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buffalo bill essay Buffalo Bill the character was first a fiction created to symbolize the wild west. William Cody the man became so enraptured with this persona that it began to dominate his life and his work. It was Cody who, in Environmentalists Genetically Essay his autobiography, placed Buffalo Bill in the company of Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, and Davy Crockett. Liberties Command Of Government? William Cody was a real person, however, with a history of Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples his own, and he was a man devoted to pursuits outside of his theatrical enterprise. Just as the Wild West Show reduced a vast region with an infinite number of complex racial, cultural, economic, geopgraphic, and ecological issues to a common archetypal myth, Cody's life as a showman reduced him to the legendary character of Buffalo Bill. President Election? Nevertheless, the complexities of the west remained unsettled, and Cody's life outside the show encompassed ambitions and failures not apparent in Cody the showman. Part of this inscrutability derives from Cody's relentless desire to become Buffalo Bill. As we have seen, fact and fiction intertwined so tightly in Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples the Wild West Show that the two became indistinguishable from one another. This same blending spilled over into Cody's personal life as his real identity became confused with the character of Buffalo Bill. One problem is 2000 that Cody so aggressively promoted his enterprise that he was almost always on stage as Buffalo Bill.
In New York, San Franciso, Chicago, and Europe, Cody's savvy for publicity essentially required that he maintain his character anywhere he went. In his day, he was a national hero, a role model, and a living legend. Slipping out of character or dashing the public's expectations of him might have led to the ruin of his empire, or so it seems Cody believed. Buffalo Bill represented the quintessential American through his embodiment of frontier values and all the Should Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, raw independence, freedom, and self-sufficiency included in wild west virtues. As the diffusion culture, nation become increasingly industrial and as waves of Food Modified Food? examples immigrants descended on How to the Foreclosure Step American shores, Buffalo Bill became the very symbol of the American spirit. Cody recognized the burden he carried, but relished the responsibility of shouldering it.
Still, there was more to Cody than his legend, and in fact, his Wild West Show was to Cody a source of Ethics: Environmentalists examples capital to finance the many other ventures he initiated. Outside of the entertainment industry, Cody's most significant project was that of developing the town of Cody, Wyoming. In Cody's scouting days, he grew enamored of the Command of Government, land in Environmentalists Modified Essay examples Big Horn Basin. In 1895, Cody began to establish his eponymous town, and his approach to development was remarkably similar to the making of the Wild West Show. Cody possessed a broad, comprehesive, and how democratic, inventive vision for his community. He imagined a utopian western metropolis where old west values and Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food? Essay examples, emergent modern technology and prosperity would coexist in a new White City. Cody's indefatigable pursuit of his envisioned ideal was indeed impressive. He hustled, lobbied, and wheeled-and-dealed anyone who could help him achieve his goal. He had organized financing to dig three canals to irrigate the land using the Shoshone River. When his initial efforts to raise the two million dollars necessary for its completion failed, he hounded his friend Teddy Roosevelt for support.
By 1904, the Department of Interior initiated the Shoshone Reclamation Act, and by 1910, two dams were in tsar ii facts operation, and 16,200 acres were under irrigation. In personal letters to his friend C.L. Hinkle, a member of the Wyoming State Land Board, Cody demonstrates the extent of Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Modified Essay his vision of the town. Excerpted below are some passages from these letters which illustrate Cody's inexhaustible energy. The letters appear in The Business of Being Buffalo Bill: The Selected Letters of William F. Cody, 1879-1917 (1988, Praeger, New York), and Essay and the, I have quoted them as they appear in the book. Much of the biographical information I include was gathered from Blackstone's book. For further reading, see especially the first section entitled Letters, pp. Ethics: Should Modified Essay Examples? 1-84.
One of Cody's many projects was to institute a Military College in Cody. The original location for the college was to be in Colorado, but through Cody's influence, he was able to convince the command to move it to Wyoming. April 15th, 1901. . Now Hinkle. Some time ago I filed in the names of Charles DeMarris and my self-on the waters of the hot springs near Cody. Will you please examine these filings and give me the culture, particulars regarding same. this is very important for me to know at once as I am doing something that will be of great interest to the state I have incorporated a company of which I am President which will be known as- Cody Military College International Academy of Rough Riders. to teach young men all branches of Miliary Science it's taking like wild fire-our company will commence the permanent construction of the barracks in June and will establish a military camp in tents at once. Another of Cody's goals was to take advantage of Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay examples nearby Hot Springs to build a hotel and resort.
Cody the town was already being promoted in the show with the the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan, slogan: Take the Burlington Northern to the Big Horn Basin. His eventual goal was to link Cody with Yellowstone National Park via an auto and stage line, and he worked arduously to ready the region for the inevitable influx of tourists. April 27th 1901. Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically Examples? Thanks for diffusion culture, finding out about those hot springs near Cody. Now what I want to know is what the state proposes to do with them. You know I am working hard to establish a Military college in Food Modified Essay examples our state and it will be a great advertisement for the state.
And as I was the first man to make application to the state for those mineral waters I should be considdered. Was Britain By 1928? Please find out what I can do to get use of those springs. And let me know at once. Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay Examples? Very truly yours. PS. Telegraph me if the town sections is allright now.
P.S. Hinkle fix this business up for How to Step, me and I will make it allright with you. I want to get control of those springs. Your favor of the 15th before me. I will make application for 130,000 gallons of the different waters per day from those springs for the use of the Military College and for my hotel and for bathing and shipping purposes.
I think that the water should be shipped all over the country as soon as the railroad gets there. It will advertise the state. This amount of water will be only Food? comparatively a drop taken from the immense flow of those springs and I wont be injuring anyone in taking it. How Democratic Was Britain By 1928? Instead I will be benifiting the Should Environmentalists Modified Essay examples, people and advertising the State. Very truly yours, The Wild West made a final European tour in 1903. The tour was arranged by James Bailey of Barnum and Bailey Circus so that the Wild West's kickoff show in tsar ii facts Europe would be concurrent with Barnum Bailey's return from their European tour. This move was a brilliant partnership in terms of logisitcs because the shows could exchange their show trains and Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified examples, other equipment and thereby lessen practical complications posed by transportation arrangements. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay? The timing of this exchange also eliminated competition between the two shows for U.S. Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Food? Examples? audiences. Despite overseeing the nicholas, tour, Cody continued to manage and promote the development of Northern Wyoming.
My Dear Hinckle. Thanks for your favor. Am sorry our Govenor did not get the nomination. But such is life. I compliment you on Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified your deserved promotion. Have commensed building a hotel near our old hunting camp at mouth of middle fork. And will add forty more rooms to the Irma. Also getting my coal mine in to shape to How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan ship coal. That dear old country eats up my money faster than I can make it.
1907 marked a turning point for Cody and his Wild West Show. Financially, the Ethics: Should Food? Essay, enterprise began to falter. James Bailey had invested in half of the how democratic by 1928, show, but after his death, his estate couldn't provide enough capital to keep the show up to Cody's standards. The long tours on Food Oppose Genetically Essay examples the road began to take their toll on Cody, and an apparent homesickness for his ranch in Big Horn Basin crept into him. President? He managed to overcome financial problems, but it was a narrow escape, and money woes plagued him for the rest of his life. In 1910, he began a series of Farewell tours, after which he intended to retire to Wyoming. Cody's empire slowly crumbled during the last ten years of his life. The Farewell tours took nearly three seasons to complete, and Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay, troubles befell the show constantly. How Democratic By 1928? Cody had overextended himself financially with bad investments, and Food Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified, keeping the show running and managing activities in Big Horn proved too much. His marriage had ended in 1905 and he and Louisa Frederici had been entangled in a lengthy lawsuit. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan? His health and his spirit suffered, but in Buffalo Bill fashion, he suffered in private, and pushed on Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? examples with new projects to pay his debts.
He merged the Wild West with the Sells-Floto Circus and established a motion picture company. As this letter to friend and hunting companion E.E. Buck Arbuckle indicates, Cody's problems only worsened. Say. This is the allfired darkest summer to stay in the road I ever seen. Once in a while I think we struck a plain trail then I loose it again. and election 2000, I don't know where I am going. in about two weeks write me again. and see if I have picked up a trail I can hang to. By 1916, Cody's health was in sharp decline, perhaps aggravated by ongoing legal battles, contract disputes, and financial troubles too insurmountable to conquer.
Cody remained idealistic and hopeful to the end, always on the lookout for a new investment opportunity. But with no credit and no significant income, his prospects were not good. When word of his ill health went public, the Cody family was flooded with letters and telegrams from a worried nation. Cody was dearly loved and respected by many. A few of the Food Ethics: Genetically Food? Essay, telegrams below express the Essay on Individual and the Command of Government, sympathy shared by millions when news of Cody's death in Denver on January 10, 1917, made the headlines. Dear Friend Bill am appealing to the Celestial court to revise the medical jurys decision hoping nerve will and constitution may steer you off the trail over Great Divide and let you camp for years yet on the banks of the rippling Shoshone. Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay Examples? Stay with them. How Koolah old pal. Burke was the Press Agent for Buffalo Bill's Wild West.
Burke idolized Cody and is responsible for much of the existent literature glorifying Cody's life. Cody received this telegram the day before his death. Burke sent another the following day. A heart weeps with you in sympathy which also loses a rugged ideal idol in the death of dear Bill Cody. White House, Washington. May I not express my sincere sympathy with you in the death of ii facts Colonel Cody. January 12, 1917.
The Oglala Sioux Indians of Pine Ridge, South Dakota, in Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified council assembled, resolve that expression of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: deepest sympathy be extended by their committee in Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay behalf of all the on Individual and the of Government, Oglalas, to the wife, relatives, and friends of the Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay, late William F. Cody for Crisis:, the loss they have suffered; that these people who have endured may know that the Oglalas found in Buffalo Bill a warm and lasting friend; that our hearts are sad from the heavy burden of his passing, lightening only in the belief of our meeting before the Environmentalists Oppose Modified, presence of our Wakan Tanka in the great hunting ground. Chief Jack Red Cloud. and a fitting conclusion excerpted from an official Resolution in Essay on Individual Liberties Command of Government Memoriam from the State Legislature of California: Whereas, the Food Ethics: Environmentalists Essay examples, State of California desires to diffusion culture express its appreciation of the Food Environmentalists Oppose Essay examples, courage and Essay Liberties and the Command, fearlessness of this, our last frontiersman, whose life stands forth in the establishment and foundation of Food Ethics: Environmentalists Food? Essay our western country; and. Whereas, in was britain by 1928 his death that romantic and Food Ethics: Environmentalists Essay, stirring chapter in diffusion our national history that began with Daniel Boone is forever closed.
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lost highway essay On the Lost Highway : Lynch and Food Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food?, Lacan, Cinema and Cultural Pathology. Other Voices , v.1, n.3 (January 1999) Copyright 1999, Bernd Herzogenrath, all rights reserved. Introduction: On Mediation. I want to How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay begin this article on David Lynch's movie Lost Highway with a note concerning the use of Lacanian psychoanalysis in Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? examples, this paper. How Democratic Was Britain? (1) Jonathan Culler has rightly argued that, since literature takes as its subject all human experience, and particularly the ordering, interpreting, and articulating of experience, it is no accident that the most varied theoretical projects find instruction in literature and that their results are relevant to thinking about Food Should Oppose Modified literature. (2) What is true for literature, is also true for the other arts, such as painting and - film.
Taking Culler's observation as a guideline, this reading of Lynch's film partakes in the mutual informing of both theory and literature. Thus, the movies of Lynch are as 'useful' in tsar nicholas ii facts, illustrating Lacan's often cryptic remarks, as Lacanian theory is 'relevant' in thinking about Lynch's poetics. Lacanian psychoanalysis offers a theory of the Food Environmentalists Genetically Food?, subject that does without concepts such as unity, origin, continuity. It goes from the assumption of a fundamentally split subject and thus comes up with a model of subjectivity that grounds itself on on Individual and the Command a constitutive lack rather than wholeness. Ethics: Oppose Modified Food?? Thus, this theory lends itself as a useful and relevant background for the analysis of a sample of cinema that negates the idea of the autonomous, stable individual. According to Lacan, the human being is entangled in three registers, which Lacan calls the How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay, symbolic, the Food Ethics: Should Genetically Modified examples, imaginary, and the real.
Whereas the imaginary constitutes the (perceptual) realm of the ego, the register that accounts for a (however illusive) notion of wholeness and autonomy, the symbolic is the field of mediation that works according to a differential logic. Whereas the imaginary constantly tries to 'heal' the lack-of-being of the subject, the symbolic accepts castration. The human subject is thus doubly split: on the imaginary level between the ego and its mirror image, while on the symbolic level it is language and the inscription into culture, a specific socio-cultural reality and its rules that bars the subject from any unity. Thus, this forever lost unity belongs to the third register: the real, which is simply that which eludes any representation, imaginary or symbolic. Because of Should Genetically Modified Food?, this lack, the subject, which, according to Lacan, is an effect of the signifier, aims at recreating that lost unity. The 'strategy' of desire emerges as a result of the Essay on Individual and the of Government, subject's separation from the real and the 'means' by which the subject tries to catch up with this real, lost unity again. It is Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Food? thus desire that accounts for the subject's trajectory through the human world, which according to Lacan isn't a world of Essay Liberties, things, it isn't a world of being, it is a world of desire as such. (3) This is true for Lynch's movies, as well for the relation of the spectator to the cinema in general. For a span of more than 20 years, director David Lynch has been forcibly changing the face of Food Ethics: Should Oppose Food?, popular culture. When Lynch's movie Lost Highway came out Liberties and the of Government last year, the movie was received with both excited appraisal and unsympathetic disbelief. European audiences were - and have always been - more enthusiastic in welcoming Lynch's visions.
From Eraserhad onwards, through The Elephant Man , Dune , Blue Velvet , Wild at Heart and Fire walk with me , Lynch's films have been immensely popular overseas, especially in France. The quite revolutionary TV series Twin Peaks featured prominently in the States as well, since the TV format of a 'soap' (even in Ethics: Should Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, its weirder form) dovetailed neatly with American viewing habits. True to his visionary style and personal obsessions, Lynch has always been cautious not to cater to mass appeal. His career shows that he is indeed, in the literal Cahiers du Cinema sense, an president election auteur, willing to make the sorts of sacrifices for creative control that real auteurs have to make - choices that indicate either raging egotism or passionate dedication or a childlike desire to run the sandbox, or all three. (4) Being thus identified with what more people would accept as a European style of filmmaking, it should come as no surprise, then, that Lost Highway was financed by the French company CIBY 2000 - as was his last movie, Fire walk with me . Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Food?? Five years after that movie, which had been a success with neither the Essay on Individual Liberties and the Command, critics nor the Ethics: Essay examples, audience which saw it as a mere 'rip-off' of the Twin Peaks series, Lynch's new movie still divides both: two some, it might be the was britain, best movie David Lynch has ever made, (5) other reviewers emerged from an Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay early screening of on Individual Liberties and the Command of Government, Lost Highway with the cry 'Garbage!' (6) So, what is the excitement all about? Although I am perfectly aware of the fact that any attempt to Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Food? 'explain' Lost Highway ultimately results in a 'smoothening' of its complex structure into a linear narrative, I will try to Solve A Three Step Essay give a short outline of Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, its content. Ostensibly, Lost Highway is the story of Fred Madison, jazz musician. His wife, Renee, is a strangely withdrawn beauty. Election 2000? A disturbing study of contemporary marital hell, the first part of the movie concentrates on Fred's anxiety and insecurity, which escalates as he begins to realize that Renee may be leading a double life. Renee is the focus of Fred's paranoia: she is Ethics: Environmentalists Modified seen as both a precious object and difference and a, the cause of Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples, her husband's nightmares. In the Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay, course of the movie, they find a series of disturbing videotapes dropped at their door. The first merely shows their house.
The second depicts the Ethics: Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, couple in bed, from an incredibly strange angle. Election? The third and final video shows Fred screaming over Renee's mutilated and bloody corpse. With brutal suddenness, Fred is Food Ethics: Genetically Food? convicted of murder and sentenced to die in tsar nicholas, the electric chair, though he can't seem to remember anything. Should Environmentalists Genetically? In his death-row cell, Fred is continually haunted by visions and headaches. At this moment, Fred somehow morphs into what is the difference scarcity and a shortage, Pete Dayton, a young mechanic who is suddenly sitting in Fred's cell.
Pete's life is situated in typical Lynchian suburbia, an almost exact replica of the small-town in Blue Velvet . Similarly to Blue Velvet 's Lumberton, Pete's life is overshadowed by his connections to the town's Mafia boss, Mr. Eddy. At some point, Pete meets Alice Wakefield, Mr.Eddy's babe. Food Should Oppose Modified Food? Examples? Within a few minutes, Pete, although he is still dating his girlfriend Sheila, finds himself entangled in a sultry love affair with the local Godfather's moll - a woman who looks like Renee to a hair: whereas Renee was brunette, Alice is a platinum blonde (if you're thinking of Hitchcock's Vertigo - double Kim Novak - here, you're right; Lynch himself had already made use of this 'double' in his Twin Peaks series). Alice, like Renee, is leading a double life.
Being a member of the on Individual Liberties, porno underworld, Alice, in classic film- noir-femme-fatale fashion, tempts Pete to Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Food? Essay commit betrayal and murder until, finally, a strange encounter at a cabin in the desert connects the movie's two story strands full circle, or, to be more precise, full Moebius Strip: Pete disappears, Fred re-surfaces again. Such is the 'rough' plot. Already here it becomes obvious that the structure of this movie is anything but 'simple.' To this I am going to approach my subject asymptotically, that is, indirectly, in a series of excursions -- to circle my subject by Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, way of digressions. DIGRESSION 1: ON SUTURE/ SUTURE. The enigmaticity of David Lynch's Lost Highway confronts us again with the question: What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? This very problem is and has been at the heart of Film Studies, in connection with a related question: does the Oppose Food?, diegetic reality of the film mimetically represent reality, or does it have the status of a symbolic, differential structure? As Peter Wollen has put it, [t]o what extent does film communicate by reproducing an imprint, in was britain, Bazin's term, of Ethics: Oppose Food? examples, reality and Essay on Individual Liberties, of natural expressivity of the world . Or, to what extent does it mediate and deform (or transform) reality and natural expressivity by displacing it into a more or less arbitrary and non- analoguous system and thence reconstituting it, not only imaginatively, but in some sense symbolically? (7) Both problems collide in the question if a movie as such is something that necessarily should be about something, or if the stance against interpretation is in fact the more appropriate attitude in Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, particular towards postmodern cultural productions.
David Lynch himself has warned against attempts at an unequivocal reading of a filmic text, especially when asked for the 'hidden meaning' of Lost Highway : the beauty of the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, a film that is more abstract is everybody has a different take. Food Oppose Genetically Modified Essay? . When you are spoon-fed a film, people instantly know what it is . I love things that leave room to dream . (8) Being particularly vague with respect to the question of 'meaning,' Lynch on Essay of Government the other hand emphasizes film as an art form in its own right - It doesn't do any good . to say 'This is what it means.' Film is what it means ( Cinefantastique ). In the Should Genetically Modified Food? Essay, following, I want to return to my initial question - What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? - and rephrase it slightly: what is the position of the spectator with respect to a film? Christian Metz, in his seminal study of cinema as The Imaginary Signifier (9), has tackled the problem from difference between and a shortage within a Lacanian framework. His analysis starts off from the notion of perception - The cinema's signifier is perceptual (visual and auditory) ( The Imaginary Signifier 42) - and goes on to distinguish the cinema from other arts inscribed into the perceptual register (such as painting, sculpture etc.) by stating that the Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay, cinema is more perceptional ( The Imaginary Signifier 43) by involving more perceptional axes. Compared with other types of the 'spectacle,' such as the theater or the opera, this apparent superiority, however, is how democratic thwarted by the fact that in the cinema, the spectator and the spectacle do not share the same space, since not only the diegetic reality of film is an illusion, the unfolding itself is fictive: the actor, the 'décor,' the words one hears are all absent, everything is recorded ( The Imaginary Signifier 43). Thus, [t]he unique position of the cinema lies in this dual character of its signifier: unaccustomed perceptual wealth, but at Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified, the same time stamped with unreality to an unusual degree . it drums up all perception, but to switch it immediately over into its own absence, which is nonetheless the only signifier present ( The Imaginary Signifier 45). This conflation of (perceptual) wealth and simultaneous absence closely connects the on Individual and the, cinematic, i.e. the imaginary signifier, to Lacan's object o , the Environmentalists Modified Essay, object- cause that sets desire in motion, the belated reconstruction of the forever lost object. Metz himself draws this connection when he states with respect to was britain by 1928 film, that the lack is what it wishes to fill, and at the same time what it is always careful to Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? leave gaping, in president election 2000, order to survive as desire. In the end it has no object, at any rate no real object; through real objects which are all substitutes (and all the more numerous and interchangeable for that), it pursues an imaginary object (a 'lost object') which is its true object, an object that has always been lost and is always desired as such. Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay? ( The Imaginary Signifier 59)
In further relating film to (and also distinguishing it from) the dream, daydream and (conscious) fantasy (and thus relating film to what the status of a symptom, of a cultural - or, culturally sanctioned - pathology), Metz' imaginary signifier can be seen to be inscribed the Lacanian formula of desire, which is Ethics: Oppose Essay also the formula of fantasy/the phantasma, and which reads : The phantasma is Essay Liberties and the Command defined in the most general form which it receives through an algebra constructed by us . the formula ( ), in which the romb should be read as 'desire for.' (10) The further question now arises how, in the cinematic situation, this 'desire for' the cinematic signifier is realized. According to Metz, the spectator - simultaneously all- perceiving ( The Imaginary Signifier 48), since s/he first of all identifies with himself . Food Should Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay Examples? as a pure act of perception ( The Imaginary Signifier 49), but in fact 'missing' on the screen (which is why the film is a very special kind of mirror) - also identifies with what's going on on- screen. Essay On Individual Liberties And The? One (and in fact, the most common) way, is to Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay identify with the 'central character' in/of the president, film, which is ultimately an identification with a certain camera position. Metz thus defines the position of the spectator as basically voyeuristic, a position that has been thematized in quite a lot of films ( Psycho , Peeping Tom , Halloween ), a paradigmatic example being Lynch's own Blue Velvet . In semiotic film studies, the relation of the spectator position to the film - which recalls the Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, relation of the between scarcity shortage, subject to its object of desire in Lacan's formula- is called 'suture.' (11) Being mainly a medical term, suture means both 'seam' and the process of stitching a wound. Following Jacques-Alain Miller's definition of suture, this concept denotes the procedures by means of which cinematic texts confer subjectivity upon their viewers ( Subject of Food Ethics: Food? Essay, Semiotics 195).
However, even if Miller provided an diffusion elaboration of suture, it is first of Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, all a Lacanian term, and in the following I would like to diffusion do a cross-over of the cinematic reading of Should Environmentalists Modified Food? Essay examples, suture with a psychoanalytical reading of president election, this concept, only fitting for a medium which is constantly brought into Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay, proximity with psychic formations. According to culture Lacan, the subject is an effect of the signifier, of discourse, insofar that the signifier even represents the Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay examples, subject for another signifier ( Écrits 316) The subject thus has to permanently re- invent and How to Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, re-assure itself through its discourses - that is, through language, literature, and Environmentalists Essay examples, through film, among others. Miller defines suture as that moment where the tsar nicholas, subject fades by becoming represented - in Oppose Genetically Modified Food?, discourse - by a signifier: Suture names the relation of the subject to the chain of its discourse . it figures there as the diffusion, element which is Ethics: Should Food? Essay lacking, in the form of a stand-in. For, while there lacking, it is not purely and simply absent. Suture, by extension - the general relation of lack to the structure of which it is an element, inasmuch as it implies the position of taking-the-place-of. (12) This definition not accidentally recalls Metz' observation that the spectator is as such missing from the cinematic discourse, and that the viewing subject might identify with the camera position as its stand-in.
This has lead some theorists, such as Jean-Pierre Oudart, to identify the operation of suture with certain filmic techniques, especially the shot/reverse shot which facilitates (and directs) the spectator's identification with a certain gaze. Stephen Heath has expanded the concept of suture, arguing against its equation with such formalized techniques and strategies. Since the imaginary and the symbolic are always simultaneously present - an image having no value in itself, but always with reference to a cultural background, to a set of rules or genre-conventions - suture in Essay and the Command, Heath's account refers to Food Should Genetically the play of presence and absence as a mode of subject production in president election 2000, which the identification with the image always has to be read against the background of Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, a symbolic system: the spectator is always already in the symbolic . No discourse without suture . , but equally, no suture which is not from the beginning specifically defined within a particular system which gives it form . (13) With Lacan, the term suture denotes the conjunction of the imaginary and was britain, the symbolic. (14) With respect to the Lacanian registers of the imaginary, the Environmentalists examples, symbolic, and the real, suture thus refers to the stitching of the how democratic was britain by 1928, representational registers, with the seam closing off the Genetically Modified Food? examples, real from reality, closing off the unconscious from conscious discourse. Suture thus prevents the subject from losing its status as a subject, prevents it from Essay on Individual Command falling into the void of the real, from falling into psychosis. Thus, the subject's identification with the Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food?, movie fundamentally relies on diffusion this conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic levels within the cinematic discourse itself. Normally , that is, in most of the examples of the classical Hollywood movie, this junction is well balanced: the means of representation parallel the narrative itself, in a mutual and constant comment.
If suture, then, ultimately ties the spectator into the movie by mapping the visual/aural (i.e. perceptual, and Ethics: Modified Food? examples, thus imaginary) means of representation onto president election, the narrative (and the structure of the Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? examples, narrative), the ripping open of that seam consequently has to result in a problematization, if not complete undermining of identification. This de-suturing then draws attention to the fabrication of the illusion of president election 2000, whole-ness of both the spectator and the movie. The 1993 film Suture by Scott McGehee and David Siegel provides a good example for such a de- suturing . (15) Suture begins with the attempt of Vincent Towers, a millionaire who has killed his father, to kill his identical half-brother Clay Arlington in Food Environmentalists Oppose Modified Essay examples, a planned car explosion and to pass him off as himself to escape prosecution. The plan goes awry, and Clay survives - a mass of bruises and broken bones, having lost his memory. The movie follows Clay who slowly starts to take on his brother's identity. Still, Clay severely suffers from tsar memory flashbacks which he cannot accept as his own. However, the end of the film - which indeed is its starting image as well, since the Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay examples, movie as such is a long flashback - shows Clay, who has by now fully accepted his new identity as Vincent Towers, shooting his brother who has returned to bring his plan to a successful close. After his brother's death, Clay decides to remain the other rather than himself, leading a happy life with his beautiful cosmetic surgeon Renée Descartes. No problem so far.
But, on the level of representation, the spectator is what is the and a shortage constantly held in the process of Should Environmentalists Food? examples, de-suturing. The movie constantly emphasizes the physical similarity of the two brothers (on the blurb on the video jacket, they are actually referred to as 'twin brothers'), which is in fact a prerequisite for the film to function in the first place. Our physical resemblance, remarks Vincent at one point, is striking. However, the How to Crisis: Essay, two brothers could not be more different: Vincent is Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified examples white, whereas Clay is an African-American. This perverse logic is consequently reflected in the title of the film: the movie Suture ultimately withholds suture. (16) Lost Highway , I argue, functions in quite a similar manner. In order to Essay Liberties slowly approach this problem, I will in the following comment on certain aspects of the film which I think are most important for an understanding . First, there is the structure of the film. Ethics: Modified Examples? After the credit titles that flicker over the screen - fittingly accompanied by David Bowie's song I'm deranged, a track that sets the tone for what's to come - the diffusion, movie begins with Fred sitting alone in front of a window, smoking, his image mirrored in Food Oppose Genetically Essay, the pane of glass, when suddenly a message comes in through the intercom: Dick Laurent is difference between scarcity and a shortage dead! (29K .wav file) Fred does not - yet - know who this mysterious Dick Laurent is (or better: was), nor who it was who brought the message. Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Examples? Neither does the spectator.
Shortly before the end of the movie, Fred rushes to his house and delivers exactly this message - Dick Laurent is dead! - into his own intercom. Whereas most reviewers have failed to what difference scarcity and a take notice of this strange structure, in favor of a more straightforward telling of the tale, even the one article that has mentioned it fails to acknowledge its real impact: at the conclusion of Lost Highway , when Fred returns to his home to Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay deliver the message that will set the whole narrative in motion again, a new element has entered . the script that was not there the first time around in the form of the cop cars waiting outside the home. This illustrates well that repetition is never identical, and that at the core of sameness is difference. (17) If we have a look - or much more importantly - a careful LISTEN - to these two scenes again . right after the Dick Laurant is dead message, you can hear sirens, and the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay, a car speeding off . in fact, they're the same sirens (and car speeding off) that occur at the end of the movie. So, the Environmentalists Oppose Genetically, reviewer quoted before was right, it is how democratic was britain about repetition with a difference, there is Should Oppose Genetically a new element, but it's not the A Three, cop cars, it is the position of Ethics: Modified Food? examples, Fred. It is not, however, that he has simply changed from receiver to sender: he is Essay on Individual Liberties and the both sender and receiver, AND AT THE SAME TIME . AND SPACE! In order to approach this mystery, a different topology is needed, a topology accounting for a time-space that differs markedly from Euclidean space and Ethics: Oppose Genetically examples, teleological time concepts. A topological figure that makes such things possible is the Moebius Strip, and was britain by 1928, both Lynch and Barry Gifford, with whom Lynch collaborated on the screenplay, have mentioned this figure in interviews. (18) So, what is a Moebius Strip? DIGRESSION 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOEBIUS STRIP. Take a strip of paper Make sure that it has two sides Take one end of the strip, make a 180 degree twist, and put it to the other end. Tape - or, better, with respect to suture, which is Oppose Food? Essay important, as we will see - stitch the two ends together.
As a result, you now have a one-sided figure instead of a two- sided figure. Ill 1: The Moebius Strip. The Moebius Strip subverts the normal, i.e. Euclidean way of election, spatial (and, ultimately: temporal) representation, seemingly having two sides, but in fact having only Ethics: Oppose Modified Essay examples, one. At one point the two sides can be clearly distinguished, but when you traverse the strip as a whole, the two sides are experienced as being continuous. This figure is one of the topological figures studied and put to use by Lacan. (19) On the one hand, Lacan employs the Moebius Strip as a model to conceptualize the president, return of the repressed, an Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay examples issue important in Lost Highway as well. On the other hand, it can illustrate the way psychoanalysis conceptualizes certain binary oppositions, such as inside/outside, before/after, signifier/signified etc. - and election, can, with respect to Lost Highway , characterize Fred/Pete. These oppositions are normally seen as completely distinct; the Moebius Strip, however, enables us to Should Genetically see them as continuous with each other: the one, as it is, is the truth of the other, and was britain by 1928, vice versa. Reni Celeste invokes a similar topology, when she comments on Lynch's rewriting of American metaphysics, a rewriting that emphasizes the position where violence meets tenderness, waking meets dream, blond meets brunette, lipstick meets blood, where something very sweet and innocuous becomes something very sick and Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified, degrading, at on Individual and the Command of Government, the very border where opposites becomes both discrete and indistinguishable (Celeste). In Lost Highway , the Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified examples, merging of what is the difference between, opposites is crucial, and the problematization of the inside/outside opposition is a most important issue.
In fact, it is an important issue in Lynch's oeuvre as such - it suffices to refer to the scene in Food Ethics: Should Oppose Modified Food? examples, Blue Velvet , when the How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step, camera intrudes the Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food?, severed ear that Jeffrey finds, and at the end of the movie, the camera virtually seems to come out of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, Jeffrey's ear again. In Lost Highway , the question of inside and outside and their conflation is repeatedly posed. On a general level, the Food Should Oppose Modified Food?, diegetic reality of the movie - that what we actually see on the screen, as it were, INSIDE the diffusion culture, movie - is composed out of bits and pieces from other movies: Lynch uses the different genres of Hollywood as a kind of quarry. And not only the Hollywood genres: he almost violently exploits his own wealth of images, almost every shot initiates the shock of recognition. One might call this repetitiveness, but, after all, language in Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically examples, general - and especially a distinct film-language such as Lynch's - relies on repetition in order to function.
Another specific example of the merging of inside and on Individual and the Command, outside apart from the frame-tale (Dick Laurent is dead) already mentioned, is, most important, the scene in which Fred meets the Mystery Man for the first time. In fact, the Mystery Man - simultaneously being inside and outside - can be read at the place where these (and in fact: all) opposites meet, he is - so to speak - the twist in the Moebius strip. In Lacan's use of the Moebius Strip, the Environmentalists examples, place denoting the suture of the imaginary and symbolic in a way hides the primordial cut that instigated this topological figure in the first place, the cut that is the unconscious (or, in Lacanian terminology: the real). It is by suturing off the diffusion culture, real that reality for the subject remains a coherent illusion , that prevents the subject from Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples falling prey to the real, that is, falling into psychosis. It is no wonder, then, that the Mystery Man always appears when a change in personality is close. Reni Celeste is correct when she observes that in Lost Highway , there are three important fissures: that which exists between one discrete individual and another, that which exists between the what difference between scarcity and a, individual and Food Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food?, itself, and that which exists between the thing and its representation . Th[e] Nameless Man [Celeste's name for the Mystery Man] . stands between doubles, between passages from one realm to the next, and between each individual and itself (Celeste). However, it is diffusion culture important to note that the structure of the Moebius Strip re-conceptualizes these fissures, allowing them to be seen not so much as fissures, or ruptures, but as places of transition. Lost Highway 's moebial structure disallows the suture of the subject into the narrative.
In contrast to the traditional Hollywood diegesis, in which the narrative unfolds in a straightforwardly telelogical manner - even in spite of displacing strategies such as flashbacks, or the film within the Food? Essay, film-motif - Lost Highway in fact presents a multiple diegesis. The more so, since both stories - the story of Crisis: Plan Essay, Fred and the story of Pete - are not simply related to each other as prequel, and/or the solution of the other. Although there are definite anchoring points that clearly connect the two stories: the Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food?, one does not subsume the other without remainder. It might even be argued that with every identity shift, the narrative produces yet another author/narrator. Keeping to the Script. I now want to culture refer to Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically examples the attempts of categorization of the movie undertaken by its script writers. The movie has been dubbed by Lynch and Gifford (e.g., in the published version of the screenplay) as A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises. A world where time is dangerously out of control. A terrifying ride down the lost highway. Whereas the time dangerously out of control has already been hinted at in the section on the Moebius Strip, I want to use the remaining markers in election 2000, the following as a kind of guideline.
A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. I don't like pictures that are one genre only, so this is a combination of things, (20) Lynch has said in a recent interview. Elsewhere, Lynch has articulated his fascination with the Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples, noir genre: There's a human condition there - people in trouble, people led into situations that become increasingly dangerous. And it's also about mood and How to Solve the Foreclosure, those kinds of Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Food?, things that can only happen at night (Press Kit). I want to how democratic focus on the noir genre, not with its foregrounding of amnesia, mistaken and/or changed identities (as, e.g., in Dark Passage ), of which there are obvious references in Lost Highway . I would like to concentrate on Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay examples the genre's disturbed and disturbing urban environment, on the figures of mobsters and femme fatales , with respect to the Oedipal constellation that underlies the genre, and I think it is mainly in this connection that Lost Highway (and here especially the second part, Pete's story) can be regarded as a noir movie. (21) In the is the between scarcity and a, essay '10 Shades of Food Oppose Genetically, Noir,' the e-zine Images states that [u]nlike other forms of cinema, the film noir has no paraphernalia that it can truly call its own.
The film noir borrows its paraphernalia from other forms, usually from the nicholas ii facts, crime and detective genres, but often overlapping into thrillers, horror, and even science fiction. (22) Hence Slavoj Zizek's observation that noir might not be a genre of Food Ethics: Oppose Modified Essay, its own kind . [, but] a kind of how democratic was britain, logical operator introducing the same anamorphic distortion in Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food?, every genre to which it is applied. (23) Zizek relates this anamorphic distortion to questions of identity which are more often than not played out in how democratic, an Oedipal scenario. The first part of Lost Highway presents a marital scenario of Food Environmentalists examples, uncertainty, anxiety, and election 2000, unspoken suspicion. It takes place in a house which more resembles a fortress than a cosy home. From the film's beginning, we have the feeling of tension and fear: home, the family unit is the place of trouble and terror. This feeling is emphasized by Food Environmentalists Genetically Essay examples, Lynch's masterly employment of the on Individual and the of Government, soundtrack.
For Lynch, [h]alf of Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay, [a] film is culture picture . the other half is sound. They've got to work together ( Press Kit ). So, in Lynch's work, the Food Ethics: Environmentalists Essay examples, soundtrack is a most important factor to enhance the mood of a scene. President Election 2000? For example, during the dialogues between Fred and Renee there is no resonance to their voices. It is as if the works are spoken in a sound-absorbing environment, the whole spectrum of overtones, all those features that make a human voice seem alive, seems to have been cut. In its dryness, the voices of Renee and Fred almost seem to enact an absence of sound, or better - an Should Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples absence of room, of the acoustics of president 2000, space: it's as if they are living in Oppose, a recording studio covered in acoustic tile.
This soundscape underlines the similarity of this scenario with Lacan's subject being entangled in the register of the imaginary, most powerful symbolized in the child's symbiotic relationship with the Other, its mother. The incestuous two-ness is underlined by various devices. President? The strange lights in the Madison living-room, e.g., those lamps that somehow seem to be throwing their light in strange angles on no object but themselves (24) might indeed be read as a hint at this incestuous relationship: all there is is ourselves. As Steven Shaviro has noted, the Madison house in itself is a closed space, folded back upon itself. (25) Similarly, when Fred has sex with his wife, she lies there, showing no emotions - only after the act, she strokes Fred's back, gently, like a mother soothes her child. Food Oppose Genetically Food? Essay Examples? In such a dyadic world, the child wants to be everything for tsar, its mother, and it wants the mother to Ethics: Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay be there just for election, it. (26)
Here, in the Madison marriage, we have a routine-version of Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Food? examples, this symbiosis. All distance has gone, and, since desire can be said to be exactly relying on this distance between subject and object, desire has gone, as well. Diffusion? Being too near to the object of desire causes anxiety. Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Examples? And indeed, there are also disturbing signs of something that threatens to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay undo this imaginary wholeness. First, there are those strange videotapes. In addition, both Fred and Renee have an Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified uncanny feeling of being observed; note for example Renee's facial expression when she finds the first video, which might be both explained by the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, the fact that she fears that it might be one of those porn videos she is starring in, and Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay examples, of which Fred does not know anything, or by the general feeling of being observed, a feeling that takes shape in the fact that they live close to the observatory. The outside literally starts to intrude the inside, and is the shortage, the threat is emphasized by the deep droning sounds (in a cinema with a good sound system, the spectators actually can feel this threat as a uncomfortable feeling in Modified, their stomachs . already in Eraserhead , Lynch had made use of this device, the what, constant droning of a ship's engine underlying the whole movie). (27) Fred also feels that he is not everything to his wife. Like the child, he feels that his mother desires something that is beyond him. Fred remembers/dreams of a night when he was playing saxophone in his club, and he saw Renee disappearing with another guy, Andy . one can see the neon EXIT sign there, and that's exactly how it is: Renee is Ethics: Should Environmentalists Food? looking for an exit/escape out of that prison-like symbiosis. So, after he had sex with Renee, Fred's face expresses not only horror, but also the what is the difference between, burning question: What am I for you?
What am I for the Other? So, somehow, Fred is precisely dependent on the desire of the Other, and Should Modified Essay examples, therefore it is necessary for him that the how democratic was britain by 1928, Other, Renee, exactly remains in her position as love-giving, complete Mother, unspoiled by any lack - and it is Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples such a lack that the mother reveals in her desire for someone else, and also the lack in the child, Fred, since he is Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay seen as incapable of filling the Food Ethics: Should Genetically Modified, lack. Thus, the imaginary scenario is an how democratic was britain by 1928 attempt of Ethics: Oppose Modified, Fred's to disavow castration by all means. In the what is the difference shortage, second part of the movie, Fred's story, the Oedipal scenario is brought to the fore even stronger. Here, now, we have Fred, the young man; Alice, the femme fatale ; and Mr. Eddy, the father-like mobster. Father, because both of his age, and because he treats Pete with a kind of paternal attitude.
In Lacanian terminology, the father-figure is accepted by Food Ethics: Should Genetically examples, the subject as its ideal-ego, and as such serves for the internalization of the laws of society. However, the flip-side of this benevolent figure of the what difference between, ideal-ego is the super-ego, the father as perverse father, the exception at the origin of the law. The Master, the Father, he who gives the Law is an obscene, ferocious figure ( Écrits 256) that imposes a senseless, destructive . almost always anti-legal morality. (28) To imagine what is at stake, it suffices to recall Freud's notion of the Ethics: Oppose Genetically Food?, Urhorde . The primal father enjoyed all the women of the tribe, he was the chieftain, the law-giver, and when his sons killed him, out of shame the forbid themselves to have all the what difference scarcity and a, women. Food Oppose Modified Food? Essay? So, at Command, the bottom of the law, of the Ethics: Oppose Essay examples, incest taboo, there is the figure of the One who had been the exception to 2000 the rule. Oppose Genetically Food? Essay Examples? In Lost Highway , this becomes clear in the scene when Mr. Eddy beats and humilates a driver for tail-gating (85K .wav file). Culture? Mr. Eddy explicitly takes recourse to the law in his perverse pleasure, and with Slavoj Zizek it can be argued that it is exactly in the law, in the hyper-correct following of it, that the pervert finds pleasure. (29) In terms of the Moebius Strip, then, in Lost Highway there is a switch from the desire of the (M)Other to the Name-of-the Father (Lacan's nom/non de pere , which can also mean the No!-of-the-father, as in Mr. Eddy's warning that Alice is Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food? examples his babe). (30) It is important to note that here the spectator learns that Mr.
Eddy is Dick Laurent (the name Dick clearly associating phallic, paternal power), and that Dick Laurent is dead, that the dead father is already from the word go lurking there in the background, representing the symbolic agency that thwarts the Crisis:, symbiotic relationship of Renee and Fred. Genetically Modified? This twist parallels the switch from the realm of the pre-oedipal drives, closely related to the mother, to the realm of desire proper, and desire here inextricably related to lack, to the never-receding distance to the object, as can clearly be seen in the sexy love-scene between Fred and Alice - You'll never have me! (79K .wav file) A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises It is the phrase parallel identity crises that interests me the most here. It is usually read in terms of 'double identity,' mostly using the term schizophrenia . There has been quite some misunderstanding about this very term. What Difference Between Scarcity And A? In 1911, the Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler replaced Kraepelin's term for a group of psychoses, dementia praecox , with the term schizophrenia . Dementia praecox meant a psychosis of early onset, which Bleuler wanted to capture with the term schizophrenia, meaning literally split mind, since he thought the Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay examples, splitting of psychic functions to be the structuring element of these psychoses. Colin Ross, in his study on Dissociative Identity Disorders, a term including pathologies such as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and the Borderline Syndrome, states that, dementia praecox is actually a better name for election, this group of disorders [described by Kraeplin] than schizophrenia , while schizophrenia is a better name for Should Environmentalists, [Dissociative Identity Disorder] than multiple persona disorder. (31) Hence the popular notion of schizophrenia as split personality, a misconception that does not account for the fact that schizophrenia is an organic disorder of the brain, and not actually a personality disorder.
In addition to this reading of parallel identity crises in terms of split personality, I want to suggest some further thoughts that account for this split with reference to the structure of the Moebius Strip. Thus, it is not that simple that Pete's story is only the is the difference between and a, reverse of Fred's story (remember, a Moebius Strip has no such thing as a reverse side - it is one- sided!). Parallel, in the moebial sense of the word , does not mean double or reverse here, but mutual . Pete's story is not only the reverse side of Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, Fred's story, simultaneously Fred's story has to be the reverse side of Pete's story . otherwise the constant references to that night (the film's lacunae) would not make sense. Was Britain By 1928? True to the logic of the Moebius Strip, what on a very local level seem to be two sides of the story is Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Essay examples actually one. How Democratic? In this moebial twist, the truth of the one is the truth of the other, in that they are the same.
On the Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically, level of the images of the diffusion, movie, this complicity can be shown by a comparison of Genetically Food? Essay, two scenes that occur more than once in Lost Highway. These two scenes of election 2000, Fred in the dark hallway (Renee calling Fred!) and Pete in front of his parents' house (Sheila calling Pete!), viewed in parallel, function like a kind of worm-hole which traverses the different event-levels of the movie - I would even argue that if you mirrored those two scenes onto two screens put next to each other, it would have the effect of the one character changing over to the realm/screen of the other. Ethics: Should Environmentalists Essay Examples? Another 'perspective' of on Individual Liberties Command of Government, this simultaneous immersion can be seen in the transformation scene. Here again, the moebial twist of inside and outside, one and other, is brought to Food Oppose the fore, this time effected by was britain, shots intruding the inside of the body. A last reference I want to Food Should Oppose Genetically Essay examples make use of is the term psychogenic fugue that the French Production Company of Lost Highway , CIBY 2000, used as a kind of short- hand plot-synopsis in their pre-publicity campaign for the movie. In an diffusion interview with David Lynch, Chris Rodley asked Lynch if he was ever aware that such a mental condition, a form of amnesia which is a flight from reality, actually existed ( Lynch on Lynch 238-9).
Lynch answered that. the unit publicist on Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples the picture, happened to find it in some medical journal or something. She showed it to president election 2000 us, and it was like Lost Highway . Food Should Oppose? Not literally, but an interior thing can happen that's very similar. A certain mental disturbance. But it sounds like such a beautiful thing - 'psychogenic fugue.' It has music and it has a certain force and dreamlike quality I think it's beautiful, even if it didn't mean anything. ( Lynch on Lynch 239) Yet it does mean something, and in diffusion, this last section of this article, I want to Modified examples situate Lost Highway in the context of how democratic, human pathology.
First of all, I want to Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay return to How to Solve Crisis: Step Essay Lacanian psychoanalysis and to Ethics: Modified Food? Essay examples the road metaphor in one and diffusion, the same gesture. I have shown elsewhere that in a Heideggerian and Lacanian context, the metaphor of the road can serve as a trope not so much for freedom and rebellion, but as a trope for life as such as detour. (32) Lacan employs the metaphor of the road in his account of the death drive, (33) but he makes it unmistakably clear that such a notion of the Ethics: Oppose Modified Food? examples, drive is far from representing an imaginary and narcissistic freedom from any law whatsoever. Even this drive for freedom depends for its existence on laws, on barriers . How Democratic Was Britain? freedom needs barriers for their transgression. In his seminar on the psychoses, Lacan explores the Oppose Genetically Food? Essay, factors that trigger off a psychosis. And again, he takes recourse to the metaphor of the road. In a chapter appropriately named The highway and the signifier 'being a father,' he writes: a succession of minor roads and a highway are not at all the diffusion culture, same thing. . The highway isn't something that extends from one road to another, it's a dimension spread out in space, the presencing of an original reality. Ethics: Environmentalists Food? Examples? If I take the highway as an example, it's because . it's a path of communication. . the highway is an undeniable signifier in human experience. (34)
What Lacan is nicholas ii facts alluding here to is his notion of the point de capiton , the quilting point, which is that point which makes sure that some temporary notion of meaning can be created in Food Ethics: Modified, language. Again, as in the concept of suture, the metaphor of stitching and sewing comes to between and a shortage the fore, since a quilting point designates an upholstery button, a place where the mattress-makers needle has worked hard to prevent a shapeless mass of stuffing from moving to Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay examples freely about. (35) So a point de capiton is a place where signified and signifier are literally stitched together - this is suture in the register of the symbolic. Like a highway with respect to a system of smaller streets, the quilting point holds that system of discourse together, and a minimal number of these points are necessary for a human being to be called normal, and which, when they are not established, or when they give way, make a psychotic ( Seminar III 268-9). According to how democratic was britain by 1928 Lacan, the most important points de capiton , the highway amongst some minor roads, so to speak, is the name of the father , the paternal metaphor, which is quite important in Lynch's post-patriarchal project. Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay Examples? (36) The answer to Lacan's rhetorical question - [w]hat happens when we don't have a highway . ( Seminar III 292), or, in other words, what happens when the highway is lost - is: psychosis. And A? The foreclosure, what Freud called Verwerfung , of the primordial signifier, the name of the father , is a strategy for evading castration: the Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Essay examples, subject is castrated by its entry into the symbolic, into Essay on Individual and the Command, language and society. Thus, the denial of this castration leads to psychosis. This rejection of the symbolic Other that results in the disappearance of the phallic function leads to the subject's distortion of its relation to Food Ethics: Should Genetically Modified Essay the social order as well to its loss of sexual identity. As in Freud's case of Judge Schreber, Fred Madison tries to escape the ii facts, threat of castration, but he experiences a return of the repressed in the real instead of in Food Ethics: Environmentalists Food? examples, the symbolic, in his hallucinations (that is, in his second identity as Pete), because he does not accept the name of the diffusion, father , the agency that might disturb his symbiotic relationship with Renee and/or Alice: Dick Laurent is dead! So, the Highway of the title is exactly this quilting point, this suture, that would be necessary for the subject to be inscribed into reality, into a state of normality.
Once this point is lost, once this seam is undone, the subject falls prey to the real, becomes psychotic. With respect to the delusional aspects of psychosis, Lacan comments on this buzzing that people who are hallucinating so often depict . this continuous murmur . is nothing other than the infinity of Food Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay, these minor paths ( Seminar III 294), these minor paths that have lost their central highway. What is the deep droning sound underlying most of the movie but this continuous murmur? The dissolution of reality is alarmingly hinted at How to the Foreclosure Step Plan, when Fred, being asked to comment on the fact that he does not like video cameras, remarks - I like to remember things my own way. . Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay? How I remember them, not necessarily the way they happened. (117K .wav file) (37) Seen in this light, the videos might represent the truth the Essay on Individual and the, way it happened, that is: the repressed truth of Food Should Genetically Essay examples, Fred (and it is here that the sequence of the burning cabin shot in reverse gains special significance as a recurring image of that repression). Lost Highway treats its topic performatively, not just representationally (Wallace). A Three Step Plan? Thus, taken as metaphor, what is at Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified examples, stake here is the tsar nicholas ii facts, notion of the decentered or split subject. One image in the movie which makes it clear is the image of the highway itself. There are two variants of Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, this specific shot that are important here. On the one hand, there is a kind of double-exposure of this particular image, which indeed hints at the split in the subject, at the dissociation. (38) On another level, the dotted line can also be read as the subject's attempt at suture, at the stitching of reality and closing off the real again, of which the symptom itself is a way of dealing with. The very term psychogenic fugue in on Individual and the Command of Government, Lynch's statement connects Lost Highway to a pathology that has gained prominence particularly during the few last years - the before mentioned Dissociative Disorders, such as the Borderline Syndrom and MPD - Multiple Persona Disorder. The term psychogenic fugue in particular is Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Essay closely connected to scarcity and a shortage the latter.
The symptom called psychogenic fugue involves a sudden, unexpected travel away from one's home or customary place of work, with an inability to Food Modified Food? recall the past, that occurs in the absence of an organic mental disorder . There is how democratic often the assumption of a new identity. . Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Examples? Typically, individuals in Essay and the Command of Government, a fugue state have no memory of their primary identity. When they recover their primary identity, they often have a reciprocal amnesia for the events of the fugue state. (39) It is widely acknowledged that this symptom, closely connected to a kind of time-loss in the patient's memory, is a common feature of MPD, a disorder having entered mass consciousness through the biography, case study and Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Essay examples, movie The 3 Faces of Eve , starring Joanne Woodward. (40) Like the Borderline Syndrome, MPD is a type of narcissistic personality organization, (41) that is, basically, a disorder of the ego-functions. Whereas in the Borderline Syndrome, the subject is unable to create a coherent ego, that is, to create the illusion of president, autonomy, MPD refers to the splitting of the subject's ego into several compartmentalized personae. The revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ DSM-III-R ] gives the Ethics: Modified Food?, following criteria for MPD: The existence within the individual of two or more distinct personalities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and one's self).
Each of these personality states at some time, and recurrently, takes full control of the individual's behavior. (42) The main reason for difference shortage, the onset of MPD is to be found in traumatic experiences, one of the most common of Food Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay examples, which is how democratic was britain continuous sexual abuse, mostly in Ethics: Food?, early childhood. MPD thus is a strategy invented by the subject to cope with unmanageable stressors, (43) a strategy to escape the stress of an unbearable traumatic event - such as, e.g., the murder of one's own wife. Tsar Nicholas? [or that night] Both the Food Environmentalists Oppose Modified, Borderline Syndrom and MPD are almost exclusively American pathologies. Tsar Nicholas? The question has already been raised, what might be the reasons for this being so. Varma, Bouri and Vig, three Indian psychiatrists, have argued that twentieth-century Western man, especially in North America, has shown a special fascination with role playing. The role is Food Genetically Modified Food? Essay adopted with some gain or favourable outcome in mind. The fulfillment of the role may make him act even in a manner contrary to his usual self . The role adopted, like in multiple personality . represents an expedient or expected behaviour conceived for a particular setting. (44) While there are similar kinds of possession states in other cultures, e.g. Diffusion? Voodoo (Haiti), Latah (Malaysia) or Whitigo (Cree Indians), in the United States the equivalent would have to be looked for in media culture. No wonder, then, that in the literature dealing with MPD, cultural and media influences rate highly.
Ray Aldridge-Morris refers to the fact that North America is inextricably associated with show business . and the film industry in particular (Aldridge-Morris 108), and Ian Hacking has observed that the different personae tend to be stock television characters, often assuming even names from sitcoms or crime serials . Indeed the rapid changes of character remind one of nothing else than 'zapping.' (45) With regard to postmodern American consumer culture, Hanjo Berressem has rightly argued that a somewhat cynical case might be made for the idea that multiple or fractal selfs are once more good consumers, because each role, or alter, can be inserted into a separate market. (46) With respect to Lost Highway , it has to be noted that the narrative of the movie is located in Food Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay, Los Angeles, the film metropole. Another point which I think might be worth-wile analyzing is the function of the how democratic, abundance of references to means of media and communication in this movie: videotapes, camcorders, cell phones, phones, the intercom. The whole movie, as it seems, is penetrated by a kind of communicational electro-smog , and Food Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay, somehow all of these devices are related to very strange and mysterious powers. Another point that in my eyes makes MPD an especially American cultural pathology is a fact that relates it to American History itself. Commenting on Lost Highway , David Lynch highlighted the initial idea that started the whole thing. What if one person woke up one day and was another person? ( Cinefantastique ). A review of the movie rendered this basic premise in more direct terms - What if I had a second chance? (Review by tsar ii facts, Steve Biodrowski in Cinefantastique ). This initial question, I argue, reminds one of one the most basic truths of American History.
John T. Irwin, in his study American Hieroglyphics , has commented on the American desire for a limitless possibility, . an infinite 'second chance' or new beginning, one of whose historical manifestations was the idea of the expanding frontier. (47) Another of these manifestitions, it has to be added, was the idea of the open road . This especially American preoccupation with an ever new beginning, with a second chance, also nicely ties in with the cultural pathology of MPD. The clinical picture of MPD, I argue, is Food Ethics: Should Oppose Modified examples put to use in Lost Highway as a metaphor for the split, decentered subject, in a similar way of Allucquere Rosanna Stone's and Sherry Turkle's treatment of this parallel. Turkle writes: Through contemporary psychoanalytic theory which stresses the decentered subject and through the fragmented selves presented by patients (and most dramatically by patients who present with multiple personality) psychology confronts the ways in which any unitary notion of identity is problematic and diffusion, illusory. What is the self when it functions as a society? What is the self when it divides its labor among its constituent 'alters' or 'avatars'? (48)
I would like to add a final comment on the term psychogenic fugue, not as a clinical phenomenon, but as a term. In his interview with Lynch, Chris Rodley also mentioned the Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay examples, connection with the musical term fugue , describing it as one theme starts and is then taken up by a second theme in answer. But the first continues to supply an accompaniment or counter-theme . You could therefore describe Lost Highway uniquely as a film which truly echoes a musical term. . Did you and Angelo Badalamenti discuss the score in terms of a fugue? ( Lynch on culture Lynch 239). After giving you the additional information that in Food Should Essay, a fugue, not only one theme is taken up by a second theme, but also by another instrument, another voice, I want to give you Lynch's answer, which I think is quite revealing. He said, Fugues make me feel insane. I can only listen to Essay on Individual and the of Government a certain amount of a fugue, and then I feel like I'm gonna blow up from the inside out ( Lynch on Food Ethics: Lynch 239). (49) And here we are back again, full circle, where we started - Lynch's fascination with the mystery: To me, a mystery is like a magnet.
Whenever there is something that's unknown, it has a certain pull to it ( Lynch on Lynch 231). Lacan, in his evaluation of the was britain by 1928, mystery, of that which cannot by symbolized, but which nevertheless has immense effects in Food Ethics: Should Food? Essay, symbolization, goes even further: The tip of by 1928, meaning, one can sense it, is the enigma, (50) insofar as meaning as such is something that can never be halted, never be fixed - there is always a remainder. Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Examples? This remainder, I argue, that which cannot be symbolized, is on the one hand given in the movie as a kind of excess of the diffusion culture, images, a kind of surplus-value of the imaginary which manifests itself in Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay examples, moments of jouissance . On the other hand, the enigma in Lost Highway takes on its most concrete form in the gaps and voids, in the long sequences of darkness that permeate the whole movie. A Three Step Plan? These so-to-speak materialized cuts (sometimes almost 30 seconds of pure dark screen) provide the space where a) suture is wilfully withheld, and b) where the mystery/enigma somehow can be both felt and filled by the spectator . finally, there is - or: can be - a certain strange version of suture that functions by Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Food?, alining the 2000, gaps in the cinematic discourse with the Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically examples, desire of the by 1928, spectator: in filling the gaps with his own interpretations/obsessions / images, he becomes an important part of the diegetic reality of the movie, a kind of lynchian version of unconscious interactivity. So, what happens to Fred in the end? The very last shot shows him in Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified, the process of transformation again.
Lynch had used almost the same scene in his second movie, The Elephant Man , where it denoted the effect of a traumatic experience on the process of giving birth to a new subject. What will be the result of Fred's transformation? Yet another persona? Or, will he re-transform into Pete, thus adding another temporal twist to culture the narrative - remember that Pete had been imprisoned once, not for murder, but for car-theft, and Food Environmentalists Oppose Essay, what the police will eventually find after Fred has transformed into Pete again, will simply be Pete, in a stolen car . only that now, since the cops had found Pete's fingerprints all over Andy's place, Pete will be charged for murder . but, does that explain things? Do we now understand ? In the recent remake of the thriller Nightwatch , now called Freeze , the police inspector turned serial-killer, played by Nick Nolte, philosophizes: Explanations are just fictions to make us feel safe. Otherwise, we would have to admit the unexplained, and that would leave us prey to the chaos around us. Was Britain? Which is exactly what it is. Or, in terms of Lost Highway : identity is anything but simple, stable, whole. In the end, we can see what it really is: a terrible collection of fragments, fragments like the parts of Renee's mutilated body. My attempt at making sense of Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? examples, Lost Highway has tried to what difference between add another such fiction to make one feel safe (even if it in fact might have added even more confusion). Environmentalists Genetically? (51) As Lacan would have it, [d]esire, in fact, is How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay interpretation itself ( Fundamental Concepts 176).
My reading of Lynch's movie, then, necessarily and inescapably partakes in this desire. It is entangled between ultimate failure and Should Environmentalists Food?, the jouissance that does not serve anything (52) - There is no Truth . But one runs after it all the diffusion culture, same ( Fundamental Concepts vii). 1 This paper is a slightly revised version of a talk I gave at the American Studies Colloquium 1998 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 2 Jonathan Culler. Food Environmentalists Food?? On Deconstruction. Theory and Criticism after Structuralism . Ithaka, New York, 1982, 10. 3 Jacques Lacan.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of How to Solve the Foreclosure, Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Food Ethics: Modified Examples? Tomaselli. What Between? Cambridge, 1988, 222. Should Genetically Essay? Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar II ). 4 David Foster Wallace. Article on Lost Highway in Premiere , Sept. 1996. http://www.m ikedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpremiere.html Subsequently quoted as (Wallace). 5 Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Essay on Individual Liberties Command of Government, Interview with David Lynch. Food Ethics: Should Genetically Essay Examples? Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.
6 Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. 7 Peter Wollen. Readings and president, Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Examples? London, 1982, 2. 8 Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html Subsequently quoted as ( Cinefantastique ). 9 Christian Metz.
The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Essay On Individual Command? Brewster and Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food? Essay, A Guzzetti. How Democratic? Bloomington, 1982. Subsequently quoted as ( The Imaginary Signifier ). 10 Jacques Lacan. Ethics: Food?? crits . French Edition.
Paris, 1966, 774. Subsequently quoted as ( crits ), referring to the English translation crits . A Selection , by A. Sheridan, New York 1977. 11 Cp. Kaja Silverman's account of this concept in her study The Subject of Semiotics. New York, 1983, 194-236, subsequently quoted as ( Subject of Semiotics ). 12 Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24- 34, 25-6. 13 Cp. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay? Stephen Heath.
Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981, 'On Suture,' 76-112, 100-1. Food Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically? Cp. also the chapter entitled 'On Screen, in Frame: Film and Ideology' (1-18). 14 Jacques Lacan. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Diffusion? Sheridan. New York, London, 1978, 118. Subsequently quoted as ( Fundamental Concepts ). 15 For another comparative reading of the concept of suture and the movie Suture , cp. Hanjo Berressem.
Twisted and Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay, Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. 16 Another short reference to yet another movie: John Woo's Face/Off . In this movie, two men exchange identities; that is, they change faces. Suture , Face/Off , and Lost Highway - they all tackle the question of identity and of suture . in diffusion culture, a way, all three movies are about identity and its vicissitudes, about the construction of both the subject in the diegetic reality of the movie, and of the spectator. Ethics: Genetically Examples? Suture thematizes the president, concept of identity as an effect of (illusory) identification, and Oppose Modified Food? Essay examples, ultimately withholds the comfort of suture, of a stable position both within diegetic reality and off-screen. John Woo's Face/Off comments on the Aristotelean truth that physiognomy mirrors character. This truth is election 2000 countered with an almost metaphysical sense of self beyond mere looks, a self, however, that most prominently reveals itself in a language of the body , in small gestures. The suture that holds the movie together is quite literally the seam which stitches Nicholas Cage's face onto John Travolta's head (and vice versa) and 'functions' in fact only if the spectator is willing to accept this improbability. In Lost Highway finally, the identity of the on-screen subject is related to different positions it takes with respect to different levels of reality, and, ultimately, to its desire. Since this is a never-ending process, suture, for the spectator, is forever displaced and deferred.
17 Reni Celeste. 'Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema's Yellow Brick Road.' Cineaction 43 (Summer 1997). http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists /film-philosophy/files/paper.celeste.html. Subsequently quoted as (Celeste). 18 see e.g. Food Should Oppose Genetically Modified? Lynch in the Official Press Kit for Lost Highway , http://www.mike dunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpress.html, subsequently quoted as (Press Kit), and Gifford in is the difference scarcity and a shortage, his interview for Film Threat , http://www.mi kedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhgifford.html. 19 Cp. e.g. Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay? Lacan's discussion of the figure of the interior eight in his article on 'Science et Verit' (crits, French edition, 855-77), or his 1966 lecture 'Of Structure as an Inmixing of an Otherness Prerequisite to Any Subject Whatever,' published in: The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man . Ed. R. Macksey and E. Donato. Is The Shortage? Baltimore, 1970, 186-200.
The illustration was taken from this article. 20 Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Oppose Modified Essay examples Lynch . London, Boston, 1997, 231. Nicholas Ii Facts? Subsequently quoted as ( Lynch on Lynch ). 21 On yet another level, Lost Highway is Ethics: Should Genetically Modified Essay examples obviously a noir film in a very literal sense: noir /black is the prevailing color in this movie, especially in the long dark sequences that seem to structure the narrative . 23 Slavoj ZiZek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993, 9-10. 24 Georg See?len has made similar observation, but has related this observation in on Individual Liberties Command, his conclusions to the concept of self-reflexivity in Lynch's filmic language. See Georg See?len.
David Lynch und seine Filme . Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Food Should Oppose Modified? Auflage 1997, 187. 25 Steven Shaviro. Stranded in tsar nicholas ii facts, the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion' on Lost Highway : http://www.dhalgren.com/Stranded/18.html. 26 Or, when Fred asks Renee if she will come to the club, she answers that she wants to read, and Fred asks, in disbelief, Read? Read what?
Apart from this articulation of an otherwise unspoken suspicion that Renee might actually be an unfaithful wife, this remark of Fred's also shows his inability (or: unwillingness) to accept the need for something that goes beyond this symbiosis . maybe, one has to read Read very literally as a hint towards the symbolic, the agency that in the end very violently disturbs this dual relationship. 27 Michael Chion has already noted in his seminal study Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York, 1994, that Lynch is Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay one of the directors that have liberated film sound from Essay its long sleep of Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food?, simply accompanying the images on-screen. Chion points out that Lynch is one of those who have developed the soundtrack into the direction of a Sound Film - Worthy of the Name (141). 28 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 102. 29 see Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . Essay Command Of Government? New York, London, 1997. 30 see Slavoj Zizek's interpretation of Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Food?, Hitchcock's Psycho with respect to this moebial twist in Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992. 31 Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diffusion Culture? Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . New York, 1997.
32 See Chapter 7, ' On the road : The Road Novel and the Road Movie,' of my book An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999, 159-72. 33 Cp. Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay? Jacques Lacan. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan? The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans.
S. Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, where he comments on the roads of life (81) and Food Should Oppose Essay examples, describes life as a dogged detour (232) towards death. 34 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993, 290-1. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar III ). An example might clarify what is at stake here. Tsar Nicholas Ii Facts? Kafka, in his Letter to the Father , takes recourse to Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay another topographical metaphor, referring to his father in terms of a dimension spread out in space : Sometimes I imagine the map of the world spread out and you stretched diagonally across it. Franz Kafka. Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998, 65.
35 Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . Election? London, 1991, 74. 36 This term is Anne Jerslev's. See her study David Lynch i vore jne. Copenhagen, 1991. 37 Thus, the whole second part of the movie (Pete's story), can be read as Fred's attempt to remember things his own way, even to re-member, in the literal sense of the word, both his fragmented sense of Environmentalists Essay, self and Renee's dis-membered body . 38 A more hypermaterialistic rendition of the split subject is the scene in Essay on Individual Liberties of Government, which Andy's head is Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? virtually split by the glass table . it's as literal as you can get. 39 Frank W. Putnam.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. 13-4. Nicholas Ii Facts? Subsequently quoted as (Putnam). 40 The case of Eve has just recently been found out to have been faked by the analysts. 41 Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Essay, North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. 42 American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III-R . Washington, 1987, 106.
43 Ray Aldridge-Morris. Multiple Personality. Tsar Nicholas Ii Facts? An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989, 107. Subsequently quoted as (Aldridge- Morris). 44 Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in Food Should Genetically Essay examples, India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Solve Essay, Psychotherapy 35 (1981), 1. 45 Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31, 11. 46 Hanjo Berressem. 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay Examples? Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307, 293.
47 John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics . The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980, 112. 48 Sherry Turkle. Constructions and Reconstructions of the Self in Virtual Reality . Quoted in Allucquere Rosanne Stone. 'Identity in Oshkosh.' J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995, 23-37, 34. 49 Another, I think, most revealing information with respect to the fugue: Douglas R. Hofstadter, in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid , comments on the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, which, in his time, were judged as quite notorious. Like Lynch's works, they were either thought to be pompous and confused, whereas others hailed them as masterpieces. For Hofstadter, Bach's fugues in general, and especially his highly complex fugue Ein Musikalisches Opfer/A Musical Offering , are of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, special importance for Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay examples, his study because of their structure, which is the structure of what Hofstadter calls strange loops. A most prominent example of such a strange loop is . What Difference Shortage? yes, it's the Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Food? examples, Moebius Strip again. And, finally, believe it or not, the How to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, original term for the fugue was the Food Ethics: Should Oppose Modified Essay, Latin term Ricercar , which means - enigma, mystery. Cp.
Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . Is The Difference Scarcity And A Shortage? New York, 1979. 50 Jacques Lacan. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991, 7. 51 Only after I finished this article (and the talk on Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically examples which this article is between based), Troels Degn Johansson, Department of Film Media Studies of the Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food?, University of Copenhagen, pointed out an article to me in cinetext by Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj ?i?ek.' This article only mentions in passim some of the aspects I have tried to discuss in more detail in this paper, so, both articles somehow respond to each other like the two sides of a Moebius Strip as well . cp. http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. 52 Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975, 10. Tsar Ii Facts? My translation. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III- R . Washington, 1987. Ray Aldridge-Morris.
Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay? Hove, 1989. Hanjo Berressem. Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and was britain, Culture . Food Oppose Food?? Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. ---- . 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Postmodernism . President Election? Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307. Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj Zizek.' http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. Malcolm Bowie.
Lacan . London, 1991. Michael Chion. Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Examples? New York, 1994. Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.
Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31. J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995. Stephen Heath. Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981. Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Oppose Modified, Atlanta, 1999.
Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. By 1928? An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. John T. Irwin. Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food?? American Hieroglyphics. The Symbol of the tsar nicholas, Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980. Anne Jerslev. David Lynch i vore jne . Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food?? Copenhagen, 1991. Franz Kafka. Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998. Jacques Lacan. crits . Paris, 1966.
-----. crits . Culture? A Selection. Should Environmentalists Examples? Trans. A. Sheridan, New York 1977. -----. Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975. -----. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991. -----.
The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step? Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978. -----. Food Should Food? Essay? The Seminar of was britain, Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Should Oppose Genetically Food? Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester. How To Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step Essay? Cambridge, 1988. -----. The Seminar of Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples, Jacques Lacan.
Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. Liberties Command Of Government? New York, 1993. Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Ethics: Should Modified Food? Essay Examples? Brewster and A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982. Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24-34. Frank W. Putnam.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997. Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. What Difference Between And A Shortage? Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Food?? New York 1997.
Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme. Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997. Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion:' http://www.dhalgren. com/Stranded/18.html. Kaja Silverman. The Subject of Semiotics . New York, 1983.
Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. Diffusion Culture? 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html. Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981). Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982. Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992. Slavoj Zizek. Tarrying with the Food Should Modified, Negative . Durham 1993.
Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997.
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Literary Analysis Essay: 1984 by George Orwell. “No one is free, even the birds are chained to the sky.” Bob Dylan said this probably not knowing its profound connection with George Orwell’s novel “1984”, but the as well could be in “1984”. Orwell depicts a totalitarian dystopian world where there is Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified examples no freedom and citizens are being brainwashed constantly. Without any sense of individual fairness, people work for the party just like the gear wheels in a machine. In order to tsar nicholas achieve this, the politicians in “1984” suppress people’s thinking and eliminate their freedom by creating fear through propaganda, strict laws and incessant surveillances. In “1984”, lies, myths and false information controls the thinking of the citizens. The Party uses propaganda as the deadliest weapon of control. Propaganda increases the citizens’ morale and Should Genetically Food?, makes them think that what the party tells them to do is always right. There are mainly two types of propaganda, one changes truth, so-called doublethink, and another creates fear. “Doublespeak” can be seen frequently in the world of 1984.
The party’s big slogan “WAR IS PEACE. FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” (George Orwell, 4) is an good example. Ii Facts? The idea of the Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Food?, slogan is to convince the citizens that what they want, is 2000 what they already have. Ethics: Should Examples? Only war can make peace and harmony, so peace is no longer peace, it becomes war; anyone who is diffusion slaved and Food Genetically Food? examples, wants freedom, he already has freedom; you can only strengthen yourself by not knowing things and how democratic was britain, being ignorant. The slogan changes truth and make the citizens believe that anything they want other than what their government wants can only make them unhappy, therefore, no one will consider rebellion because they believe the Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples, Party’s way of governing is the best and only way. “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” (George Orwell, 3) is another core slogan. It is nearly everywhere in the country and usually presented beneath the of Government, picture of Big Brother on a poster. It creates fear of obliterated privacy among citizens by Food Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay examples, alerting them that they are watched all the time. At the ii facts, same time, the slogan also emphasizes Big Brother’s power to tells the citizens that they are indeed safe and protected. The party uses this to make them believe that within the party nothing can go wrong, and Food Ethics: Should Oppose Food?, without Big Brother they will not have such lives. Everyone thinks he is safe in Oceania because of the Big Brother, but they are in fact in danger, all the time.
The laws is another powerful tool for how democratic was britain politicians in “1984” to limit citizens freedom. No parties, no dates, no love, no citizens walk on Food Ethics: Should Modified examples street after curfew, laws are everywhere in Oceania. Although these are strictly implemented, they cannot be called laws theoretically because they are not written in a system. There is no written laws in 1984, there is no such thing as constitution or court, but that is was britain by 1928 exactly how fear is Should Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay created, as citizens are always living in uncertainty. For example, “And yet it was a fact that if Syme grasped, even for Essay Liberties and the of Government three seconds, the nature of Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Essay, his, Winston#8217;s, secret opinions, he would betray him instantly to the Thought Police” (George Orwell, 30). There is no law that defines thoughtcrime However, Winston could be arrested any time for committing thoughtcrime by what is the difference and a shortage, even a tiny facial twitch suggesting struggle, and his nervous system literally becomes his biggest enemy. Should Oppose Genetically Food? Essay? Since there is no written law, the Party can change and adjust the strictness of laws freely as it wants, citizens never know if they have committed any crime, therefore no one is diffusion brave enough to defy the Party by any level, so fear is Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Essay created. In addition, “Newspeak” is another law that is scarcity and a shortage enforced to solidify the Party’s control.
Humans use language to Food Ethics: Should Genetically Essay express their ideas, by eliminating words and replacing emotional words such as “excellent”, “wonderful” and “fantastic” by a single word “good” and its comparative degrees “plusgood” and “plusplusgood”. Lots of thoughts are actually limited because they cannot be formed linguistically in people’s mind. Citizens then cannot have their own critical thinking, and only do what they are told to do, they work just as computers, which surprisingly only have two words.* Surveillance is almost everywhere in Oceania, the mostly used way is television. There is a two-way screen, so-called television in how democratic every apartment and on street but they only serve the purpose of Ethics: Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay, monitoring and propaganda, the president election, Party gets simultaneous image of what its people are doing. Even facial expression can be detected. Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Essay? Only senior members of the Inner Party have the power to turn them off for a short period. Children are also used to keep track of their parents, “The children, on president 2000 the other hand, were systematically turned against their parents and taught to Ethics: Should Modified Food? spy on them and report their deviations” (76).
In fact, this was used by the communist party of China during Cultural revolution. With extremely mighty surveillance, citizens cannot express their ideas towards the negative side of the Party at all, and even thoughts are controlled because the Party can “reeducate” people for an incorrect facial expression. By using language as a tool of control as well as the evidence for sentence, Orwell creates a world where language, a word or a sentence, can determine ones life. Nicholas Ii Facts? Through language plays the key role in the Party’s propaganda, strict laws and surveillance, total physical control as well as phycological manipulation is achieved. In Oceania, thoughts are suppressed until them vanish after generations.
In this world, nothing is free, even a bird. *0 and 1, Binary numeral system. Bibliography: Orwell, George. 1984 . San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Print.
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causes of Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? ww2 essay We can count many causes of president 2000 World War 2, political and Oppose Genetically Essay others, but the three root causes of World War 2 were : The Prussian Militarism - developed in 200 years of history, it was the force that made Germany so powerful, and made it possible for a man like Adolf Hitler to gain total control of by 1928 it. Adolf Hitler - a madman and political genius, Adolf Hitler re-ignited the Prussian militarism after the German defeat in Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay examples, World War 1, and with this great power under his total control, he started the greatest and cruelest war in history, in his planned attempt to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, vastly expand Germany and to dominate the Food Should Essay examples, entire world. Appeasement - Britain and France could easily stop Hitler when Germany was still weak, but their war-traumatized pacifist desire to totally avoid violence just helped Hitler rebuild Germany's military strength more rapidly, until it was too late to stop him. For many centuries, the territory of modern Germany was divided between over 300 German-speaking small and tsar independent political units ruled by small absolute princes. Prussia, in eastern Germany, with Berlin its capital city, was one of these many countries. The Prussian militarism started with Friedrich Wilhelm I, The soldier king of Prussia (1713-1740), then a small kingdom around Berlin, and developed for over 200 years, making Prussia one of the Should Oppose Essay examples, most militarist countries in history, A military that has a state. Prussia was an nicholas ii facts efficient and strictly disciplined military-oriented state, with a militarist mentality and the world's most effective army. Prussia was initially just a small agricultural state with little resources, but The soldier king and his successors, with an impressive combination of merciless iron will and organizational talent, converted it to a modern Sparta. Food Should Oppose Food? Examples? Prussia typically spent 65% - 85% of its budget on its military, an enormous spending.
Such a system could be sustained for so long only by a combination of Essay on Individual of Government : Strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient civil service that ran the Food Genetically examples, state for its king, and for tsar nicholas his strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient army. The backbone of Prussia's civil and Food Environmentalists Modified Essay examples military services were the Junkers, (the word means young lords in old German), the conservative and militarist aristocratic land owners, who were Prussia's officer Corps and held almost all the senior and medium-level civil positions. An education system which produced hard working obedient people, aware of their duty and willing to president 2000, sacrifice. Expansion. Prussia's formidable military strength, and its willingness to use it, enabled its rapid territorial expansion by a skilled combination of military victories and Food Environmentalists Oppose Essay examples power diplomacy.
The territorial expansion added population and resources, which fed and sustained the Prussian military. In the 19th century, with the industrial age, Prussia's military advantage increased even further. Prussia's successful expansionist militarism reached its peak under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, The Iron Chancellor, who was its prime minister for 28 years (1862-1890). A great statesman and diplomat, Bismarck's political vision was to unify the many German states to one great country, a German Empire in Prussian domination, by a combined campaign of Blood and iron and president 2000 diplomacy. Ethics: Oppose Food? Essay Examples? Bismarck achieved that goal in less than a decade, with a series of wars and diplomatic maneuvers, and dedicated the rest of his long tenure to solidify his great achievement, both by helping to keep Europe in peace, and by keeping Prussia and its Junkers class in power in their new Empire, while skillfully capping calls for democracy. Bismarck knew how to preserve his great achievement, but his successors did not.
In 1914 the peace in Europe collapsed into World War 1. After four years of terrible and futile carnage in both sides, the combined weight of several great powers finally overcame the German military. The German High Command in 1918 did not wait for tsar ii facts the collapse, and stopped the war when they realized that they're about to lose, saving the country from further destruction. As a result of the defeat, monarchy was abolished, the large German military was dismantled, later re-established under very severe limitations of Should Environmentalists Modified examples its size and equipment, the exhausted country was required to pay unbearably enormous compensations to the equally exhausted victors, and democracy was established, in diffusion culture, the country of people who were taught to Oppose Genetically Essay examples, strictly obey their superiors, not elect them (there were elections in between shortage, Germany earlier, but the Reichstag (Congress) had no real authority). On the surface, the Food Ethics: Should Genetically Food? examples, new German republic seemed a different country, a peaceful and disarmed democracy that was no longer a threat to its neighbors, and became a prolific and influential center of modern arts and science. But under the surface, it was still the Prussian Germany, with the Junkers in power in the civil and military service (including the admired wartime supreme commander as president), with a limited military force, but one that was formed from the finest war veterans and election demonstrated great resourcefulness in Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists examples, bypassing the limits dictated by the peace treaty, and the country was in a financial crisis and a political chaos, and many Germans blamed the peace treaty's dictations of their country's troubles, and wanted to restore its national pride and past greatness, which above all meant a desire to how democratic, restore Germany's military strength. With all the power of great, long-term, political, social, economical and cultural forces that shape human history, historians are awed by the great role of Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Essay key individuals, the diffusion culture, ability of the right person at the right time and place to deeply affect the direction of history. When World War 1 ended in a German defeat and Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples the large German military was dismantled, most Germans accepted the 2000, new reality and did their best to build their new post-war civilian life, in Food Environmentalists Modified Food? Essay, difficult economic circumstances. For Adolf Hitler, who was a plain soldier in How to Solve the Foreclosure, the war (severely wounded twice, decorated twice for bravery in battle), the prospects of new life and career were even less promising.
A high-school dropout who was a poor homeless nomad in Vienna before the war, Hitler was not even a German citizen, he was an Austrian who volunteered to the German military when World War 1 started. He had no family or friends in Germany, no contact with his family in Austria, and a [theoretical] attempt to evaluate his social skills by his relations with his fellow soldiers during the war, or with women, before and after the war, would also suggest a very unpromising future, since Hitler was unpopular in his unit, the other soldiers thought he was weird, and he was very inhibited with regard to women. From such an unpromising start point, the Food Oppose Genetically Food?, chance that such a person can rise from so low to becoming an extremely popular and successful political leader, seemed practically impossible, but Hitler did that in election 2000, just 13 years. In 1920 he resigned from the army (he was still technically a soldier) to Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified examples, enter politics as the leader of a very tiny unknown extreme right political group, not even a party yet, and in 1933 he was elected the Chancellor of Germany, and quickly abolished democracy, as he said he would, and became a dictator of absolute power. For Hitler's full biography, read my Adolf Hitler essay.
Here I'll describe the unique set of qualities of Hitler's personality, and then explain why without them Hitler, or anyone else, could not lead Germany so fast to a second war, a World War that shook the world and almost drowned it in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, blood. In his authoritative book The Rise and Fall of the Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Essay, Third Reich : A History of Nazi Germany, William L. Shirer writes about Hitler : The man who founded the Third Reich, who ruled it ruthlessly and often with uncommon shrewdness, who led it to such dizzy heights and to such sorry end, was a person of undoubted, if evil, genius. It is true that he found in the German people, as centuries of Crisis: experience had molded them up to that time, a natural instrument which he was able to shape to Ethics: Should Oppose Food? examples, his own sinister ends. But without Adolf Hitler, who was possessed of a demonic personality, a granite will, uncanny instincts, a cold ruthlessness, a remarkable intellect, a soaring imagination and, until toward the end, an amazing capacity to size up people and situations, there almost certainly would never have been a Third Reich. It is one of the great examples of the singular and diffusion incalculable power of personality in historical life.
To some Germans and, no doubt, to most foreigners it appeared that a charlatan had come to power in Berlin. To the majority of Germans Hitler had, or would shortly assume, the aura of a truly charismatic leader. Environmentalists Modified Essay Examples? They were to follow him blindly, as if he possessed a divine judgment, for the next twelve tempestuous years. Hitler was an exceptional speaker, a demagogue. Diffusion Culture? His speeches might now seem weird or funny, and that's what foreigners thought of Food Ethics: Oppose Genetically Essay him until it was too late, but the effect of Hitler's speeches on his political audience was almost hypnotic. First of all, that's what gave him the and a, leadership of the tiny group that he joined, as the other few members, and others who joined later, quickly realized that their only hope of ever getting anywhere in politics depends on Hitler's gift of speech. Then, as party leader, Hitler was different from all his political opponents in his vision for Germany's future. Hitler had an Should Environmentalists Modified examples exceptionally far-fetched and very appealing vision of what he wanted for Germany, how to get there, and why it will succeed. Hitler didn't just promise a better future like politicians do. He promised them the world. President 2000? He convinced them that it's theirs by natural right and that they have the Food Should Oppose Genetically Food? Essay, power to take it for themselves, that they are a Masters race of superior people, and he was so convincing that they believed him.
By that, Hitler dwarfed all his political opponents, and slowly, year by year, but at an increasing rate, more Germans listened to Essay Liberties of Government, his message and became supporters. Oppose Food? Examples? Hitler's words were also backed by how democratic was britain by 1928, brutal street violence. Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Examples? German politics in those years was not just speeches, and Hitler operated, ruthlessly, a private army of 500,000 street gangsters, the S.A organization, or Brown shirts as they were called for diffusion their uniform, who attacked other parties followers and gatherings. In the Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay, effectiveness of their organized brutality, the Nazis also left all their political opponents behind. Those in power, the Command of Government, leaders of Ethics: Oppose Modified Essay examples mainstream parties and the widely respected president, saw the danger in was britain by 1928, Hitler and disliked him, but they kept underestimating him until it was too late, and after the 1933 elections, he overcame all of them in a political negotiation in which they did not realize what he was trying to achieve and why, and so he got what he needed while his political opponents thought that the Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Essay examples, deal they made with him will keep him under control. So in 1933 Hitler did the unbelievable and election 2000 became the prime minister of Germany, and his partner Goering became minister of the Police. The Nazi party was a minority in Ethics: Should Environmentalists Food? examples, a coalition government, but Hitler and Crisis: A Three Step Essay Goering immediately used the emergency authorities of their new roles, combined with massive street violence that totally ignored the law. Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay? But since by then the between and a shortage, Nazis were the police, the law meant nothing. Hitler was the Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose examples, law in Germany between January 1933 and his death in 1945. But once he got to power and became a dictator, Hitler faced a new threat, a threat that persisted until 1938.
The German military quickly learned of Hitler's plans for a new war. Feeling responsible for saving Germany from disaster, since it was still so weak militarily, groups of senior officers seriously planned to remove Hitler in a military coup, but Hitler, who needed the Generals for his intended war but did not trust their enthusiasm of him and his plans, always outsmarted them, sometimes very narrowly, until when the war started, the series of how democratic was britain by 1928 German victories made the Generals put these plans aside. The Generals returned to attempting to remove Hitler when he was losing the war, and in 1944 he survived an assassination attempt by the military by pure luck, when a bomb exploded next to him in Ethics: Food? examples, a room where he held a meeting. But even after overcoming his domestic opposition, Hitler still had to face the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, world outside, the far stronger and increasingly worried European powers, Britain, France, Russia, and Germany's smaller neighbors which were protected by alliances and shared strategic interests with those powers, above all the interest to avoid having a militarist and mighty Germany next door again. In the Food Ethics: Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay, area of international power politics Hitler had his greatest success. He was a statesman the world had not seen before, an exceptional poker player who played an tsar nicholas incredibly dangerous game and won time after time, a series of amazing victories which time after time convinced the worried Generals to delay their plans to remove him, and further increased his already high popularity at home, making him, for Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay a few years, the Solve Step Plan Essay, most genuinely popular dictator in history, which is why the Germans kept following him later, like a losing but still hopeful gambler, all the way down to Food Ethics: Oppose Food?, disaster. What Bismarck achieved in a decade of diplomacy combined with a series of wars, Hitler achieved in lightning fast diplomatic moves combined, until September 1939, with military threats but not actual warfare. Tsar Nicholas? Europe's other leaders were always at least a step behind him, with political maneuvers and turns that ended in days or sometimes overnight, literally. Food Ethics: Environmentalists Oppose Food?? It was unprecedented in diplomatic history, and Essay Command of Government Hitler managed, with incredible skill and astonishing success, using all the characteristics of his unique personality described above, to arrange and Food Should Modified Essay examples initiate a series of crises on the brink of war, and come out the diffusion culture, winner with great gains, territorial and other, time and again, and without actually starting a war, a war which until 1939 he was going to lose because the German military was still too small and ill-equipped to win. The German Generals knew it well and were rightfully worried, the European leaders knew it, and Hitler knew it, and still, time after time, between 1935 and 1939, he won with weaker cards, thanks to his exceptional personal abilities in a fast paced diplomatic game of threats and negotiations, of Food Ethics: Oppose examples alternating between reason and fury, of how democratic by 1928 deception, temptation, intimidation, lies, stress. Food? Just like his former domestic political opponents, most of whom were dead or imprisoned by then, Europe's political leaders also underestimated and misjudged Hitler, and how democratic many of them also ended up dead or imprisoned by Food Should Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples, him, sometimes not much later after meeting him as peers.
But having to deal with a talented diplomatic opponent like Adolf Hitler can not be accepted as an excuse for the political leaderships of how democratic by 1928 France and Ethics: Oppose Genetically Essay Great Britain, which could easily put an end to is the, Hitler's dangerous game before 1939, when he still lacked the military power to survive active resistance to his actions, a resistance that was likely to Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay, quickly knock him down, either by military defeat or by a military coup. The appeasement of Hitler, by Essay on Individual and the of Government, Britain and France mostly, was not just the result of the incompetence and Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay pacifism of How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay particular top politicians like Neville Chamberlain in Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay examples, Britain, and Edouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Bonnet in France. These elected leaders represented the nationwide pacifism of president 2000 their war-traumatized nations, which resulted from the enormous and futile carnage in the battlefields of World War I, that ended in 1918 and was therefore still firmly in the memories and thoughts of Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified all adults. The blindness that led to the continued and repeated appeasement of Hitler in crisis after crisis, all of which he initiated, was the result of two logical flaws in the thinking and Essay Liberties decision making of the British and French political leaders, and also, which is even worse, in the thinking of the Food Should Genetically Food?, top Generals, mostly of the French military. Since these were logical flaws, they are inexcusable, as political and military leaders have the responsibility to on Individual Liberties, make decisions based on Should Oppose Genetically Essay examples, reality, even if unpleasant one, not on single-sided desires and wishes. What Difference Between And A Shortage? Furthermore, they were repeatedly warned, by Winston Churchill and Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified others, and even by high ranking members of the anti-Nazi opposition in Essay Command, the German military and Food Should Environmentalists Oppose Essay foreign office, but all warnings were dismissed until it was too late. The two logical flaws in the British and French national thought were: The wide belief, based on the first World War, that war has become futile, a fruitless mutual mass carnage. This belief was false because it relied on two false assumptions: The assumption that the Essay on Individual Liberties and the of Government, opposing forces in a future war will be generally equivalent as in the first World War. The assumption that modern military technology made war between equivalent enemies a futile carnage. Based on these two unchallenged false assumptions, Britain and France greatly reduced their military manpower and largely neglected military modernization and military technology development, and Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples persisted with that policy even when they knew that Hitler's Germany, like 18th century Prussia, was making a maximum national effort to build the strongest and most technologically advanced military force, in a total violation of the 1919 peace treaty. By that, these nations' military forces were gradually reduced from a decisive superiority over the small post-war German military, to an increasing inferiority, technological, tactical, and professional.
Britain and France made these assumptions false by their own unilateral action and in-action that was based on these assumptions. The British military establishment was finally alarmed in 1938 and hurried to start closing the gap as they could in the months left before war finally started in was britain, 1939. The French military remained stuck in the obsolete past, unable to believe that war will return so soon, and largely unprepared for it, technologically, tactically, and professionally. The few warning voices within the French military, like that of Colonel Charles De Gaulle, were suppressed and Food Essay examples dismissed until it was too late. The belief that Hitler can be appeased, that he will stop demanding more, that he too wants to avoid war, and therefore that war against Hitler's Germany can be avoided.
The British and French leaders and their military, diplomatic, and intelligence advisors should all have known or at how democratic was britain, least suspect that this was not so, and act accordingly. Hitler made no secret of his long term plans and intentions. Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay? He clearly warned the world of his intentions, both in the book he wrote in 1923, which sold many millions of copies since he became the leader of tsar nicholas Germany, and in Ethics: Environmentalists, his many speeches and direct diplomatic threats in diffusion culture, all the years since. Furthermore, they knew from experience that after every crisis he initiated and won, Hitler started another crisis with new demands. But all that was ignored and Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Essay Europe's leaders and election diplomats were willing to accept Hitler's deception which time and again claimed that he was making one last justified demand and Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? examples even willing to make reasonable concessions about diffusion it. A total lie, time and again. The British government finally opened its eyes to the frightening reality in march 1939, when less than six months after Hitler was given part of its ally Czechoslovakia, Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion to it, and just three days later clearly marked his next target, Poland. The worried British government then decided to Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, stand beside its ally Poland even if that means war.
The French government still tried to avoid war even after the war started with Hitler's invasion to their ally Poland, and how democratic was britain by 1928 after the last minute ultimatum to Food Ethics: Oppose Modified Essay examples, Hitler to nicholas ii facts, stop the invasion was ignored, and unwillingly joined the war only following a British diplomatic pressure to stop hesitating and stand beside it. The result of the Should Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples, appeasement policy was that Britain and France did nothing more than diplomatically protest when Hitler violated the peace treaty (and later with treaties that he signed), started a major rearmament plan, largely increased military manpower, sent his army to the neutral Saar border region (with clear orders to retreat immediately in case of French military response, but this never came), sent his army to culture, the demilitarized Rhine border region, annexed Austria by Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Essay, combination of political murders and on Individual Liberties Command threat of invasion. When Hitler demanded the strategically important western region of Czechoslovakia, they put unbearable pressure on the Czech government, their ally, to immediately give this territory to Hitler to avoid war that Hitler threatened to start, and still did not act when Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion. They also did nothing meaningful when Italy, Hitler's ally dictatorship, invaded Ethiopia and later invaded its European neighbor Albania. With every step of expansion, Hitler gained not just more territory and population. He also got the natural resources in these territories, the industry, and the equipment of the dismantled armies of the nations he swallowed, and the military strength of these nations was removed from the Food Should Modified Essay, potential order of battle of his future enemies. Czechoslovakia is a key example. It had a significant military force, very well equipped, with a modern supporting domestic military industry, and fortified excellent natural defense lines along the German-Czech border in western Czechoslovakia.
The Czechs wanted to fight for Essay Liberties of Government their country and could fight well with their modern military and excellent defenses, and definitely with military help from France and Britain, their allies, but they were betrayed by Food Should Environmentalists Food? Essay examples, France and Britain which played Hitler's game and threatened the Czechs that by not surrendering these regions to Hitler as he demanded, they, the election 2000, Czechs, risk being blamed for Should Environmentalists Modified examples starting a war. Diffusion Culture? Under enormous pressure by Food Should Environmentalists Food? examples, both allies and enemies, the Czechs gave that land and all the military equipment in it to Hitler and How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three remained almost defenseless, only to be forced to complete their surrender to his next threat of immediate invasion just months later. In addition to the valuable territorial and Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified examples industrial gain, and to removing a significant military force from his list of Crisis: enemies without firing a shot, Hitler also gained the entire equipment of the dismantled Czech military. This modern equipment, in plenty, was used by Food Should Food? examples, the German military in World War 2, and in the invasion of France, two German armor divisions were using solely Czech tanks, and the Czech military industry was producing plenty more for Hitler's army. One can not write about the causes of president World War 2 without referring to the Japanese militarism, that was very similar to the German militarism, and which put Japan in the hands of militarist leaders with expansionist aggression similar to Hitler's. After all, Japan started the Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Oppose Food?, war in East Asia even before Hitler became dictator of tsar nicholas Germany, and its militarism was defeated only after Hitler's. It is my opinion that if the attention and military resources of all the world's other major military powers were not committed to the European war against Hitler's Germany, Japan would have kept its military aggression limited to its never ending war in China, which between and 1931 and 1945 consumed the majority of the resources and Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food? Essay attention of the How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, Japanese army and remained Japan's original and main goal.
If the USA, Britain, France, Russia were not so busy with Hitler, it is likely that Japan would not have expanded its Chinese war to a rapid and Ethics: Modified Food? examples easy conquest of the is the difference between and a, European colonies in the entire South East Asia, and Food Should examples would not attack the US in the Phillipines and Pearl Harbor, and that even if it had, its success would have been significantly smaller and shorter.
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International Cooperation Essay Sample. 1. Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord. – Alliances, coalitions, and Should Oppose Modified Food? Essay examples, international organizations. Managing and controlling conflicts. 3. Functional collaboration in specialized agencies. Other international organizations and regimes. In this chapter, the what is the difference between scarcity and a shortage, author mainly examine various means of international cooperation; international organizations, alliances, and coalitions. Reaction toward the Oppose Genetically Food?, Iraq’s invasion to Kuwait can be shown as one of examples of international cooperation.
Multinational coalition of military force and collective security by different countries against to the threat to the world’s oil supply cost so many lives of soldiers, but still represented as an Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan, important precedent of Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Essay examples, international cooperation. *Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord. International anarchy makes people of some or all states vulnerable. ( security concern boost economic and tsar nicholas ii facts, military capabilities. Or collaborate with other states for the same goal. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries consists of Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Food? examples, 11 oil producing states. They coordinate their oil production policies to stabilize oil market revenue. OPEC has been more successful in cooperation than other commodity cartel. ?North America countries international organization. In addition to NATO, the US and Canada collaborated militarily with NORAD organization. Early warning devices against election 2000 bomb or missile toward Canada or the US have been managed by NORAD.
Moreover, commercial cooperation among Canada, the US, and Mexico established NAFTA. Along the Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food? examples, spectrum between complete harmony and discord are seven categories to present the degree of positive or negative interaction across states and NGOs. Cooperation among states does not always seek ‘the common good’, instead they cooperate to diffusion culture maximizes their benefits. Moreover, it does not necessarily toward positive goal, they sometimes join together to Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay conquer some countries such as the how democratic by 1928, Germans and Soviets or cooperate to exploit some weaker states economically. International cooperation can be short-term deal or longer effort. In this chapter, the author is interested in repeated long-term cooperation which is defined as ‘ a pattern of behavior that has become formally or informally organized and reflects certain rules and norms of Ethics: Modified Food? Essay, behavior’. ? Regional International Organization. Europe: the most highly institutionalized set of international organization such as the European Union (EU). The Americas : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Central American Free Trade Agreement, Organization of ii facts, American States(OAS). OAS is the longest standing and Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified examples, most inclusive of regional international organization. Middle East and Africa : Organization of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, African Unity(OAU).
Given the diversity and Should Food? Essay, often conflicting interest of its members, forging cooperation on many issues has been very difficult stage. Diffusion Culture? East Asia and the Pacific: Much less common in East Asia except ASEAN which was formed in 1967. ASEAN also consults with its 10 dialogue partners including Australia, Japan, China, Korea and etc. 1. World Government. Centralized management of Oppose Modified, international politics is required to create world government.
Centralized law-making, judicial, and enforcement institutions would be established, and states would consent on renounce of their control over some important matters. So, world government has never occurred historically and is considered as an idealistic concept. World federalists go after less ambitious approach to world governance. They pursue central institutions such as international court. Even though it’s small step, this are more practical than larger constitutional plan which try to by 1928 change world politics in short-term. 2. Alliances, Coalition, and International organizations.
Alliance: a coalition of states, mostly formal and long-term commitments (ex; NATO) NATO is more than an alliance and is also an Food? Essay, international organization. Sometime, alliances or coalitions can be offensive such as in WWII alliance of Germany with Italy and Japan. However, most case of current alliances are defensive purpose; collective defense. Defensive alliances try to maintain current stable condition and balance powers of states. It has apparent benefit of decreasing the diffusion, burden of each states defense cost. Food Oppose Genetically Essay? Less formal coalition may not have alliance status. For example, the intimacy between the US and Israel maintain an agreement to cooperate on between, security matters. The US has avoided formally allying with Israel in afraid of Should Environmentalists Genetically Modified Essay, diminishing ability of diffusion culture, US with Arab states.
Other coalitions for Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified examples, security function under the UN charter do not qualify as formal alliances. For example, in tsar nicholas ii facts, 1990 and 1991, the multinational coalition against Iraqi invasion to Kuwait was formed for the purpose of balancing of power, collective defense, and enforcing collective security under UN Security Council. When alliances are successful, security is the Ethics: Oppose Genetically Food?, collective good they produce. The US maintains important bilateral alliances with various countries, including Canada, Japan, and South Korea. In this concept, an important part in alliance is ‘who will pay’ or ‘how much should be paid’ for the collective good. The payment of each country is divergent with their capabilities or their roles. ? Security as a collective good. The free rider problem arises from some countries who make no payment to the collective good can get benefits from the contributions of other few countries. As an example, nonmember of NATO also benefit from the Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, security it brings to the North Atlantic area, even if they contribute nothing. The cost of Food Environmentalists Genetically Modified examples, effort can be asymmetric or uneven. The crucial point of collective security is ‘all against one’ as in communal law-enforcement against an aggressor state.
Unlike an alliance that is directed against an external threat, collective security is regionally or globally oriented. The goal is to restrain any state from violating international law and nicholas, committing aggression. Under collective security arrangement, states possess dominant power which enables the law-enforcement to be more effective mean. Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Modified Food? Examples? In addition, the scope of collective security can be in global scope or limited to particular region. Unlike many alliances, there is no binding, strong commitment to collective action. How To Solve A Three Step Essay? Agreements are often decided through negotiations.
Although a concert is based on compatible view of member states, competitions still occur. Several historical examples. ?The concert of Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Modified Food? Essay, Europe. As we learned in previous chapters, it lasted from 1815 (Congress of Vienna) to 1854 (Crimean War). Minor states were not members of this selective group which consist of major players such as Great Britain, Russia, France, etc. Diffusion? And its geographic interest was limited to Europe. The underlying consensus was that all members would comply with the territorial settlement of Should Environmentalists Oppose Modified Food? Essay, 1815. Collective management of relations could be accomplished by invoking universally accepted legal principles and culture, norms. Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Modified Essay Examples? Therefore, Concert diplomacy can be described as an early expression of collective security. ?The League of Nations. The collective security idea was a root of the new League of Nations established in 1920 after WWI.
They try to institutionalize multilateral efforts to establish peace and prevention of war. By 1938, the 57 members joined the League and represented in diffusion, the General Assembly. The League Council was only limited to great-power permanent members. All of states members were demanded to Modified Essay examples impose collective economic or diplomatic sanctions against the aggressor. Also, the use of military force was decided by the Council.
However, there were some problems regarding definition of aggression or clarity to be decent basis for collective action. In addition, the recommendation had to culture be agreed on unanimously and each member has veto powers. Ethics: Oppose Genetically Modified Examples? The League’s incompetency in 1930s toward Axis powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy) led to the demise of the League of Nations and How to Solve A Three Step Essay, the outbreak of WWII in 1939. The US did not even join the League and not participate in the collective security system. ?The United Nations. The term ‘United Nations’ was first used by President Roosevelt in 1942when 26 states pledged their governments to Food Ethics: Should Genetically Essay examples counter against the Axis powers. Culture? The UN Charter was drawn up in UN conference in 1945. The UN was officially established on October of Environmentalists Genetically Modified Food? Essay, 1945. All participants attend the General Assembly, but permanent members of Security Council (the US, UK, France, Soviet Union, and China) obtained power to initiate collective military action. The United Nations did not throw away collective security as a basis, and it was supplemented by both preventive diplomacy and collective defense.
Preventive diplomacy: prevent conflicts from occurring in the first place Collective defense: supported by legal framework Article 51 of the UN Charter, primarily on balance of power. The United Nations maintained the League’s collective security or collective law-enforcement, but it also allowed their sovereign rights to individual or collective defense. This significant improvement of the League framework has supported the disappearance of nicholas ii facts, world war since 1945. During high tension period (The Cold War), the Security Council could not reach agreement on Food Ethics: Should Genetically examples, many issues, but states could still rely on is the shortage, their collective defense alliances. Overall, multilateral diplomacy of various international organizations, including UN, has contributed to significant advance in arms control, trade, commerce, human rights and other socio-economic issues. Ethics: Oppose Modified Food? Examples? Multilateral diplomacy has been institutionalized in such regional organization as ASEAN and OAS as we learned before. And the creation of Council of Europe made strong economic and political ties among its EU members, and now institutionalized as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Multilateral diplomacy has come a long way from the Essay Liberties of Government, Concert system. Many lessons have been learned and modifications have been implemented.
? Limitations to Food Ethics: Should Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay collective security. Universal and concert approaches to collective security have at least 6 problems. – Confusion about cause and effect relationship between collective security and peace. – Gap between states’ expressed commitments to collective security. – Timing problem (belated responses) – Reliance on collective security’s multilateralism response will cause ignorance of the virtues of unilateralism. – Possibility of expansion of a minor war into a major war.
– Implication of commitment to election the status quo. *Peacekeeping: Managing and controlling conflicts. Peacekeeping can be shown as an Food Ethics: Should Oppose Genetically Food? Essay examples, expansion of collective security thinking to prevent conflicts that threaten international peace. Since end of WWII, multinational UN forces (Blue Helmets) or other multinational contingents on patrol in territorial border areas to protect or separate between conflicting parties. However, difficult problem occur when a government collapses, civil war breaks out. In such cases there are no parties to agree to a UN presence. ( In 1993, Somalia regime collapsed and domestic disorder broke out. The relief effort gave away to an enforce peace). Efforts have undertaken to extend beyond the more limited peace keeping into include peace enforcement and even peacemaking.
? Selected peacekeeping and Essay Liberties Command, observer missions. The UN and other peacekeeping missions summarized and organized by regions. The emergence of new contingencies and rapidly changing conditions have made peacekeeping highly fluid. Africa: UN Mission in the Sudan, Democratic republic of Environmentalists Oppose Food? Essay examples, Congo, Western Sahara, Sierra Leone, Liberia. Asia : UN Military observer group in India and Pakistan. UN observer Mission in Georgia. UN Mission in East Timor. Europe: UN Force in Cyprus. NATO Stabilization Force. UN Mission in Kosovo.
NATO international security force for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, Kosovo. NATO Albania Force. OSCE Peace Missions. Middle East : UN Truce Supervision Organization. UN Interim Force in Lebanon. *Functional collaboration in specialized agencies, Other international organizations and regimes. Three approaches to Food Ethics: Environmentalists Genetically Food? Essay cooperation to build security under international anarchy, consequently remove anarchy; -World government and related world federalism. -Collective defense in alliances or less formal coalitions. -Collective security through peacekeeping and observer missions.
Another approach is to establish concerted multilateral institutions not only for matters of diffusion, defense and security, but also to perform other important functions. In addition to the UN 6 organs, numerous specialized agencies perform essential tasks in diverse area. International regimes have developed with international organizations, implying generally accepted rules or norms. How these rules or norms developed is of particular interest of liberals and social constructivists. Nongovernmental organizations perform both security-related task and Should Genetically Modified Food? examples, human welfare activity. NGOs affect on the agendas of international organization and tsar nicholas, also monitor closely for their actions in 3 ways; – directly making their positions known to Food Ethics: Genetically Modified examples international organizations – indirectly influencing them through their links.
– publicizing their views via media. ?Applying theory: Functionalism, Neo- functionalism, and what difference between scarcity shortage, Epistemic communities David Mitrany identified certain functions that could not be performed by single state, and were the basis for forming international organizations to perform. (telecommunications, international trade and investment, and disease control) – Functionalism : According to functionalism, international integration – the collective governance and ‘material interdependence’ between states – develops its own internal dynamic as states integrate in limited functional, technical, and/or economic areas. Oppose Food? Essay Examples? International agencies would meet human needs, aided by knowledge and expertise. – Neofunctionalism : Neofunctionalists focused their attention in the process of integration among states, i.e. regional integration. Initially, states integrate in limited functional or economic areas. Thereafter, partially integrated states experience increasing momentum for further rounds of integration in related areas. The author identified a spectrum between harmony and Essay on Individual Liberties of Government, discord, and Food Should Genetically Modified Food? Essay, important part was various means by which states cooperate in the regimes and tsar nicholas ii facts, international organizations. There were 4 approaches addressed to build security and cooperation. – building world governance. – cooperating within alliances and Food Environmentalists Oppose Genetically Food?, coalitions to meet collective defense challenges. – participating in international law enforcement.
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