the most common mistakes. Optimal number of hobbies that should be listed in your Additional Activities section is three to four. Everything over that gives a bigger emphasis on the section than it should. Remember, a resume is a professional document, after all. Listing risky activities As much mountain climbing or sky- diving might look as an interesting hobby, try to leave that and wallpaper other similar activities out of your resume. Your employer needs a healthy and fit employee, not someone who can be injured half the time. You just dont need to Data Acquisition Essay, risk that kind of opinion on you.

I do this only in the morning. In the afternoon I wrestle with tigers. Types of Hobbies to Include and What They Show. Ok, now you know how to include hobbies and what not to do while including them. Its very important to align the wallpaper, message youre trying to convey with the peter, job requirements youre applying for. Lets see which hobbies send which kind of yellow wallpaper, message to a prospective employer. Sports In general, sports are treated very positively by employers. Black Full? There are two main groups of wallpaper, sports that you need to emphasize: a) Team sports This is a very valuable hobby to list since it shows that you can function as a part of a team.

Its not important if it is basketball, football or any other team sport as long as it requires team involvement and coordination with other members. It also shows your determination and commitment which are also very desirable attributes on all levels. Be sure to mention any achievements you accomplished in team sports. b) Endurance sports If you like to Data Acquisition Essay, run, cycle, swim etc. dont miss the opportunity to show that to your future employer. It shows that you possess determination and an inner drive which is larger then average. Very important for sparknotes, different kind of jobs.

Sports? Damn it, I#8217;m a pro! Strategy games Games like chess, go, backgammon etc. show your strategic way of thinking and your ability to marxist example, see a larger picture. This is crucial for some positions placed higher in a hierarchical structure. Wallpaper? Besides, hours of uninterrupted thinking about your next move show a high level of concentration which can be very important for some other roles. Community activities Any kind of volunteering, community work or local council involvement are very precious for your resume. Zenger? These kinds of activities show a wide palette of skills including (but not limiting to) great communication abilities, excellent organizational skills and high level of compassion. These are all very welcomed abilities in wallpaper, every organization in almost every imaginable role. Social activities When I say social, it doesnt mean hanging out in a pub, drinking beer after beer.

Ok, I mean that too, but you dont want to emphasize that in slam novel, your resume. What you want to stress out is a club membership, being part of a band or a choir or any other group activity you participate in. Thats very important in sparknotes yellow wallpaper, illustration of your interpersonal, people skills. It shows that you function well in a group, which is a must for majority of Essay, jobs. Traveling Be very careful when including this interest because you dont want to send a message that youre going to require a frequent Fridays and Mondays off because of your passion for long weekends in Europe. You need to explain how all of your travels gave you appreciation for other cultures and yellow broaden your horizons.

This works very well in multicultural organizations. Peter? Reading Reading is important, everybody knows that. Thats why everybody includes it into hobbies resume section. If you want to stand out from the sparknotes yellow, crowd, mention favorite genre, author etc. that you like to read. Remember, if something is generic, you need to be specific and to go into details to differ from the slam novel, rest of candidates. Reading time. Creative activities Activities like blogging, coding, painting, acting, photographing are a great showcase of wallpaper, your creativity. Listing one of these in your Additional interest section tells much more about your creativity than just simply writing creative somewhere in a resume. By the way, creativity is free etymology not desirable only for sparknotes yellow wallpaper, creative professions. Its a crucial attribute for employees in general.

It can help in solving day to day problems in an out-of-the-box way. Unusual Listing unusual hobbies or activities you participate in could be a great way to stand out from the sea of other candidates. Just be sure not to write something weird which will induce recruiters negative feelings. After you decided to slam novel, include hobbies into your resume and sparknotes yellow wallpaper which ones you are going to include, its time to deal with formatting of this part of your resume. Remember, all is in details. Thats why you should be careful with listing your hobbies. Simply naming your interest in a bulleted list or, God forbid, a sentence wont do it. Remember, your Additional activities section is there to support everything previously told in your resume. So, instead of just listing it, provide some details which will illustrate skills desired for the position.

For example, blogging is fine but you should expand on Acquisition that and sparknotes yellow wallpaper write something like successfully blogging for 3 years with a special emphasis on social media promotion of my blog which resulted in xxx newsletter subscribers, yyy Facebook likes and Data Essay zzz Twitter followers. Yellow? As in film full, work experience section, everything is in achievements and documented success of your activities. We mentioned before that the yellow wallpaper, final decision whether you should include hobbies into your resume or not is on you, after reading all data presented here. Free Etymology? However, there are some categories of applicants that need to yellow wallpaper, include hobbies more than others. Data Acquisition Essay? On the other side, there are candidates whose hobbies absolutely dont have a place in their resumes. Lets see both categories.

Graduates and undergraduates When youve got no real work experience, every bit of information could be critical for your application. In that light, listing hobbies in your resume could be make it or break it for that internship or a job. Be sure to wallpaper, follow aforementioned rules. Applicants for a job directly related to black hawk movie, their hobbies For example, if you blog frequently about current events in politics and youre applying for a role of a journalist in a daily newspaper, this hobby could be even more important than your work experience. Applicants without proper experience Same as with graduates, if youre lacking experience, any information could be crucial.

That includes hobbies as well. Who doesnt need it: Very experienced applicants If youve got enormous experience related to the job you applied for, listing hobbies may seem unprofessional in a highly professional resume. Executives and other high management roles If youre applying for such an important function, leave hobbies out. It is important to be seen as a human being, but not even close as its to be seen as a perfect manager for that role. Hobby? I don#8217;t need a hobby. Applicants whos resumes are too long If your resume is longer than two pages (there are exceptions, read about them in this comprehensive article on yellow resume length), you definitely need to trim it down. Hobbies are the Data, least important part of sparknotes, a resume, so guess whos leaving the party? Applicants without hobbies Dont lie.

I repeat, dont lie. If you dont have a hobby or some activity other than your work in which youre investing a significant part of your time, ditch hobbies out of your resume. Not having hobbies listed is not a big deal, getting caught in a lie during the interview is. Now youve got all the marxist example, relevant information on including hobbies into sparknotes yellow wallpaper, your resume. Always have in down movie, mind that you most probably wont land an interview based on hobbies alone, but dont neglect them if youve got relevant info to share with recruiters. It wont do you any harm, thats for sure. However, its always better to prove that youre a team player by listing regular weekend football match with your friends then to simply write team player in your skills or some other section. If youre short on space on your resume, dont think twice, hobbies are going down first. Nevertheless, if youve got the space and a relevant activity to show, be sure to list it as it will present you as a well-rounded human being, rather then robotic employee. Thats something of sparknotes yellow wallpaper, value.

Give me your thoughts on hobbies in a resume. What are your experiences? Do you list them in your resume? If youre a recruiter or a hiring manager, how much do you take notice of hobbies in a resume? Comments section is right below. Good luck with your job search! If you liked this post, sign up for Epic CV Newsletter to receive articles like this one right into your inbox . 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section.

Famous Last Words of marxist example, a Resume: References Available upon Request. Yellow? Danger! Danger! Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. New pieces of free etymology, knowledge about sparknotes, your resume/CV directly in your inbox Infographics Free PDFs of our articles.

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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper: Context

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SparkNotes: The Yellow Wallpaper: Context

Essay on sparknotes wallpaper Industrial and free etymology, Microbial Biotechnology. In this essay we will discuss about Industrial and sparknotes yellow wallpaper, Microbial Biotechnology. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology 2. Characteristics of free etymology Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology 3. Choosing Micro-Organisms for Industrial Microbiology 4. Culture Media 5. Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology. Essay on the Introduction to wallpaper, Industrial Biotechnology Essay on the Characteristics of Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology Essay on Choosing Micro-Organisms for slam novel, Industrial Microbiology Essay on Culture Media Essay on Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology. Essay # 1. Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology: Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes. It is also redefined as bioprocess technology.

When our early ancestors made alcoholic beverages, they used a bioprocess. The combination of yeast cells and nutrients (cereal grains) formed a fermentation system in which the sparknotes yellow organisms consumed the nutrients for their own growth and produced by-products (alcohol and hawk full, carbon dioxide gas) that helped to make the bever­age. Bioprocess technology is an yellow wallpaper, extension of ancient techniques for developing useful pro­ducts by taking advantage of natural biological activities such as production of enzymes (used, for example, in food processing and waste management) and antibiotics. Use of living material offers several advantages over con­ventional chemical methods of production. They usually require lower temperature, pres­sure, and pH. They can use renewable re­sources as raw materials, and greater quanti­ties can be produced with less energy consump­tion. With the development of automated and computerized equipment, it is becoming much easier to accurately monitor reaction conditions and thus increases production efficiency. As advancements in industrial technology, par­ticularly separation and purification tech­niques, are made, commercial firms will be able to economically produce these substances in large amounts, and thus make them available for use in medical research, food processing, agriculture, pharmaceutical development, waste management, and numerous other fields of science and industry. The very basis of In­dustrial biotechnology is microbiology.

All the various production strategies bioprocess tech­nology solely depends on various species of mi­crobes. Essay # 2. Characteristics of Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology: Microorganisms which are used for industrial production must meet certain requirements including those to be discussed below: 1. Peter Trial! The organism must be able to grow in a simple medium and should preferably not require growth factors (i.e., pre-formed vi­tamins, nucleotides, and acids) outside those which may be present in the indus­trial medium in which it is grown. 2. The organism should be able to sparknotes wallpaper, grow vigo­rously and rapidly in what is the contributing factor loss of polar bears in arctic areas? the medium in wallpaper use. A slow growing organism no matter how efficient it is, in terms of the production of the target material, could be a liability. 3. Not only should the marxist example organism grow rap­idly, but it should also produce the sparknotes wallpaper desired materials, whether they be cells or meta­bolic products, in as short a time as pos­sible, for film hawk, reasons given above. 4. Its end products should not include toxic and wallpaper, other undesirable materials especially if these end products are for internal con­sumption. 5. The organism should have a reasonable ge­netic, and hence physiological stability.

6. The organism should lend itself to a suit­able method of product harvest at the end of the what contributing factor loss of polar bears fermentation. 7. Wherever possible, organisms which have physiological requirements and protect them against sparknotes wallpaper, competition from contami­nants should be used. 8. The organism should be reasonably resis­tant to predators such as Bdellovibrio spp or bacteriophages. 9. Where practicable the organism should not be too highly demanding of oxygen as aera­tion (through greater power demand for agitation of the fermentor impellers, forced air injection, etc.) contributes about 20% of the cost of the finished product. 10. Lastly, the organism should be fairly eas­ily amenable to genetic manipulation to en­able the marxist example establishment of strains with more acceptable properties. Essay # 3. Choosing Micro-Organisms for Industrial Microbiology: The first step of yellow industrial biotechnology is to find out a suitable microorganism which will be mostly fulfilling above desired characteristics.

Microbes important to bioprocesses have been isolated from natural sources such as soil samples, water, and spoiled bread and fruit. Cultures from various sources were examined in order to identify strains with desirable char­acteristics. Only a minor portion of the micro­bial species in most environments has been isolated or cultured. Due to this there is a con­tinuing effort throughout the world to what contributing in the of polar bears, find new micro-organisms which will be useful to indus­trial biotechnology. Followings are the techniques used for the development of new noble strains of yellow micro­organisms:

1. By the Process of Genetic Manipulation : The fundamental idea behind this technique is to change the genetic makeup of the microbe in order to develop new genetic traits which will be profitable to us. This can be achieved by following ways: (a) Protoplast Fusion: Protoplast fusions now widely used for the improvement of fungal organisms like yeasts and free etymology, moulds. To achieve protoplast fusion protoplasts of these microbes are obtained by growing the cells in an isotonic solution followed by treating them with enzymes such as cellulose and beta-galacturonidase. This step is followed by the regeneration of proto­plasts by sparknotes yellow using sucrose. The fused proto­plasts result in the formation of hybrids which can be identified by means of selec­tive plating techniques. Mutations, especially the one which are achieved with the free etymology help of chemi­cal mutagens and ultraviolet light, have been very useful in developing new strains of microbes. For example, ordinary cul­tures of Penicilliumnotatum yields low concentrations of penicillin. Later on a strain of wallpaper Penicilliumchrysogenum (NRRL 1951) was isolated by repetitive selection procedure which was further improved through the process of mutation.

This im­proved strain of Penicilliumchrysogenum gives 55-fold higher penicillin yields than the original Penicilliumnotatum cultures. (c) Site directed Mutagenesis: In the pro­cess of site directed mutagenesis short lengths of chemically synthesized DNA se­quences, having the genetic information of free etymology novel traits, can be inserted into the ge­nome of the target microorganisms. This process results in yellow wallpaper the genetic alterations of the microbe that leads to a change of one or several amino acids in hawk down full movie the target protein. As a consequence of this there are many changes in protein characteristics, and results in new products. Sparknotes Yellow! These ap­proaches are part of the field of free etymology protein engineering. 2. By the sparknotes yellow Production of Transgenic Microbes : New varieties of microbes can be developed by encouraging the transfer of nucleic acids be­tween them. This process involves the trans­fer of free etymology genes, having the genetic information for sparknotes wallpaper, the synthesis of a specific product, from one organism into another. The recipient organ­ism becomes a transgenic organism. Example of such a microbe is Superbug developed by A. M. Chakarabarty in 1974. This transgenic microbe has the capability of hydrocarbon deg­radation.

For the production of superbug he used the microbe Pseudomonas putida. It is capable of utilizing complex chemical com­pounds like hydrocarbons. It is also called oil eating bug. Petro-products, including oils, generally contains octane, xylene, camphor and naphthalene. No single strain of P. putida is able to digest all these four petrochemical.

Dr. Peter Zenger Trial! Chakarabarty introduced four plasmid DNAs from four different strains into one single cell of Pseudomonas putida and generate a superbug. Recombinant DNA techniques can also be used for the generation of transgenic microbes. This technique has been widely exploited for the production of vaccines; for example the vac­cine for the foot and mouth disease of sparknotes yellow livestock. Genetic information for a foot-and-mouth dis­ease virus antigen can be inserted into peter zenger trial E. coli. Wallpaper! This is followed by the expression of in the of polar in arctic this ge­netic information and sparknotes yellow, synthesis of the gene product for use in vaccine production. 3. By Modifying Gene Expression: In addition to inserting new genes in organ­isms, it is also possible to filter the pattern of gene regulation. Greatest Contributing Factor In The Of Polar Bears Areas?! This is possible by means of changing gene transcription, fusing proteins, creating hybrid promoters, and by removing feedback regulation controls. 4. Preservation of Selected Strains of Micro-organisms : Once we have selected the microorganism or virus catering to the industrial interest, then it must be preserved in its original form for any further use and research. There are dif­ferent methods for microbial preservation.

Suitable methods are selected based on the: (a) Type of micro-organism, (b) Effect of the preservation method on the viability of micro-organism, (c) Frequency at sparknotes wallpaper which the cultures are with­drawn, (d) Size of the microbial population to be pre­served, (e) Availability of resources, and. (f) Cost of the preservation method. Followings are some methods: This involves removal of water from the cul­ture. Desiccation is used to preserve actinomycetes (a form of fungi-like bacteria) for what contributing factor bears areas?, very long period of time. The microorganisms can be preserved by desiccating on sand, silica gel, or paper strips. Microorganisms are grown on agar slopes in test tubes and stored at 5 to -20 C for six months. Sparknotes! If the surface area for growth is cov­ered with mineral oil the micro-organisms can be stored for one year. This is the most commonly used technique to store micro-organisms for a long period. Stor­age takes place at free etymology temperatures of less than -196 C and sparknotes, even less in vapour phase.

Micro­organisms are made stationary and suspended in a cryoprotective agent before storing in li­quid nitrogen. This method is especially used for sporulating microorganisms (organisms that produce spores). Movie! They Eire sterilized, inoculated, and incubated to allow microbial growth, then dried at sparknotes yellow wallpaper room temperature. The resultant dry soil is stored at 4 to 5 C. This process is also known as freeze-drying. The microbial culture is first dried under vacuum, filled in what contributing factor in the loss bears areas? ampoules (glass vessels) then frozen. This is a most convenient technique, since it is cheap to store and yellow wallpaper, easy to ship. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to open the freeze dried ampoules; also, several subcul­tures have to be done to restore the original characteristics of the what is the contributing loss of polar in arctic micro-organisms.

5. Sparknotes! Growth of Micro-organisms : In the industrial processes the selected micro-­organisms are grown using specifically de­signed culture media under very carefully con­trolled conditions such as temperature, aeration, etc. Media requirements depend on the type of microorganism being used in the fermentation process, but the slam novel basic requirements remain the same, which includes: (a) Source of yellow wallpaper energy. (b) Water, carbon source. (c) Nitrogen source. Designing the media for small scale labo­ratory purpose is Data, relatively easy, but me­dia for yellow, industrial purpose are difficult to prepare. An ideal culture medium has the follow­ing features: (a) Allow high yield of the desired product and at fast rate.

(b) Allow low yield of undesired products. (c) Be sterilized easily. (d) Yield consistent products i.e., minimum batch variation. (e) Be cheap and readily available. (f) Be compatible with the fermentation pro­cess. (g) Not pose environmental problems before, during, or after the Data fermentation process. The culture medium will affect the design of the wallpaper fermenter. For example, hydrocarbons in the media require high oxygen content, so an air-lift fermenter should be used. Natural media ingredients are cheap but they have high batch variation. On the other hand pure ingredients (also called defined media or for­mulated media) have very little batch varia­tion but are expensive.

The media should sup­port the metabolic process of the micro-orga­nisms and allow bio-synthesis of the desired products. Carbon Energy source + Nitrogen source + Nutrients > Products(s) + Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat + Biomass. Media are designed based on the above equation using minimum components required to produce maximum product yield. Important components of the medium are discussed as follows: 1. Carbon Sources: Product formation is directly dependent on the rate at which the carbon source is metabolized. Also the main product of fermentation deter­mines the type of carbon source to be used. Carbon sources include carbohydrates, oils and fats, and hydrocarbons.

These are the most com­monly used carbon sources in the fermen­tation process. Starch is peter zenger trial, easily available carbohydrate obtained from maize, cere­als, and potatoes. It is widely used in alco­hol fermentation. Sparknotes Wallpaper! Grains like maize are used directly in free etymology the form of wallpaper ground pow­der as carbohydrate. Malt and beer made from barley grains contain high concentra­tions of different carbohydrates like starch, sucrose, cellulose and other sugars. Su­crose is obtained from sugar cane and molasses. Molasses is one of the cheapest sources of carbohydrate. It contains high sugar concentration and other components like nitrogenous substances and vitamins and is used in peter alcohol, SCP (Single-cell Protein), amino acid, and organic acid fer­mentations. Extraction and purification of the products is expensive. Sulfate waste liquor is the sparknotes yellow wallpaper by-product of the paper in­dustry; it contains carbohydrates and is used in yeast cultivation. Whey is the by-­product of dairy industry.

It is used in al­cohol, SCP, gum, vitamins, and lactic acid fermentation. Vegetable oils are used as a carbon source. Oils provide more energy per slam novel weight compared to sparknotes, sugars. They also have anti-foaming properties but are ge­nerally used as additives rather than as the sole carbon source. Examples are ol­ive oil, cotton seed oil, soya bean oil, lin­seed oil, and lard (animal fat). C12-C18 alkanes can be used as carbon sources. They are cheap, and have more carbon and energy content per weight than sugars. They can be used in organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and proteins fermentation. 2. Nitrogen Sources: Ammonia, ammonium salts, and urea are the most commonly used nitrogen sources in free etymology the fermentation process.

Ammonia also serves the purpose of pH control. Other substances used as nitrogen sources are corn-steep liquor, soya meal, peanut meal, cotton seed meal, amino acids, and proteins. Calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and sulfur are the essential miner­als for all media. Other minerals like copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc are needed in trace amounts and are gen­erally present as impurities in other compo­nents. The specific concentration on these ele­ments depends on the micro-organism being used.

4. Growth Factors: Vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids are used as growth factors in the fermentation process to complement the cell components of the sparknotes yellow mi­cro-organisms. 5. Peter Zenger! Chelating Agents: Chelating agents prevent formation of in­soluble metal precipitates. They form com­plexes with the metal ions present in the me­dium and can be utilized by the micro-orga­nisms. Chelating agents are not required in large scale fermentation processes since some of the other ingredients like yeast extract will perform the function of forming complexes with the metal ions.

One example of a chelat­ing agent is EDTA (ethylenedi-aminetetra-acetic acid). EDTA is a versatile, being able to sparknotes yellow wallpaper, form six bonds with a metal ion. It is frequently used in soaps and slam novel, detergents because it forms a complex with calcium and magnesium ions. These ions are in hard water and interfere with the cleaning action of soaps and detergents. Other chelating agents are citric acid and py­rophosphates. Buffers are used to maintain the yellow pH of the medium as microbial growth is affected by the pH changes. Optimum pH for most microor­ganisms is marxist example, 7.0. Commonly used buffers are calcium carbonate, ammonia, and sodium hy­droxide. 7. Antifoaming Agents:

Microbial process produces a large amount of foam in the fermentation vessel. This is due to microbial proteins or other components of the media. Foaming causes removal of cells from the media and their autolysis, thus, releasing more microbial foam-producing proteins, hence, aggravating the problem. Foam will reduce the working volume in the fermenta­tion vessel, decrease rate of heat transfer, and deposit cells on the top of the fermenter. The air filter exits then become wet allowing growth of contaminating microorganisms. Antifoaming agents are also called surfactant, i.e., they reduce the surface tension in the foam and yellow, destabilize the foam producing proteins. Hawk Movie! Commonly used antifoaming agents are stearyl alcohol, cotton seed oil, linseed oil, ol­ive oil, castor oil, soya bean oil, cod liver oil, silicones, and sulphonates. Air is wallpaper, required for aeration and is supplied to the fermenter by means of pumps or compres­sors. It is free etymology, sterilized by passing through filters before being introduced. Wallpaper! The amount of air required and the extent of purity depends on the fermentation process being carried out. Steam is used to sterilize fermenters and marxist example, other equipment and to control temperature.

Con­tinuous dry steam supply is required for the fermentation process, and care should be taken to prevent condensation. Factors that Influence Microbial Growth: Temperature, water, pH, and yellow wallpaper, nutrients can influence microbial growth. Most microorganisms that are mesophiles require temperatures of 25-40C for optimum growth. As tempera­tures increase or decrease the growth rate is adversely affected. What Is The Loss! Thermophiles re­quire high temperatures over 50C; they cannot survive at low temperatures. Psychrophiles require very low tempera­tures -15 to 20C for survival and growth.

Microorganisms require optimum amounts of water to maintain their me­tabolism and produce required products. Optimum pH for bacteria is 6.5-7.5, yeasts 4-5, moulds 4-7. The pH of the me­dium should be maintained at optimum level for the micro-organism being em­ployed to ensure better product yield. Microorganisms require opti­mum concentrations of nutrients like ni­trogen, vitamins, and minerals for maxi­mum growth rate. This will be different for each of the different types. The optimum concentration of wallpaper nitrogen is 0.1-1mg/L. The media and culture vessel are sterilized in order to prevent the growth of any unwanted microorganisms which contaminates our de­sired culture. Black Hawk Down Full! Sterilization is carried out in sparknotes yellow wallpaper many ways. The most widely method of steri­lization is done by the help of an autoclave which is a type of steam sterilization. An au­toclave or pressure cooker maintains a tem­perature of 120C for 15 to 20 minutes under 15 psi pressures. Under these conditions all the microbes (except the microbial thermo resistant spores) die.

When microbes are cultivated in a fermentor in the industries then it is marxist example, convenient to sterilize the wallpaper fermentor first as a whole before letting the media to enter it. 2. Slam Novel! Maintaining Suitable Environment for Microbial Growth : There are various factors which influence the growth of the microorganisms. This includes the composition of the sparknotes growth medium, con­centration of salts, pH, temperature, level of aeration, etc. Most of the bacteria grow at neu­tral pH, whereas yeast and fungi prefer acidic pH. Mixing of the broth is essential for the uni­form distribution of the nutrients in the culture medium. Aeration is needed for the proper gaseous exchange between the medium and the surrounding environment. This aerated medium is rich in oxygen which is essential for the proper growth of the microorganisms. Aeration and mixing is achieved by shaking the medium on a shaker in the case of small scale cultures whereas in big bioreactors it is achieved by free etymology stirring the medium with the help of a mechanical stirrer with baffles attached to it. Equipments Necessary for yellow wallpaper, Microbial Culture at Industrial Scale: Followings are the various equipments which are necessary for slam novel, culturing microorganisms in the laboratory.

Baffle flasks are a type of modified flasks for microbial culture. In such flasks there are v-shaped notches in the sides. The presence of baffles promotes the level of sparknotes oxygen transfer to the growing culture and thereby boosts the growth of microbes. 2. Stirred Tank Fermenters: These are the most commonly used fermenters. Slam Novel! They are cylindrical vessels with a motor driven agitator to stir the yellow wallpaper contents in the tank. The Top-entry stirrer (agitator) model is zenger trial, most commonly used because it has many advantages like ease of operation, reliabil­ity, and robustness. The Bottom-entry stir­rer (agitator) model is sparknotes, rarely used. Laboratory scale stirred tank fermenters are made of borosilicate glass with a stainless steel lid and marxist example, top-entry stirrer. Typical volume of these fermenters is 1 to sparknotes yellow, 100 litres. Stirrers consist of a motor attached to the shaft.

The shaft contains impellers. Stainless steel fer­menters are also used in laboratories and have special requirements. Film Black Down! They should be made of yellow wallpaper high grade stainless steel, have an internal surface that should be polished to reduce ad­hesion of contents to the walls of the fermenter, and have joints that should be smooth and film black hawk down, free from pin-holes. Fermentation Vessel Additional Equipment: This consists of sparknotes yellow shaft, impellers with 4 to what greatest in the bears areas?, 6 blades and motor to drive.

Shafts should have double seals to prevent leakage of the contents. The main function of the agitator is mixing of the sparknotes yellow wallpaper contents, aeration, and removal of carbon dioxide produced during fermentation process by mixing action. Different types of impellers are: 1. Rushton blade or disc turbine: This is the most commonly used impeller because of its simple design, robustness and ease of operation. It has 4 to 6 blades. 2. Open turbine impellers. 3. Marine impellers.

Four baffles are fixed on what greatest factor in the loss the walls of the fer­menter which are used to prevent formation of a vortex. Yellow! Impellers and baffles produce axial or radial flow patterns of the contents in Acquisition the fermenter. Compressors are used to pump air under pres­sure into sparknotes the fermenter from the bottom, to promote aeration and mixing. They are used mainly in the large fermenters. For laboratory scale, small fermenters air pumps are used. Compressors should be oil-free in order to provide food-grade clean air to the fermenter. This is used to filter the air supplied by the compressor before it enters the fermenter to peter, ensure clean air. Yellow Wallpaper! Types of filters are:

1. Membrane Filters: They are made of cel­lulose acetate and nitrate with constant pore size of 0.2 mm to ensure filtering of particulate matter. They are not cheap but easy to maintain. 2. Packed Bed Filters: They contain glass wool or cotton wool packed in a container through which air is passed. Pore size is not uniform and these filters are suscep­tible to compaction and wetting thus caus­ing channeling. 3. Cartridge Filters: Filter element is what is the greatest in the in arctic, present in a stainless steel or polycarbon­ate cartridge. They are more reliable and durable but are expensive.

Filtered air is introduced to the fermenter from the bottom through a sparger in the form of small air bubbles to ensure proper aeration and mixing. These are used to monitor and control various fermentation parameters like pH, temperature and oxygen content. Autoclaves are used to sterilize equipment, media, and other components of fermentation. Wallpaper! They are similar to pressure cookers. Differ­ent sizes of autoclaves are available on the market. Hot air ovens are used to sterilize or dry the equipment used in the fermentation process. The equipment to be dried or sterilized should withstand high temperatures, borosilicate or Pyrex glass equipment being good examples. The inner chamber is what contributing factor in the of polar bears, made of heat resistant stainless steel and has a fan to circulate the hot air evenly throughout the chamber to ensure proper heat transfer. Microwave ovens are used to perform drying and melting agar.

The main advantage of microwave ovens is sparknotes yellow, they take a very short time to do the marxist example job. Incubators are used to cultivate micro-organ­isms from stock cultures to produce inoculum. Incubators provide optimum temperature for growth of micro-organisms. Liquid/media is introduced to the fermenter by sparknotes wallpaper a pump. Marxist Example! There are various types of pumps available, including: They provide constant flow rate and mild pumping. Liquids do not back- flow, so check-valves are not required.

They are used for adding pH control agents like acid, alkali, and add­ing anti-foam agents. Mini pumps are fixed-speed pumps and can pump against the pressure. They are used to add nutri­ents to the medium. Sparknotes! Speed can be varied by altering the Essay bore size of the tubes. These fermenters do not have mechanical agi­tation systems (motor, shaft, impeller blades) but contents are agitated by injecting air from the bottom.

Sterile atmospheric air is used if microorganisms are aerobic and wallpaper, inert gas is used if micro-organisms are anaerobic. This is a gentle method of mixing the contents and is most suitable for Data, fermentation of animal and plant cell cultures since the mechanical agita­tion produces high shearing stress that may damage the sparknotes yellow cells. Air-lift fermenters are most widely used for large-scale production of mono­clonal antibodies. Peter Zenger! Draft tubes are used in some cases to yellow wallpaper, provide better mixing, mass transfer, and to reduce bubble coalescence by inducing circulatory motion. These are also called immobilized cell ferment­ers. The cells are absorbed onto film down full, or entrapped in the solid surfaces like plastic beads, glass or plastic wool and solidified gels to wallpaper, render them immobile. Fixed bed fermenters are most commonly used for waste water treatment and as biological filters in small aquarium water recycling systems and production of amino acids and enzymes. Tower fermenters are simple in design and easy to construct. They consist of a long cylin­drical vessel with an inlet at the bottom, an exhaust at the top, and a jacket to control tem­perature. They do not require agitation hence there are no shafts, impellers or blades.Tower fermenters are used for continuous fermenta­tion of beer, yeast and SCP.

This type of slam novel fermentation is also called a closed culture system because nutrients and other components are added in specific amounts at the start of the process and sparknotes, are not replenished once the fermentation has started. At the end of the process the product is recovered; then, the fermenter is cleaned, sterilized, and used for another batch process. In the Data Acquisition initial stages microorganisms grow at sparknotes yellow a rapid rate in the presence of excess nutrients but as they mul­tiply in large numbers they use up the nutri­ents. They also produce toxic metabolites which retard further growth of microorga­nisms during the later stages of the fermenta­tion process. In this process the nutrients and slam novel, substrates are added at the start of the process and at regular intervals after the start. This is called controlled feeding. Inoculum is added to the fermentation vessel when micro-organisms are in exponential growth phase. Fed-batch cul­ture is controlled by yellow wallpaper feed-back control and black down movie, con­trol without feed-back. 1. Feed-Back Control: The fermentation pro­cess is controlled by sparknotes yellow wallpaper monitoring process pa­rameters like dissolved oxygen content, carbon dioxide to oxygen ratio, pH, con­centration of substrate, and peter, concentration of the product. 2. Control without Feed-Back:

The substrates and yellow wallpaper, nutrients are added at black down movie regular inter­vals. Fed-batch culture requires special equip­ment such as a reservoir which holds the nu­trients, pH modifiers so that they can be added to the fermenter at regular intervals, and pumps to deliver culture medium aseptically to the fermenter. This method prolongs the exponential growth phase of microbial growth as nutrients are con­tinually supplied and metabolites and other wastes are continually removed thus promot­ing continual growth of the wallpaper microorganisms. Continuous culture fermentation is advanta­geous because of its high productivity. Two control methods are used in continu­ous culture fermentation, namely, chemostat and turbidostat. This medium contains excess of marxist example all but one of the nutrients which determine the rate of growth of the microorganism. At steady state of the chemo-stat the rate of yellow input of free etymology medium into the fermenter is equal to the rate of out­put of the fermenter. This medium contains excess of all nutrients, so the yellow wallpaper microbial growth is at its maximum specific growth rate. The system consists of a pho­toelectric cell which is a turbidity sensor that detects changes in marxist example turbidity of the sparknotes wallpaper contents in the fermenter and then controls the amount of medium fed to the fermenter.

Measurement and Kinetics of Microbial Growth : The growth of a microorganism may result in the production of a range of metabolites but to trial, produce a particular metabolite the desired organism must be grown under precise cultural conditions at a particular growth rate. If a micro-organism is introduced into sparknotes a nutrient medium that supports its growth, the inocu­lated culture will pass through a number of stages and the system is marxist example, termed batch culture. Initially, growth does not occur and this pe­riod is referred to as the lag phase and may be considered a period of adaptation. Following an interval during which the growth rate of the cells gradually increases, the cells grow at a constant, maximum rate and this period is referred to as the log or exponential phase, which may be described by the equation. where x is the cell concentration (mg ml -1 ), t is the time of incubation (h), and p the wallpaper specific growth rate (h 1 ). On integration equation (1) gives. where x 0 is the cell concentration at time zero and x t is the cell concentration after a time interval, t h.Thus, a plot of the natural loga­rithm of the cell concentration against time gives a straight line, the slope of zenger which equals the specific growth rate. The specific growth rate during the exponential phase is the maxi­mum for the prevailing conditions and is des­cribed as the maximum specific growth rate. Equations (1) and (2) ignore the facts that growth results in the depletion of nutrients and the accumulation of toxic by-products and thus predict that growth continues indefinitely. However, in reality, as substrate (nutrient) is exhausted and toxic products accumulate, the growth rate of the cells deviates from the maxi­mum and eventually growth ceases and the culture enters the stationary phase.

After a further period of time, the culture enters the wallpaper death phase and the number of viable cells declines. It should be remembered that this description refers to the behaviour of both unicellular and mycelial (filamentous) organ­isms in batch culture, the growth of the latter resulting in the exponential addition of viable biomass to the mycelial body rather than the production of separate, discrete unicells. As already stated, the cessation of growth in is the contributing factor loss of polar bears areas? a batch culture may be due to the exhaus­tion of a nutrient component or the accumula­tion of sparknotes a toxic product. However, provided that the growth medium is designed such that growth is free etymology, limited by the availability of a me­dium component, growth may be extended by addition of an aliquot of fresh medium to yellow wallpaper, the vessel. If the fresh medium is added continu­ously, at an appropriate rate, and the culture vessel is fitted with an overflow device, such that culture is peter zenger trial, displaced by the incoming fresh medium, a continuous culture may be estab­lished. The growth of the cells in a continuous culture of this type is yellow wallpaper, controlled by the avail­ability of the growth limiting chemical component of the Data Acquisition medium and, thus, the system is described as a chemostat. In this system a steady-state is eventually achieved and the loss of biomass via the overflow is replaced by cell growth. The flow of medium through the system is wallpaper, described by the term dilution rate, D, which is equal to the rate of marxist example addition of me­dium divided by the working volume of the culture vessel. The balance between growth of cells and their loss from the system may be described as: dx/dt growth output. Under steady-state conditions, and, therefore, px = Dx and p = D. Hence, the growth rate of the wallpaper organisms is controlled by the dilution rate, which is an experimental variable. It will be recalled that under batch culture conditions an organism will grow at its maximum specific growth rate and, there­fore, it is obvious that a continuous culture may be operated only at dilution rates below the maximum specific growth rate.

Thus, within certain limits, the dilution rate may be used to control the slam novel growth rate of a chemo-stat cul­ture. The mechanism underlying the control­ling effect of the yellow wallpaper dilution rate is essentially the relationship between p, specific growth rate, and s, the limiting substrate concentration in the chemo-stat, demonstrated by Monod in 1942: where K s is the utilization or saturation con­stant, which is numerically equal to the sub­strate concentration when p is half pmax. At steady-state, p = D, and, therefore, where S is the steady-state concentration of substrate in the chemo-stat, and. Equation (4) predicts that the substrate con­centration is determined by the dilution rate. In effect, this occurs by growth of the cells de­pleting the substrate to a concentration that supports that growth rate equal to the dilu­tion rate. If substrate is depleted below the marxist example level that supports the growth rate dictated by the dilution rate the following sequence of events takes place: (a) The growth rate of the cells will be less than the dilution rate and they will be washed out of the vessel at a rate greater than they are being produced, resulting in a decrease in biomass concentration.

(b) The substrate concentration in the vessel will rise because fewer cells are left in the vessel to consume it. (c) The increased substrate concentration in the vessel will result in the cells growing at a rate greater than the dilution rate and biomass concentration will increase. (d) The steady-state will be re-established. In batch culture fermentation microorganisms grow initially and at the end of fermentation. The resultant broth contains product and dead microorganisms, thus it is essential to separate out the desired product. Microorganisms can be removed from the broth by filtration or centrifugation to sparknotes wallpaper, separate microbial cell from the Data Essay cell-free solution containing the product. The product is isolated from cell-free solution by precipitation, adsorption, or solvent extrac­tion techniques. This is the simplest method of isolation.

Fer­mentation products like carbohydrates are precipitated by adding alcohol, while organic acids are salted out of the solution. This technique provides isolation and purifi­cation of product in a single step. Sparknotes Yellow! Organic sol­vent is added to the fermentation broth which dissolves the slam novel product to form a solvent layer which is separated from the aqueous layer and is evaporated to yellow, obtain the pure product. Ion exchange resins containing organic com­plexes exchange their ion for the product. Marxist Example! The process involves two steps, adsorption and elution. The fermentation broth when passed through a column contain­ing the resin gets absorbed to the resin. Product is sparknotes yellow, separated from the marxist example resin by passing suitable reagent through the column.

The advantage of this tech­nique is reusability of the sparknotes wallpaper ion-exchange resin after the peter zenger trial product is isolated. Essay # 5. Major Products of yellow Industrial Biotechnology: There are many products which are produced in the industries by the help of fermentation technology. These are discussed as follows: Many antibiotics are produced by the help of microorganisms such as actinomycetes (e.g., Streptomyces) and filamentous fungi. Follow­ing are some antibiotics which are produced by the help of fermentation technology. While our scientific knowledge of antibiotics has only recently been developed, the practi­cal application of antibiotics has existed for centuries. The first known, use was by the Chinese about 2,500 years ago. During this time, they discovered that applying the mouldy curd of soybeans to infections had certain therapeutic benefits. It was so effective that it became a standard treatment. Evidence sug­gests that other cultures used antibiotic-type substances as therapeutic agents.

The Sudanese-Nubian civilization used a type of tetracycline antibiotic as early as 350 A.D. In Europe during the Middle Ages, crude plant extracts and film black down movie, cheese curds were also used to fight infection. Yellow! Although these cultures used antibiotics, the general principles of antibiotic action were not understood until the twenti­eth century. The development of modern antibiotics depended on a few key individuals who dem­onstrated to the world that materials derived from microorganisms could be used to cure infectious diseases. One of the first pioneers in slam novel this field was Louis Pasteur. In 1877, he and an associate discovered that the growth of disease-causing anthrax bacteria could be inhibited by sparknotes yellow wallpaper a saprophytic bacteria. They showed that large amounts of slam novel anthrax bacilli could be given to animals with no adverse-af­fects as long as the yellow wallpaper saprophytic bacilli were also given. Over the film hawk full movie next few years, other ob­servations supported the fact that some bacterially derived materials could prevent the growth of disease-causing bacteria.

In 1928, Alexander Fleming made one of the most important contributions to yellow wallpaper, the field of antibiotics. In an experiment, he found that a strain of green Penicilliummould inhibited the growth of bacteria on an agar plate. This led to Data Acquisition, the development of the yellow wallpaper first modern era antibiotic, penicillin. A few years later in 1932,. a paper was published which suggested a method for treating infected wounds using a penicillin preparation. Although these early samples of film black hawk penicillin were functional, they were not reliable and further refinements were needed.

These improvements came in the early 1940s when Howard Florey and yellow, associates dis­covered a new strain of Penicillium, which produced high yields of penicillin. Free Etymology! This allowed large-scale production of penicillin, which helped launch the sparknotes yellow modern antibiotics indus­try. After the discovery of penicillin, other an­tibiotics were sought. In 1939, work began on the isolation of peter zenger trial potential antibiotic products from the soil bacteria streptomyces. It was around this time that the term antibiotic was introduced. Selman Waxman and associates discovered streptomycin in 1944. Subsequent studies resulted in the discovery of a host of new, different antibiotics including actinomycin, streptothricin, and neomycin all produced by Streptomyces. Other antibiotics that have been discovered since include bacitracin, polymyxin, viomycin, chloramphenicol and tetra­cyclines. Since the 1970s, most new antibiot­ics have been synthetic modifications of natu­rally occurring antibiotics. The compounds that make the fermentation broth are the primary raw materials required for antibiotic production. This broth is an aque­ous solution made up of all of the wallpaper ingredients necessary for marxist example, the proliferation of the microor­ganisms.

Typically, it contains a carbon source like molasses, or soy meal, both of which are made up of lactose and glucose sugars. These materials are needed as a food source for the organisms. Nitrogen is another necessary com­pound in the metabolic cycles of the organisms. For this reason, an ammonia salt is typically used. Additionally, trace elements needed for the proper growth of the antibiotic-producing organisms are included. These are components such as phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, zinc, iron, and copper introduced through water soluble salts. To prevent foaming during fer­mentation, anti-foaming agents such as lard oil, octadecanol, and silicones are used. Although most antibiotics occur in nature, they are not normally available in the quantities necessary for large-scale production.

For this reason, a fermentation process was developed. It involves isolating a desired microorganism, fuelling growth of the culture and refining and isolating the final antibiotic product. It is im­portant that sterile conditions be maintained throughout the manufacturing process, be­cause contamination by foreign microbes will ruin the fermentation. 1. Before fermentation can begin, the desired antibiotic-producing organism must be iso­lated and its numbers must be increased by many times. To do this, a starter cul­ture from a sample of previously isolated, cold-stored organisms is created in the lab. In order to sparknotes yellow wallpaper, grow the initial culture, a sample of the organism is transferred to an agar-containing plate.

The initial cul­ture is then put into shake-flasks along with food and other nutrients necessary for growth. Hawk Full! This creates a suspension, which can be transferred to seed tanks for further growth. 2. The seed tanks are steel tanks designed to provide an ideal environment for grow­ing microorganisms. They are filled with all the things the specific microorganism would need to survive and thrive, includ­ing warm water and carbohydrate foods like lactose or glucose sugars. Additionally, they contain other necessary carbon sources, such as acetic acid, alcohols, or hydrocarbons, and nitrogen sources like ammonia salts. Growth factors like vita­mins, amino acids, and minor nutrients round out the composition of the seed tank contents.

The seed tanks are equipped with mixers, which keep the growth medium moving, and a pump to deliver sterilized, filtered air. After about 24-28 hours, the material in the seed tanks is transferred to the primary fermentation tanks. The fermentation tank is sparknotes wallpaper, essentially a larger version of the steel seed tank, which is able to hold about 30,000 gallons. It is filled with the same growth media found in slam novel the seed tank and also provides an en­vironment inductive to sparknotes, growth. Down Full Movie! Here the microorganisms are allowed to grow and multiply.

During this process, they excrete large quantities of the desired antibiotic. The tanks are cooled to keep the tempera­ture between 73-81F (23-27.2C). It is constantly agitated, and sparknotes yellow wallpaper, a continuous stream of sterilized air is pumped into is the greatest factor of polar in arctic areas? it. For this reason, anti-foaming agents are periodically added. Sparknotes Yellow Wallpaper! Since pH control is vi­tal for optimal growth, acids or bases are added to the tank as necessary. C. Isolation and Purification : After three to five days, the maximum amount of antibiotic will have been pro­duced and marxist example, the isolation process can begin. Depending on the specific antibiotic pro­duced, the fermentation broth is processed by various purification methods.

For ex­ample, for antibiotic compounds that are water soluble, an wallpaper, ion-exchange method may be used for purification. In this method, the compound is slam novel, first separated from the waste organic materials in the broth and sparknotes yellow, then sent through equipment, which separates the other water-soluble compounds from the desired one. To isolate an oil-soluble antibiotic such as peni­cillin, a solvent extraction method is used. In this method, the broth is what greatest contributing factor loss of polar areas?, treated with organic solvents such as butyl acetate or methyl isobutyl ketone, which can specifi­cally dissolve the antibiotic. The dissolved antibiotic is then recovered using various organic chemical means. At the wallpaper end of this step, the is the greatest in the of polar in arctic manufacturer is typically left with a purified powdered form of the antibiotic, which can be further refined into different product types. 1. Antibiotic products can take on many dif­ferent forms.

They can be sold in solutions for yellow wallpaper, intravenous bags or syringes, in pill or gel capsule form, or they may be sold as powders, which are incorporated into free etymology topi­cal ointments. Depending on yellow the final form of the antibiotic, various refining steps may be taken after the marxist example initial isolation. For in­travenous bags, the sparknotes yellow wallpaper crystalline antibiotic can be dissolved in a solution, put in the bag, which is then hermetically sealed. For gel capsules, the powdered antibiotic is physically filled into the bottom half of a capsule, then the top half is mechanically put in marxist example place. When used in topical oint­ments, the antibiotic is mixed into the oint­ment. 2. From this point, the antibiotic product is transported to the final packaging stations. Here, the products are stacked and put in boxes. They are loaded up on trucks and transported to various distributors, hos­pitals, and pharmacies. The entire process of fermentation, recovery, and processing can take anywhere from yellow wallpaper five to eight days. Quality control is of utmost importance in the production of antibiotics. Film Black Hawk Full Movie! Since it involves a fermentation process, steps must be taken to sparknotes yellow wallpaper, ensure that absolutely no contamination is introduced at any point during production.

To this end, the medium and all of the marxist example processing equipment are thoroughly steam sterilized. During manufacturing, the yellow wallpaper quality of all the compounds is checked on a regular basis. Of particular importance are frequent checks of the condition of the microorganism culture during fermentation. These are accomplished using various chromatography techniques. Film Black Hawk Down Full Movie! Also, various physical and chemical properties of the finished product are checked such as pH, melting point, and moisture content. In the United States, antibiotic production is highly regulated by the Food and Drug Ad­ministration (FDA). Sparknotes Yellow! Depending on what greatest contributing factor loss bears areas? the appli­cation and type of antibiotic, more or less test­ing must be completed. For example, the FDA requires that for certain antibiotics each batch must be checked by them for effectiveness and purity. Only after they have certified the batch, it can be sold for general consumption.

Since the development of a new drug is a costly proposition, pharmaceutical companies have done very little research in the last decade. However, an alarming development has spurred a revived interest in the development of new antibiotics. It turns out that some of the sparknotes yellow disease-causing bacteria have mutated and developed a resistance to many of the stan­dard antibiotics. This could have grave conse­quences on the worlds public health unless new antibiotics are discovered or improve­ments are made on the ones that are avail­able. This challenging problem will be the fo­cus of marxist example research for many years to come. Micro-organisms can be used to wallpaper, produce en­zymes that are useful in greatest contributing factor loss of polar bears certain industrial applications. A more efficient method of using them is to isolate an sparknotes, enzyme and use it by itself. This is better because higher concentra­tions of enzyme can be obtained and only one reaction is taking place, whereas using whole micro-organisms would have numerous enzyme reactions and more products to process.

A further problem encountered is free etymology, that enzymes are expensive to produce. Yellow Wallpaper! This is solved by re­using the enzyme, this is made possible by immobilizing the enzymes, this way they do not contaminate the slam novel end products which can be reused. In the following table different methods of yellow wallpaper immobilization are discussed. Hybridomas are cells that have been engi­neered to film black down full movie, produce a desired antibody in large amounts, to produce monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced in sparknotes spe­cialized cells through a technique now popu­larly known as hybridoma technology. Hybridoma technology was discovered in 1975 by three scientists, Georges Kohler of West Germany and Cesar Milstein of Argentina and Niels Jerne of Denmark. They were awarded the 1984 Noble prize for physiology and medicine. A hybridoma is produced by the injection of slam novel a specific antigen into a mouse, procuring the antigen-specific plasma cells (antibody-producing cell) from the yellow wallpaper mouses spleen and the sub­sequent fusion of this cell with a cancerous immune cell called a myeloma cell. The hybrid cell, which is Essay, thus produced, can be cloned to sparknotes wallpaper, produce many identical daughter clones. These daughter clones then secrete the immune cell product. Since these antibodies come from only one type of cell (the hybridoma cell) they are called monoclonal antibodies.

The advantage of this process is that it can combine the quali­ties of the two different types of cells; the abil­ity to grow continually, and to produce large amounts of pure antibody. HAT medium (Hypoxanthine Aminopetrin Thymidine) is used for preparation of mono­clonal antibodies. Laboratory animals (e.g.; mice) are first exposed to an antigen whose corresponding antibody we want to develop. Once splenocytes are isolated from the mammal, the B cells are fused with immortalized myeloma cells, which lack the what contributing areas? HGPRT (hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltrans-ferase) gene, using polyethylene glycol or the Sendai virus. Fused cells are incubated in the HAT (Hypoxanthine-Aminopetrin Thymidine) medium. Aminopetrin in the myeloma cells die, as they cannot produce nucleotides by the de novo, or salvage medium blocks the pathway that al­lows for nucleotide synthesis. Hence, un-fused D cells die. Un-fused B cells die as they have a short life span. Only the B cell-myeloma hy­brids survive, since the sparknotes yellow wallpaper HGPRT gene coming from the B cells is functional. These cells pro­duce antibodies (a property of B cells) and are immortal (a property of myeloma cells). The incubated medium is then diluted into multi-well plates to such an extent that each well contains only cell.

Then the supernatant in each well can be checked for desired anti body. Since the antibodies in a well are pro­duced by the same B cell, they will be directed towards the same epitope, and are known as monoclonal antibodies. Once a hybridoma colony is established, it will continually grow in slam novel culture medium like RPMI-1640 (with anti­biotics and foetal bovine serum) and produce antibody. The next stage is a rapid primary screening process, which identifies and selects only those hybridomas that produce antibod­ies of appropriate specificity. Sparknotes Yellow Wallpaper! The hybridoma culture supernatant, secondary enzyme la­belled conjugate, and free etymology, chromogenic substrate, is then incubated, and the formation of a coloured product indicates a positive hybri­doma. Alternatively, immunocytochemical screening can also be used. Multi-well plates are used initially to grow the sparknotes hybridomas and after selection, are changed to larger tissue culture flasks.

This maintains the black hawk down movie well-being of the sparknotes wallpaper hybridomas and zenger trial, provides enough cells for cryopreservation and supernatant for sub­sequent investigations. The culture superna­tant can yield 1 to 60 ug/ml of monoclonal anti­body, which is maintained at 20C or lower until required. By using culture supernatant or a purified immunoglobulin preparation, further analysis of a potential monoclonal antibody producing hybridoma can be made in sparknotes wallpaper terms of reactivity, specificity, and cross-reactivity. J. Large-Scale Production of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAB) : Large scale production of monoclonal antibod­ies consider production scales of 0.1-10 g as small, 10-100 gas medium, and over 100 g as large. This is generally performed to film black hawk down full movie, produce monoclonal antibodies for three purposes: di­agnosis, therapy, and yellow, research on and devel­opment of new therapeutic agents. Amino acids such as lysine and glutamic acid have been used in the food industries for a long time as a nutritional supplement (in order to increase the nutritional value of the bread) and as flavor enhancing compound.

Glutamic acid is produced in large quantities by using mu­tants of Corynebacteriumglutamicum that lack the ability to convert the TCA cycle inter­mediate alpha ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA. Lysine is also produced from the mutant bac­terium Corynebacteriumglutamicum which blocks the synthesis of homoserine and hawk down full movie, accu­mulates lysine. L. Organic Acid Production : Organic acids such as Citric, acetic, lactic, fumaric, and sparknotes yellow, gluconic acids are major products of microbial industry. Essay! Citric acid has a wide level of applications , starting from the food and beverage industry, in pharmaceuticals, etc. Aspergillusniger is used for the produc­tion of wallpaper citric acid. The fundamental idea behind the production of what is the loss areas? citric acid is to yellow wallpaper, limit the avail­ability of the amounts of trace metals such as manganese and iron to slam novel, prevent the growth of Aspergillusniger at a specific point in the process of sparknotes wallpaper fermentation.

The medium for the cit­ric acid fermentation contains high sugar con­centrations (15 to 18%) and copper.The suc­cess of black hawk full this fermentation depends widely on the regulation and yellow, functioning of the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Cheese is produced from a lactic acid fermen­tation of milk, which results in coagulation of milk proteins and formation of slam novel a curd. Rennin is generally used to promote this curd forma­tion. After the curd is formed, it is heated and pressed in order to remove the watery part of the milk called as whey. The solid curd is then salted and kept aside for ripening.

In the pro­duction of cheese, microorganisms are widely used. For example, for the production of Roquefort cheese Penicilliumroqueforti spores are added to the curds just before the final cheese processing. Also during the production of Camembert cheese, the cheese is inoculated with spores of Penicilliumcamemberti. N. Production of Alcoholic Beverages : Alcoholic beverages are basically produced from the sparknotes yellow fermentation of carbohydrates. The most widely consumed alcoholic beverages are wine and beer. Wine is produced by the fermentation of grape juice. Peter Zenger Trial! Folio wings are the basic six steps in­volved in the production of sparknotes yellow wine.

As a known fact the flavour of the wine is dependent on black the kind of grapes which are used. The variety of grapes depends on the place where they are grown, the climate of the place where they are grown, the drainage system around the winery, the quality of the soil, humidity con­tent of the region and even the expo­sure levels to the sun. Other than these factors, one of the sparknotes yellow most vital points which is an important determinant in slam novel the making of sparknotes wallpaper wine is the techniques used to free etymology, make the wine. In fact, the dif­ferent wineries formulate a customized wine making procedure according to the needs of their winery, so that they can bring out the best flavours of their grapes. The next step in the wine-making process is the sparknotes yellow wallpaper harvesting of the finely cultivated grapes. When the grapes are ripped and harvested it is peter zenger trial, very important that the timing of ripping the grapes is sparknotes yellow wallpaper, apt and the ex­act timing can be ascertained through experience. The timing of the ripping the grapes should be such that the free etymology grapes have the apt combination of sugar, acid and moisture. Wallpaper! The harvest­ing of the grapes can be either done manually or mechanically, however majority of the slam novel grape wineries reap it manually.

The next step after the grapes have been harvested is to crush and sparknotes yellow wallpaper, press so as to have their inherent flavours in the form of liquid. As the fruits Eire crushed the grapes withdraw their moisture content and the sugars. Many wineries make the usage of spe­cialized machines for the process of crushing and pressing the grapes. The resultant liquid which is formed after crushing and pressing the wines is re­ferred to as must, at this stage the wine will either turn into red colour or white colour depending on the preference of the wine-maker. The wines become red when they are simply left after, they are crushed because in this stage juices from the skin and the flavours are ripped off, thus when you leave the must for a certain period of time, the wine become red wine, and in case you immediately crush the wine after pressing and segregate the black hawk skin, then the wine becomes white wine. After the grapes are being crushed and pressed, the fer­mentation takes place. Since the grapes have good quantity of sugar and moisture they easily get fermented with the reaction of yellow wallpaper wild yeast. Fer­mentation takes place in almost 10 to 30 days; however, this depends on the quality of free etymology grapes and sparknotes, the climate. Clarifying the Solution: The next step in wine making is clarifying the solution. It is also referred to as stabi­lization.

The final stage is to trans­fer the clarified solution in the wooden barrels or bottles. Beer-makers use grains or extracts to begin the mash, the base that will define the taste of the finished beer. Grains of barley or wheat are pre- soaked to is the contributing, begin the yellow wallpaper release of enzymes to produce maltose, a sugar. Black Down! The brewer crushes a mixture of malted and un-malted grains and then heats them in water. This activates enzymes that break down proteins and carbo­hydrates into starches and then into sugars. The process heats and cools the mixture according to a recipe to pro­duce a specific flavour. When finished, the liquid is drained through the sedi­ment and the grains are dried in a kiln. The dried grain is soaked in warm water and drained again to extract more sugars from the mash. A final rinse with fresh hot water pulls out the last of the sugars.

The three extrac­tions produce a liquid called wort, which is brought to the boil to kill any harmful bacteria and concentrate the extract. Hops, a cone-like bloom, con­tains oils and resins that offset the sweetness of the sugars. It may be added to the wort during the sparknotes boil to bitterize the mash before fermenta­tion or it may be added at the end of fermentation, depending on the recipe and film black hawk, brewer. Each mix of sparknotes grain and hops produce different types and amounts of sugars to be available for fermentation, the next process in brew­ing. Fermentation is marxist example, a chemical process.

The brewer adds yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a type of fungus that metabolizes sug­ars in the absence of oxygen, to the aerated wort. As fermentation begins, a foamy coat of krausen grows on yellow the surface of the wort and the chemical reaction produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. A valve on slam novel top of the sealed fermentation chamber vents the car­bon dioxide as the fermentation progresses. The chemical reaction also produces esters and phenols that con­tribute to the character of the sparknotes yellow beers flavour as well as chlorine and fatty acids. Zenger Trial! Another by-product, Diacetyl, is a ketone compound that gives darker ales their butterscotch-like taste. Lac­tic acid is often added to wheat wort to add tartness. Temperature is yellow wallpaper, used to control the fermentation process, but eventually it will stop because the sugars have been consumed and most of the yeasts have died. The final process of brew­ing is bottling but many brewers in­sert intermediate steps in this finish­ing process.

The fermented wort must be separated from the foamy krausen and free etymology, solid remnants of hops, dead yeast and other by-products that may coat the sides of the chamber, often by draining from the bottom or siphon­ing. The brew may be filtered or pas­teurized before bottling or being put into barrels. As beer is bottled or barrelled, a bit of sugarwhite su­crose, brown or molassesis added to it to encourage the remaining live yeast to ferment and vent carbon di­oxide, which will stay in the sealed con­tainer as carbonation. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to yellow, help students to share notes in Biology.

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