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bt one business plan Sorry to read about the confusion. Of Acupuncture Essay. I have looked into this for you. Basically for the Unlimited calls package, it is unique individual ?15.00 per line/channel so if you wished to have this call package on the 15 lines/channels you would have to pay for 15 call packages. If you have the call package on Types of Acupuncture, one line the call minutes are only for that one line and are non transferable. Hope this has cleared this up for you. BT Forum Moderator.

Can you clarify that the unlimited allowance is or is not shared between the channels? I.e. most calls will be made on channels 1 2 and very likely to go over 5000 minutes. This is what I wanted clarifying as I have had BT local Business tell me it is people history shared between all the channels I have 1-15 making 75,000 minutes (well 70,500 as this is deducted from the total) of 01,02,03,08 numbers and 4,500 minutes of Mobiles (excluding 3G and Dolphin) However BT Business have told me that is NOT shared between the channels and Types of Acupuncture, they are PER LINE, making 4,700 minutes and of business, 300 minutes respectively per Line. As you quite rightly point out most of our calls will be Lines 1-6 maximum as this is how most Telephone Systems are programmed and of Acupuncture, so on that basis it would not be worthwhile changing from my existing supplier. I am told by unique individual a friend that BT Local Business do not care whatever they tell you as they do not bill you - it becomes BT Business problem from The Different, a billing point of view and I do not want to be tied into a 2 year contract without complete clarification (T's and C's from james baldwin short stories, BT which I cannot find anywhere) I feel there is The Different of Acupuncture a lack of clarity from nhs essays, BT and is further confused on this forum as Tracey a BT Forum Moderator is quoted below.

Sorry to Types of Acupuncture read about the confusion. I have looked into this for sample you. Basically for the Unlimited calls package, it is ?15.00 per line/channel so if you wished to have this call package on The Different, the 15 lines/channels you would have to pay for 15 call packages. Of Business Organisation. If you have the call package on one line the call minutes are only for that one line and The Different Types, are non transferable. Hope this has cleared this up for you. BT Forum Moderator. This reads to me that the inclusive plan is PER LINE or CHANNEL although not conclusively and yet in a forum post further up the digging analysis page Chris3p who is of Acupuncture a BT Partner states the following.

I should also mention that the Unlimited deal is ohio vs mapp subject to a Fair Usage Policy. This translates to 5,000 fixed line and international minutes per The Different Types, month and 300 fixed line to mobile minutes. If you have the package on a multi-line installation (using the example I made in my post above) this allowance is digging analysis multiplied by the number of subscriptions you have e.g. 20,000 fixed and international minutes and 1,200 fixed to mobile minutes. I would just like someone to point me to the Terms and Conditions that define exactly what the situation is - Are these minutes per The Different Types Essay, Line/Channel and billed as that or shared over the Lines/Channels the james customer has. Any help would be appreciated. Hope this clarifies. The shared minutes depend on the type of lines you are using (individual or Auxillary) Are the 500 free minutes, and the Unlimited Calls Packages, line based, or shared by of Acupuncture site or customer level? The Free Minutes and the Unlimited Calls Packages are applied per line or installation (where applicable) and are not. transferable to other lines outside of that installation. Every eligible fixed line in the customer’s One Plan Inclusive inventory receives the 500 Free minutes.

The Unlimited. Calls Package is opt in and has to digging be taken at “installation level” – so all lines sharing the same telephone number. (auxiliary lines) must also take the Unlimited Calls Package and pay the Unlimited Calls Package charge. The Unlimited Calls Package has to The Different of Acupuncture Essay be taken at installation level - so all lines/channels sharing the same telephone number (auxiliary lines) have to take a package and pay the fee. However, monitoring of the Fair Use Policy is also at installation level. Each calendar month BT adds together the allowance per line in ohio vs mapp, the installation (“total allowance”) and the usage across all the lines in the installation (“total usage”). Where the total usage exceeds the Types of Acupuncture Essay total allowance BT will commence charging for additional calls on all lines in baldwin, the installation from the next calendar day. Keeping the maths simple - if I had three lines (1 + 2 aux) on a ?500 One Plan Inclusive and wanted to The Different Types Essay take the Unlimited Calls Package: I'd have to have 1 per ohio vs mapp, line = 3 and pay 3 x ?15 = ?45 per month Fair Use Policy allows up to 5000 inland/idd fixed minutes and 300 f2m minutes This gives me 15,000 inland/idd mins and 900 f2m mins across my installation (3 lines) per Essay, month It does not matter whether each line uses them equally, or one line uses all of them. So line 1 could exceed 5000 inland/idd minutes but would not be charged for additional calls if the sample total for the installation had not reached 15,000.

This is not the same if I had 3 separate telephone lines, on separate numbers/installations: In this instance I could pick whether to have packages on any line but would not have to have on all three if I did not want to Fair Use Policy allows up to 5000 inland/idd fixed minutes and 300 f2m minutes - but this is measured at installation level, so in The Different Types, this example it applies on a line by line basis (there is no pooling) If any individual line/installation with an Unlimited Calls Package exceed the sample Fair Use Policy they would be charged from the next calendar day - even if other lines/installations had not reached their FUP. Happy to speak to ypu directly if required. PM your contcat information and I will 'phone you. We offer a range of calling plans that give you great savings on your calls. We have a plan to The Different Essay suit your needs whether you have just a land line or you have a range of services with BT.

Choose from one of the options below to see which calling plan is best for your business. Want to ohio vs mapp get-on Google's first page and loads of traffic to. your website? Hire a SEO Specialist from Ocean Groups.

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The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay

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Mrs. Murchison#039;s 8th Grade Science and Biology Classes. Monday : Memorial Holiday: No School. Tuesday: Work on Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Wednesday: Work on Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Thursday: Work on Final Exam Review or the The Different Types “540 Final Exam Project” Friday: Work on Final Exam Review or the “540 Final Exam Project” Monday: Complete your PSA’s in Lab #5.

Presentations start tomorrow. Tuesday: PSA Presentations. Wednesday: Complete PSA Presentations. German History. Intro to Project 540. PLEASE USE THE PROJECT 540 PPT TO REVIEW THE REQUIREMENTS OF THIS PROJECT AND DUE DATE. USE IT ALSO TO SIGN UP FOR A PRESENTATION TIME SLOT.

USE to of Acupuncture get into the sign up sheet. Thursday: Project 540 (in class project). Final Exam Review uploaded below: Hard copies will be handed out today. Week of April 15, 2013 – April 19, 2013: Monday: Depending on the Oceans. Students do notes over our dependence on Oceans. Read the following article on Artificial Reefs: Review th PPY on Reefs below: Read Chapter 14, Sec 3, 4, 5 of unique individual, 8th grade textbook and do end of Sec Review Questions for homework for Sec 3 and of Acupuncture, 5. Read only about Artificial Reefs in sec 4.

Tuesday: Review for Living Systems and Environment Test. Wednesday: Test: Living Systems and the Environment. Friday: Plant Trees for Earth Week. Week of April 8, 2013 – April 12, 2012: Monday: Modeling Food Webs. Students create a Human Food Web. Wednesday: Habitat 101: L.A.N.D.S.

Activity. Receive and go over 8th Grade Science STAAR Reference Review Packet. STAAR Science Test: April 24, 2013. Thursday: Activty: Changing Populations. Students explore how long and short term environmental changes have affected organisms and traits in unique, subsequent populations. Read Chapter 14, Sec 3, “Life at the Ocean’s Edge” and complete the Sec Review Questions, p. 493. Read Chapter 14, Sec 4, “Coral Reefs,”pp. 496-497. Read Chapter 14, Sec 5, “Resources from the Ocean” and complete Sec Review Questions, p. 506. DUE FRIDAY.

Friday: 1. Go over homework questions. Do Activity: “Depending on Oceans”: Students explore human dependence on ocean systems and how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of of Acupuncture, resources have modified these systems. Finish the article for homework if not finished in class and analysis, list the advantages and diadvantages of The Different Types of Acupuncture, artificial reefs. Week of April 1, 2013 – April 5, 2013: Monday: Correct Chemistry Tests in class.

Living Systems and teh Environment (Ecology) End of Section Review Questions due FRIDAY: 6th grade textbook: Chapter 8, Sections 1 and 3 and 8th grade textbook, Chapter 18-1 and 19-3. Write each question before answering. Tuesday: No Class. Sample Nhs Essays. STAAR TESTING. Wednesday: No Class. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. STAAR TESTING. Thursday: Begin the Living Systems and the Environment Unit-Food Chains, Webs and Energy Pyramids. Friday: Modeling Food Webs. Week of March 18, 2013 – March 22, 2013: Monday: How to digging Balance a Chemical Equation. Students learn how to balance chemical equations.

Homework, “Completing Equations” Practice. The Different Essay. Handouts given in class. Tuesday: Use manipulatives to sample nhs essays identify 4 types of chemical equations: synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double-replacement. Of Acupuncture. Homework: Finish the in-class assignment, “Identifying and Balancing Chemical Equations.” Wednesday: Lab: Conservation of Mass. Hand out ohio vs mapp TEST REVIEW. UNIT TEST ON MARCH 27 OR 28 (WHICHEVER DAY YOU DO NOT ATTEND THE FIELD EXPERIENCE). Thursday: Lab: “Effect of The Different of Acupuncture, Temperature on Rate of Reaction.” Homework: Complete lab write-up if not completed in class. Friday: Lab: Silly Polymers.

Classwork: “Polymers and Composites.” Homework: Read, “Degradable Plastics” and james short stories, be ready to discuss the article on Monday. The Different Types. The article will be handed out in class. Week of February 25-March 1, 2013: Monday: In conjunction with a ppt about types organisation, Valence Shell Electrons and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, Chemical Reactivity, Students did a card sort of unique, Bohr Atomic Models to establish a pattern between th e number of valence shell electrons in Types of Acupuncture Essay, an atom and the atom’s chemical reactivity. Both are uploaded below: Tuesday: Using the of business organisation above ppt and reactivity cards, students looked for additional patterns in the periodic table and labeled their own periodic tables. Homework: Students should read Chapter 1, Sec 1 and Types of Acupuncture, 2 of the james stories textbook. Wednesday: Fluor Daniel Engineering Program in the library.

Thursday: IONS. Students taek ppt notes over Types of Acupuncture Essay, IONS and short stories, learn nmeumonics devices for remembering them. See ppt’s below. Color Coding the Periodic Table. Students will begin to color code their periodic tables and learn about each family of elements. Friday: Students will complete color coding their periodic tables. is an excellent site to explore the periodic table of elements.

Week of February 18 – February 22, 2013. Tuesday: “Cut it up” Activity. Notes: History of the Atom. Black Bottle Activity. Zoom in on the atomic structure of a cola can. The Different Types Essay. Homework: Answer the history (2) questions below and prepare to of Acupuncture turn the assignment in analysis, tomorrow, Wednesday, Feb. 20: 1.How did Rutherford use techniques similar to the black bottle methodology to help describe and discover what he could not see? 2. Additionally, what did the techniques help Rutherford discover about the atom? Wednesday: Review Rutherfor’s Gold Foil Exp. Findings. “Atomic Field” Video Clip.

Stripping Electrons Activity (see below). 021813 PPT Notes over Atomic Structure, Aromic Mass, and Atomic Number (uploaded below). The Different Of Acupuncture. HOMEWORK: DO ONLY THE 1ST PAGE OF THE WORKSHEET: “PARTS OF AN ATOM (uploaded below). Thursday: o21813 PPT Notes, Day 2 (Isotopes, Valence electrons and Bohr Models); Bohr Model Guided Practice. Ohio Vs Mapp. Pages 2 and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, 3 of “Parts of an Atom” individual practice (uploaded above).

Friday: Complete Bohr Model Notes, “Drawing Bohr Models” and last page of “Parts of an Atom.” Practice WS. for german people Homework, “Atomic Basics” WS. Week of February 11, 2013 – February 15, 2013: Monday: Newton’s 3rd Law of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, Motion: Water Bottle Rockets. Change of plans due to weather: WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO LAUNCH OUR ROCKETS UNTIL FRIDAY DUE TO RAINY/WET/COLD WEATHER. Ohio Vs Mapp. THEREFORE, Unit Test will be on Thursday, February 14, 2013. Quiz on Wednesday. Review for Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and Essay, Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and Kinetic Energy. Tuesday: Rocket Launch POSTPONED UNTIL FRIDAY. Review for Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and ohio vs mapp, Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and Kinetic Energy.

Wednesday: Unit Quiz over Force, Motion, Energy and Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantage, Potential and Kinetic Energy. JEOPARDY GAME TO REVIEW FOR UNIT TEST ON THURSDAY. Thursday: Unit TEST: Force, Motion, Energy. Week of February 4, 2013 – February 8, 2013: Monday: Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: Activity: Marshmallow Capapults. You data and analysis are due today. homework: Acceleration Problems. Unit Test Review handed out. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. Unit test date to be announced – not this week.

Tuesday: Newton’s 3rd Law of unique individual, Motion: Action/Reaction. Of Acupuncture. Begin Water bottle Rockets. Analysis. Students watch 3 short videos describing and The Different Essay, illustrating how to construct the rocket from unique individual 2 liter plastic soda bottles. Essay. Students get into groups of (4), get a rubric and analysis, “Guide to building the Rocket” and begin building their rockets. Wednesday: Continue building rockets.

Thursday: Finish building rockets. Friday: CAREER DAY ALL DAY. Week of January 28, 2013 – February 1, 2013: Monday: Speed, Velocity, Acceleration. Complete PPT, Speed and Acceleration and discuss motion graphs. Tuesday: Balanced vs Unbalanced forces. Lab: Domino Dash. Homework: CSI: Solving a CSI Murder Mystery: Due Wednesday for a grade.

Wednesday: Work to complete Domino Dash and Types, turn it in for a grade.. Wrestling to differentiate between balanced and unbalanced forces. Homework: 1. Individual. Complete the write-up for Domino Dash (turn it in on Thursday for Types of Acupuncture a grade). Short Stories. 2. Read article below: “Hidden Dangers in your Car.” Make sure you can name three events going on inside a car and The Different of Acupuncture, how each relates to one of Newton’s three Laws of Motion. Be ready to discuss and take a quiz on it on sample nhs essays, Friday. Uploaded below: Thursday: Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: “Inertia” Lab: Speedy Soccer (if we can get outside on the tennis court – weather may be an issue) or Lab: Arm Wrestling to differentiate between balanced and unbalanced forces. Go over and discuss the The Different Types Essay article, “Hidden Dangers in Your Car.” Homework: Practice Sheet: Balanced/Unbalanced Forces.

Friday: Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (F = ma). Ohio Vs Mapp. Lab: Mouse Trap Marshmallow Catapult. Build Catapult. Homework: Vector’s worksheet. Week of January 21, 2013 – January 25, 2013: Monday: MLK Day Holiday. Your Phantom TollBooth Project must be uploaded to The Different by 11:59 tonight.

I.D. #’s and passwords to join your science class are listed below: 1st Period: 5950154; science1. 2nd Period: 5950169; science2. 3rd Period: 5950194; science3. 4th Period: 5950201; science4. 6th Period: 5950205; science6. Tuesday: Force, Motion, Energy: Read Chapter 3, Sec 1: Motion, Speed, Velocity, and digging, Acceleration. Wednesday: Complete the write-up for the Speed Walking Lab done in class. Due Friday, January 25, 2013. Complete practice problem hand-out: “Determining Speed, Time, and Distance.” – Due Friday, Jan.

25, 2013. Thursday: Field Experience to TAMU and George Bush Library. Week of The Different of Acupuncture Essay, January 14, 2013 – January 18, 2013: Monday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Tuesday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Wednesday: Science Fair Project Presentations. Back to nhs essays Lab #5 to complete the Phanton TollBooth Project – due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. – Jan 21 at Types of Acupuncture Essay, 11:59 p.m. The project should be uploaded to german The map should be turned in on The Different of Acupuncture Essay, Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Thursday: Lab #5 to nhs essays complete the Phanton TollBooth Project- due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. – Jan 21 at 11:59 p.m.

The project should be uploaded to The map should be turned in on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Friday: Lab #5 to complete the Phanton TollBooth Project- due from Jan 18 at 9:00 a.m. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. – Jan 21 at types of business organisation, 11:59 p.m. The project should be uploaded to Types of Acupuncture Essay People. The map should be turned in on Tuesday, Jan 22, 2013. Week of January 7, 2013-January 11, 2013: Tuesday through Friday: Work in the Lab on of Acupuncture, the Phantom Toll Booth Project. See uploads below for german the Phantom Toll Booth Project. Science Fair Rough Drafts of The Different Types, Research Paper Due Tuesday, January 8, 2013. FINAL PROJECT DUE MONDAY, JANUARY 14, 2013.

PRESENTATIONS BEGIN ON MONDAY. (SEE YOUR PINK TIMELINE). Week of December 10, 2012 – December 14, 2012: Monday: Plate Tectonic Tests back. DAC Scores back. Papers back. Go over Ocean Currents, Weather Patterns: “Phantom Tollbooth Project in class and hand out project papers. this project will be done in class and digging analysis, final chapter copies completed at home at night, at lunch in teh computer room, or a tutorials after school. I will stay each afternoon for anyone who wants to work on Essay, the project. Unique. Due date: Monday, December 17, 2012.

HANDOUT REVIEW FOR 2012 FALL FINAL EXAM: Homework: Begin Chapter one. Tuesday: Work in lab #1 on Ocean Currents, Weather Patterns: The Phantom Toll Booth Project. Students will research the historical significance of the names of the wind belts and understand their importance in determining weather patterns STUDENTS WILL WATCH A HEAT TRANSFER VIDEO CLIP TO REVIEW HEATING OF THE ATMOSPHERE BY CONVECTION AND USE HISTORICAL INFORMATION AND MARITIME TERMINOLOGY ALONG WITH WEATHER CONCEPTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR PHANTOM TOLL BOOTH PROJECT. FINAL PROJECTS ARE DUE ON MONDAY, DECEMBER 17, 2012. Continue to work on ther Phantom Toll Booth Project in Lab #1. Homework: Complete “Types of Weather Fronts” Handout and bring to Lab #1 on Wednesday. Finish oceans/weather research and complete Chapter Two (at least one place, one antagonist and one gift). Wednesday: CAREER DAY SURVEY.

Continue to work on The Different of Acupuncture, the Phantom Toll Booth Project in Lab #1. Homework: Complete chapter 3 (at least 2 places, characters, and gifts). Thursday: Students will watch a Coriolis Video to sample nhs essays review the reason why winds and currents curve as they traverse the globe. they will continue to work on their Phantom Toll Booth Project in Lab #1. Complete chapter 4 (at least 3 places, antagonists, and Essay, gifts). Friday: Ocean Currents, Weather patterns. Students should be close to completing their Phantom Toll Booth Project. We will continue to work in unique, lab #1. Homework: Complete chapter 5 (4-5 places, antagonists, and Types, gifts). Finalize worksheets that must be turned in james baldwin, with the Essay final project. Review your check list and make sure FINAL PROJECTS ARE DUE ON MONDAY, DECEMBER 17, 2012.

Week of December 3, 2012 – December 7, 2012: Monday: In-Class Activity: The Speed of Earthquake Waves. Go over unique individual, review and go over differences in topographic maps and satellite maps. Test tomorrow over Plate Tectonics. Tuesday: Unit Test: Plate Tectonics. Wednesday: Weather Unit: Watch Phanton Toll Booth in The Different, class as a preface to the Weather Project. Thursday: PPT: The Phantom Toll Booth. Go over in class and continue to watch the video. Friday: Weather and Oceans PPT in class. Finish the Phantom Tollbooth in class. Discuss Project.

Week of November 26, 2012 – November 30, 2012: Monday: Notes: Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics: review notes done prior to the Museum Exhibition. Hand out Unit Test Review: Due Monday, December 3, 2012. Test on Tuesday, December 4, 2012, Chapter 9, Plate Tectonics. Homework: Complete: Plate Tectonics Worksheet. Due Tomorrow. Of Business. (Notes, answers and Blank Review uploaded below): Tuesday: DAC Test (District Assessment). Worksheet: Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Land Features if you did not finish it in class (due Wednesday).

Read Chapter 4, pp. 154-156, “Seismic Waves” and Chapter 9, pp. 348-349, “Faults and The Different, Faulting” – Total: 3 pages. Wednesday: In-class Activity: Modeling Faults. Powerpoint and Activity uploaded below. Homework: Read Chapter 4, pp. 154-156, “Seismic Waves” and Chapter 9, pp.

348-349, “Faults and Faulting” if you did not read them last night. Total 3 pages. Thursday: Finish In-class Activity: Modeling Faults. Do handout, “Analyzing a Model of the Interior of the Earth” Do this in-class activity when your faults model is digging analysis, completed. Friday: In-class activity, “Investigating the Speed of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, Earthquake Waves” COMPLETE YOUR REVIEW FOR TEH TEST ON TUESDAY. Week of November 5, 2012 – November 9, 2012:

Monday: COIN Career Day Survey and Preparation. How the Earth Work’s Museum Project Handouts, Choose Teams, Watch Video. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM PROJECT! Homework, “Gradients 1 Practice Problems” Notes from Friday uploaded below for your use. Tuesday: Go over Gradients 1 Practice Problems. BRING SUPPLIES FOR PROJECT. Types. Begin work on of Acupuncture Essay, Museum Projects. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in the QVMS Library.

Wednesday: BRING SUPPLIES FOR PROJECT. Digging. Work on Museum Projects. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in the QVMS Library. Thursday: Work on Museum Projects. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay. Exhibition on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 in digging, the QVMS Library. Friday: Test over Topography Maps, Gradients, Depressions, Profiles, and Scales. Week of October 22, 2012 – October 26, 2012. Monday: Unit Test: Sun, Moon, Earth System. Tuesday: Cornell Notes – Topographic Maps.

Activity A and B. The Topographic Map Notes are uploaded below for your use. They have been revised to include interval information about depressions. Please add slides 11 and 12 to your notes. Wednesday: Topographic Profile Construction and Vertical Exaggeration. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. PPT uploaded below for baldwin stories your use. Homework: Drawing Profiles. Thursday: The Contour Model Lab Activity – 3D Raised Relief Mapping.

Homework: Mt. The Different Types. St. Helens Activity. Friday: Building Topographic Maps Models. Week of ohio vs mapp, October 15, 2012 – October 19, 2012. Monday: Test on Types Essay, Monday, October 22, 2012 – Sun, Moon, Earth System. Tuesday: Test Review Uploaded Below. Sample. The review is due on October 22, 2012 for a grade:

The Sun’s Path PPT has also been uploaded for Types of Acupuncture you to nhs essays use as you study: Homework: The D-Day Invasion: When, and The Different Types, Why Then? Due on Thursday, October 18, 2012. Wednesday: Complete your D-Day homework activity. It is due Thursday. Friday: Puppet Show in class to model the Seasons, Day and german history, Night, Phases of the Moon, Tides, and Eclipses.

Week of October 8, 2012 – October 12, 2012: Monday: Your Reflective Essay about: The Reason for the Seasons is The Different Types of Acupuncture, tomorrow. I have attached the powerpoint that we went over today and sample, a link to an Angle of Insolation Review. The Different Types Essay. Use the analysis review to help you answer teh questions on the powerpoint as you study your latituesgraphs, Angle of Insolation Lab and Reason for the seasons Lab. Tuesday: Essay: Reflectiona bout Reason for the Seasons. Use the ppt above, study it, and The Different Essay, use it to answer teh questions on of business organisation, sun’s path and seasons review handout. Thursday: Modeling the phases of the Moon Activity. Friday: Determining Which Way the of Acupuncture Essay Moon Revolves Around Earth. Week of digging, September 24, 2012 – September 28, 2012.

Monday: 1. The Universe Test Review is posted here for your use. Remember, it was handed out The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay Friday, Sept. 21 in class, but you may prefer to complete a typed copy. Complete it and have your parents sign it for two bonus points on the test. It is due the day of the types of business organisation test.

2. Today’s class assignment is a Galaxy Card Sort. I have uploaded the document below: Homework: Read Chater 8, Sections 4 and 5, and complete Cornell Notes (uploaded under Week of Sept 10 -14 – Friday) See below. Tuesday: Black Hole Activity: Complete a Black Hole activity by Types of Acupuncture Essay, simulating the history formation of a Black Hole to The Different Types understand what a black hole is and unique individual, how it is created. Watch video clip: Wednesday: History of the Universe: Universe Expansion Lab (in class activity).

Homework: Study for Types of Acupuncture Essay your Universe unit test on Friday. Thursday: Jeopardy Review for history Universe Test (in class activity). Homework: STUDY FOR UNIT TEST: UNIVERSE ON TOMORROW. Friday: UNIVERSE UNIT TEST. Week of September 17, 2012 – September 21, 2012. Monday: Characteristics of the Stars – light Years. Light Years Activity Write-Up This is our lab in class today. Types Of Acupuncture. Complete the analysis questions for homework if you did not do so today in ohio vs mapp, class and Types of Acupuncture Essay, turn this lab in tomorrow.

Light Year Worksheet This is homework tonight. It is ohio vs mapp, due tomorrow. Show your work! Tuesday: Characteristic of the Stars – Parallax. Parallax Lab This lab will be done in class and The Different Types Essay, turned in on Thursday. Wednesday: Classifying Stars – HR Diagram: You will create an HR diagram in class by plotting stars according to temperature and brightness or magnitude. Homework: Read Chapter 8, Sec 3 of types of business organisation, textbook. Make sure your Cornell notes are completed for that section. Thursday: Complete your HR Diagram. The assignment is uploaded below:

Handout and warm up: Life Cycles of Stars: Star cycles Handout stars life cycle Answer these questions: 1. What will happen to our sun when it begins to die? 2. Why won’t our sun become a black hole? Friday: Black Hole Activity: Complete a Black Hole activity by The Different Types Essay, simulating the digging formation of a Black Hole to Types of Acupuncture Essay understand what a black hole is and how it is analysis, created. Homework: Read chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and Galaxies” and make sure you complete the The Different Types Essay Cornell Notes for that section. Week of September 10, 2012 – September 14, 2012. Monday: Study for your Safety and james baldwin, Scientific Method Quiz – Tomorrow.

Study the following: S.M. Notes, Measurement Worksheet, Safety Notes and Worksheets, Read the Types of Acupuncture Essay 8th grade on-line textbook, “What is Science,” pp. 10-16, Controls and Variables – Sponge Bob Worksheet. The power point is uploaded below: Wednesday: Worksheet: The Hubble Space Telescope: Friday: Chapter 8, Sec 1, Sec 2, and Sec 3 Notes uploaded below. Use the on-line textbook to analysis complete what you did not finish in class. Tuesday: Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 and Sec 2 of the 8th grade on-line textbook. Complete the The Different Essay section review questions at the end of unique, each section.

Week of August 27 – September 1, 2012. Friday is your Safety Test. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. Use the powerpoint above and your notes and handouts to unique individual study for the test. Week of Essay, March 12, 2012 – March 16, 2012: Spring Break. Your Chemistry Unit Test Review is uploaded below:

Monday, February 27, 2012: Worksheet: Finish backside of “Radioactive Elements” if not completed in class. Read Chapter 3, Section 3, pp 120-121, “Specific Heat.” Answer Sec Review #’s 3, 4, and 5, p. 121. Tuesday, February 28, 2012: Complete Specific Heat vs Atomic Structure” Graph for digging Homework. Read Chapter 1, Sec 3, “Observing Chemical Reactions.” Pp. 39-43. The Different Types. do Sec 3 Review. #’s 1-5. Wednesday, February 29, 2012: None. Thursday, March 1, 2012: Worksheet, “Physical and Chemical Changes.” Friday, March 2, 2012: Complete Cornell Notes (uploaded to my webpage) as a review of patterns of the james short stories Periodic Table including Specifc Heat and Radioactive Elements. Week of February 20, 2012 – February 24, 2012.

Monday, February 20, 2012: Study for Chemistry Test on Friday. Review uploaded below: Tuesday, February 21, 2012: Study for Test Friday. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. Practice for Element ADvertisement. Presentations start Wednesday.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012: Study for Test Friday. James. Practice Element ADvertisement. Presentations on Thursday. Thursday, February 23, 2012: Study for Test Friday. Review turn in for a grade! Friday, February 24, 2012: No Homework.

Monday, February 13, 2012: Complete the “Family Ties” Student Worksheet that is on the backside of your “Color Coding the Periodic Table” Handout. Tuesday, February 14, 2012: Using your “Color Coding the Periodic Table” Handout, complete color coding your periodic table if you have not yet done so. Wednesday, February 15, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached below). Remember, you and Types of Acupuncture Essay, your partner must contribute equally to this project. Thursday, February 16, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached above). Analysis. Remember, you and your partner must contribute equally to this project. Friday, February 17, 2012: Work on your Element ADvertising Presentation (attached above). Remember, you and your partner must contribute equally to this project. PRESENTATIONS BEGIN ON MONDAY! Monday, February 6, 2012: Read 8th grade textbook, Chapter 1, sec 2, “Periodic Table.” Complete the The Different Types Essay Review Questions, p. 37, #’ 1-4.

Complete Cornell notes on “The Periodic Table” uploaded below: Tuesday, February 7, 2012: “Analyzing Atomic Structure” Worksheet. Wednesday, February 8, 2012: Exercise, Atomic Models (at the end of your Periodic Table Basics Booklet). Element Research Links: periodic table of unique, element research links, 2012: Cornell Notes: The Periodic Table. Use the 8th grade textbook, Chapter 1, Sec 2. Friday, February 10, 2012: Mendeleev Goes to the Paint Store. Monday, January 39, 2012: Study for Force, Motion, Energy Test TOMORROW. Turm in of Acupuncture Essay, completed and signed review for two bonus points. Tuesday, January 31, 2012: Read Chapter 1, sec 1 od 8th grade textbook, “chemistry” Complete the Sec. 1 review questions, p. Ohio Vs Mapp. 28., #1-5. Wednesday, February 1, 2012: Atomic Structure Worksheet.

Finish your notes over Atomic Structure and the History of the Atom if you did not do so in Types of Acupuncture, class. Using your access login and password to ohio vs mapp the school databases, go onto unitedstreaming and watch the of Acupuncture Essay video, “Elements of chemistry: Atoms: The Building Blocks of Nature.” Take notes and bring them to school on Thursday for a quiz. Use the above URL to unique individual learn view both macro and Types Essay, micro views of an Aluminum soca can, why you do not buy dented cans of unique, food and how early settlers to this country purified their water! Thursday, February 2, 2012: Go to “Atom Builder” below and practice building the atoms that lead you to the Carbon Atom. Friday, February 3, 2012: None. Monday, January 23,2012 – Read Chapter 3, pp. 108 and 109 in the 8th grade textbbok on energy. Take notes over potential energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, the The Different Essay formula for kinetic energy (relationship between mass, velocity and sample nhs essays, kinetic energy). Tuesday, January 24, 2012 – Work on Types, the unit test review.

Unit Test over ohio vs mapp, Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. The Unit Test Review is uploaded below: Wednesday, January 25, 2012 – Work on Types, the unit test review. Types Of Business. Unit Test over Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Thursday, January 26, 2012 – Work on the unit test review. Unit Test over Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Friday, January 27, 2012 – Work on The Different of Acupuncture Essay, the unit test review. Unit Test over analysis, Force, Motion, Energy next Tuesday, January 31, 2012. Monday, January 9, 2012: Read Chapter 3, pp.104-107. complete notes: Include words like forces, unbalanced forces, balanced forces, Newton’s 1st, 2nd, 3rd Laws of Motion. The Different Types. Complete the Worksheet on the back of your “Balanced vs Unbalanced Forces” Packet called, “Balanced and Unbalanced Forces.

S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Tuesday, January 10, 2012: S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Wednesday, January 11, 2012: Read, ” Hidden Dangers in Your Car” – uploaded here, and be able to explain how these situations relate to Newton’s Law’s of Motion on german people, Thursday. Newton’s Laws PPT uploaded here for your review: Thursday, January 12, 2012: S.F.People: Work on final project. Types Of Acupuncture. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Friday, January 13, 2012 S.F.People: Work on final project. Turn it in early (this week) for a free 100 daily grade. Week of January 3, 2012 – January 6, 2012.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012 – Read Chapter 3 (8th grade textbook) pp. Ohio Vs Mapp. 102-104 (Stop at “Forces” section). Complete notes on what you have read and The Different of Acupuncture, include definitions of the following terms: Motion, Refernece Point, Speed, Velocity, and ohio vs mapp, Acceleration. Types Essay. Make sure your notes tie these ideas together. Science Fair Research Paper Rough Drafts are due Friday, January 6, 2012. Wednesday, January 4, 2012 – Complete Practice, “Determining Speed, Time and ohio vs mapp, Distance.” S.F.

Rough Drafts are due Friday. Thursday, January 5, 2012 – Rough Draft of S.F. Research Paper due TOMORROW. Today’s “Motion Graphs” Powerpoint is uploaded here for of Acupuncture Essay your review: Week of December 5, 2011 – December 9, 2011. Monday, December 5, 2011 – Read Chapter 15, Sec 4, “Predicting Weather Change.” Complete Cornell Notes on james short, the section. Cut-out the of Acupuncture Weather Map from the weather section of the newspaper (Chronicle preferred) and bring it to class tomorrow. Tuesday, December 6, 2011 – If you did not bring a weather map yesterday, cut-out the stories weather map from the newspaper (Chronicle preferred) and The Different, bring it to class tomorrow. Wednesday, December 7, 2011 – Complete the worksheet, “Weather Instruments – What do they Measure?” Begin working on your Final Exam Review. Thursday, December 8, 2911 – Work on your Final Exam Review. Friday, December 9, 2011 – Work on your Final Exam Review.

Week of unique individual, November 29, 2011 – December 2, 2011: Monday, November 28, 2011 – Complete the “Global Wind Patterns” Activity that we started in class. Tuesday, November 29, 2011 – Study for your Earth, Ocean and Weather Systems Quiz. PPT uploaded below: Thursday, December 1, 2011 – Read Chapter 14, Sec 4, “Water in the Atmosphere” and complete the Cornell Notes uploaded below:

Friday, December 2, 2011 – Read Chapter 15, Sec 1, “Air Masses and The Different Essay, Fronts” and Chapter 15, Sec 2, “Storms” and complete Cornell Notes. FINAL EXAM REVIEW UPLOADED BELOW: Week of November 14, 2011-November 18, 2011: Monday, November 14, 2011: Using the uploaded questions below, take Cornell Notes using the 6th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 1 and the 8th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 4, Sec 2. Tuesday, November 15, 2011: Go over your DAC Review to prepare for tomorrow’s DAC test. Wednesday, November 16, 2011: Take Cornell Notes on the uploaded questions below using the on-line 6th grade textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 2. Thursday, November 17, 2011: Take Cornell Notes on the uploaded questions below using the on-line 6th grade textbook, Chapter 14, Sec 3. Friday, November 18, 2011: None.

Week of November 7, 2011 – November 11, 2011. Monday, November 7, 2011: Complete the of business contour lines workshet and The Different Essay, return it Tuesday for stories a grade. Tuesday, November 8, 2011: Work on your test reviews and begin to study for your unit test on Friday. Wednesday, November 9, 2011: Work on The Different, your test eview and study for your test on short, Friday. Thursday, November 10, 2011: Work on your test review and study for your test TOMORROW. Return your signed and completed test review for 2 bonus points on the test. Friday, November 11, 2011: None. Week of October 24, 2011 – October 28, 2011. Week of October 17, and BRING BUILDING MATERIALS.

Tuesday, October 18: Work on Research – Audio-Visual Project and BRING BUILDING MATERIALS. Wednesday, October 19: Work on Research – Audio-Visual Project and BRING BUILDING MATERIALS: BUILDING OF THE INTERACTIVE MODEL STARTS TOMORROW. Thursday, October 20, 2011: Work on Research- Audio-Visual Project. BRING BUILDING MATERIALS IF YOU HAVE NOT DONE SO ALREADY. Friday, October 21, 2011: None.

Week of October 3, 2011 – October 7, 2011. Monday, October 3: Read Textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 3, pp. 326-330, “Drifting Continents”. Complete Sec 3 Review Questions, p. 330, #’s 1-4. Read Chapter 9, Sec 4, pp. Essay. 331-337, “Sea-Floor Spreading”. Complete Sec 4 Review Questions, p. 337, #’s 1-4. Tuesday, October 4: Read Textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 5, pp. 340-345, “The Theory of analysis, Plate Tectonics”.

Complete Sec 5 Review Questions, p. Types Essay. 345, #’s 1-4. Read Chapter 9, Sec 6, pp. Types Of Business. 346-353, “Changing Earth’s Surface”. Complete Sec 6 Review Questions, p. 353, #’s 1-5. Wednesday, October 5: Activity: “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Land Features” – Use the “word bank” on the back of the activity sheet and the uploaded power point below to help you complete this activity.

Thursday, October 6: Activity: Analyzing Earth’s Interior model and Analyzing “Temperatures in the Earth’s Interior” Graph – color the layers of the Earth and analyze the Essay temperature graph on nhs essays, the back of the sheet by The Different of Acupuncture Essay, answering questions 1-8 below the graph. Week of sample, September 26, 2011 – September 30, 2011. Monday, September 26: Worksheet, “What Causes Moon Phases?” TEST FRIDAY OVER SUN, EARTH, MOON SYSTEMS. Of Acupuncture Essay. YOU WILL RECEIVE YOUR REVIEW TOMORROW AND IT WILL BE UPLOADED HERE BY TUESDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for history a Grade. Tuesday, September 27, 2011: Read the 7th Grade textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 2, pp. 309-311, “Eclipses.” Know what the “Umbra” and the “Penumbra” are. Types Of Acupuncture. Work on the test review. Sun, Earth, moon System test FRIDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for a Grade. Wednesday, September 28, 2011: Using what you learned from the Compass Learning, “Eclipses” animated video and questions shown in class today and the 7th grade textbook, pp.309-311, over unique, “Eclipses,” Create a Venn Diagram and Compare and Types of Acupuncture Essay, Contrast Solar and Lunar Eclipses.

Due Tomorrow. Work on ohio vs mapp, your test review. Test on Sun, Earth, moon System on The Different Types, FRIDAY. Science Fair Participants: Topics due Thursday for a Grade. Thursday, September 29, 2011: Complete your test review. TEST TOMORROW ON SUN, EARTH, MOOM SYSTEM! FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2011: NONE.

Week of types organisation, September 19, 2011 – September 23, 2011. Monday, September 19: Read Chapter 8, Sec 5, “History of the Universe.” Take Cornell Notes, pp. 301-304. Complete Sec 5 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p.304. Tuesday, September 20: STUDY for your unit test over the “Universe” TOMORROW. Don’t forget your signed review. Turn it in for two bonus points the day of the The Different Essay test. Wednesday, September 21: NONE.

Thursday, September 22: Read Chapter 14, Sce 2, “Tides and the Lunar Cycle,” p.480-485. Complete the short Sec 2 Review Questions, p. 485, #’s 1-5. The “Tides” PPT is Types of Acupuncture Essay, uploaded below for james baldwin short stories your use when studying: Week of September 12, 2011 – September 16, 2011. Monday, September 12: Read Chapter 8, Sec 2, p. 285-289. Complete the Sec 2 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p. 289. Tuesday, September 13: Finish your Cornell notes over Sec 3, p. Types Essay. 292-296 if you did not finish in class and complete the nhs essays Sec 3 Review Questions 1-5, p. 296.

Universe Unit Test Review Uploaded below: Wednesday, September 14: Read Chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and Galaxies,” pp. 297-300. Do Cornell notes over Essay, sec 4 and complete Sec 4 Review Questions, #’s 1-4, p. 300. Thursday, September 15: Work on your Universe Test Review. The unit test will be on Wednesday, September 21. Friday, September 16: Work on your Universe Test Review. Types Of Business Organisation. The unit test will be on Wednesday, September 21. Week of September 5, 2011 – September 9, 2011: Monday, September 5, 2011: Labor Day Holiday. Tuesday, September 6, 2011 – Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 of the 8th grade textbook, pp.

274-280. Complete Sec 1 Review, #’s 1-4, p. 280. Read Chapter 8, Sec 2, pp. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. 283-289. Complete Sec 2 Review, #’s 1-4, p. 289. Digging. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Worksheet, “The Hubble Telescope” uploaded below: Wednesday, September 7, 2011 – Complete the “Emission Spectra” Worksheet if you did not complete it in class.

Uploaded below. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Thursday, September 8, 2011 – Complete “Light Year” Worksheet if you did not complete it in class. Types Of Acupuncture. Uploaded below. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011 (TOMORROW). Friday, September 9, 2011 – No Homework. YOUR 2-5-8 MENU SAFETY PROJECT IS DUE TODAY!

Monday, August 29, 201: Complete the Scientific Method Controls and Variables worksheet. Tuesday, august 30, 2011: Complete “Experimental Design” Wednesday, September 1, 2011: Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Thursday, September 2, 2011: 1. Finish the “Gum Lab” write-up and graph if you did not finish it in class. Due Tomorrow.

2. Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Friday, September 2, 2011:Work on your 2-5-8 Menu Safety Project: Due September 9, 2011. Friday: You will receive an out-of-class safety project (uploaded here and to unique gaggle BY FRIDAY). Types Of Acupuncture Essay. PLEASE PRINT THE PROJECT , CHOOSE THE PIECES THAT YOU WILL DO (MUST ADD UP TO 10 POINTS), AND BEGIN WORKING ON YOUR SAFETY PROJECT. THE DUE DATE IS SEPTEMBER 9, 2011. Thursday, August 25, 2011 – If you have not done so, pelase set up your binders, log on to the sample nhs essays on-line textbook and Gizmos, study for Essay your Safety Test tomorrow, return your Mrs. Murchison Letter, (signed acknowledgement portion), and have your parents email by tomorrow so they go on the science distribution list.

Wednesday, August 24, 2011 – Parents should email by Friday so that they are included on the science distribution list. Study for your Safety Test on Friday. Tuesday, August 23, 2011 – The Safety Powerpoint is organisation, attached below. Please use it to study for The Different Essay your Safety Test on Friday. Additionally, please return the signed acknowledgement piece from theh Mrs. Murchison Expectations Letter, have your parents email me so I can add them to my distribution list, and set up your science binder – tab titles are posted – go to the “Posts” page. Wednesday, May 25 and Thursday, May 26, 2011 – we will be studying The processes of Mitosis and Meiosis.

You will find a powerpoint below for your use: Additionally, the attached notes will be completed using the of business organisation slide show: Week of May 2, 2011- May 6, 2011. Monday – Friday: Water Quality Testing. The assignment for Monday and Tuesday, “Water Quality: Preparing to The Different Types of Acupuncture Test for It” is attached below. We will be in of business organisation, Lab 4 on Monday and Tuesday to Types of Acupuncture Essay prepare for digging analysis an authentic field experience on Friday, May 6. We will learn about Types Essay, Water Quality and what impacts it. We will also research the Oyster Creek Watershed, look at maps and analysis, determine what industrial, agricultural, and urban runoff impacts the water quality of the Creek.

We will We will investigate what the “Texas Commisssion on Environmental Quality” is doing to improve and maintain water quality in The Different Types, Oyster Creek. Once we have completed our tests and analyzed our data, we will revisit the types of business organisation commisssion to determine if enough is The Different of Acupuncture Essay, being done to ensure the digging analysis quality of Essay, water in our local waterways like Oyster Creek. Wednesday and nhs essays, Thursday: We will prepare our test kits by reading about each test and how to The Different of Acupuncture Essay perform it, and by types organisation, sorting our reagents and gathering equipment. Friday: field Experience. We will start out at a Mexican Restaurant where we will converse in Spanish and end up at Oyster Creek to do Water Quality Testing. What a great day and wonderful learning opportunity!

Week of March 28, 2011 – April 1, 2011. Monday – Friday: We will be working on The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, an Ecology project entitled, “Heredity vs Environment.” This is a 2-phase project. First, students will complete research using the Heredity vs Environment Websearch document. They will research traits and/or adaptatons in sample nhs essays, organisms and determine if heredity , the environment, or both played a role in The Different of Acupuncture, the development of the trait/adaptation. German History. They will research natural selection, look at classic examples of the Types process and investigate the reasons why organisms become endangered or extinct (both human and natural events). The second part of the unique project will require groups of 2-3 students to select one of the researched topics and create a presentation that will be delivered to the class. The due date for this project will be Tuesday, April 12. Presentations will begin that day. The Websearch Document and the Rubric for the Websearch as well as the Presentation piece are uploaded below: Week of March 7, 2011 – March 11, 2011. Monday: Read Chapter 2, Sec.1, pp.

68-75, Polymers and Composites. Complete Sec 1 Review, p. 75, #1-5. The Different Essay. Work on Test Review. Chemistry Test on Wednesday. Review uploaded below: Tuesday: Complete Test Review, have a parent sign it, and turn in on ohio vs mapp, Wednesday for 5 bonus points on test. Of Acupuncture. Test Tomorrow. Friday: None. Have a fun and german, safe Spring Break! Week of The Different Types, February 28 – March 4, 2011.

This week in science we will be in lab doing chemical reactions and james baldwin short, learning how to balance chemical equations. Monday: Reach Chapter 1, Sec 4, “Writing Chemical Equations.” do Section Review Questions, p. 53, #’s 1-5. Wednesday: “Counting Atoms” Worksheet. Thursday: “Reading An Equation” and “Balanced Equation or Not” Week of February 14 – February 19, 2011. This week we will work tocomplete our adopt-an element project. An on-line version of the project is below: Week of February 7, 2011 – February 11, 2011.

Monday: Complete the activity: “Building an Atom” Tuesday: Complete the “Atomic Structure” Worksheet. Wednesday: Read Chapter 1, Sec 2, “The Periodic Table.” Complete the Sec Review Questions, p. 37, #1-4. Thursday: Read and study the handout, “The Periodic Table of Elements.” Week of January 31, 2011 – February 4, 2011. Lab, “Law and Order” You will use a toy car and Types, ramp and collect and types organisation, record data to investigate Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. Unit Test: Force/Motion/Energy on Types of Acupuncture, Wednesday, Feb 2, 2011. Review sheet below: Tuesday: You will complete the lab activity from Monday and work on your unit test review as you prepare for the test on Wednesday.

Science Fair Participants will set up in the library. Wednesday: Unit Test: Force/Motion/Energy. Digging Analysis. SCIENCE FAIR TODAY IN TEH LIBRARY. Congratulations and Good Luck to our 21 entries. Thursday: Pre-Test: Chemistry. We begin our chemistry Unit today. Homework: Read Chapter 1, Sec 1 of 8th grade textbook, “Inside an The Different Essay, Atom” do Section 1 Review, p. 28, #1-5. Friday: Activity: Creating a Model Atom – “How Far Away are those Electrons Anyway. ” Week of 12/6/10 – 12/10/10: We will work on digging analysis, our Weather Scrapbooks everyday this week in class.

On Friday, we will take n Earth’s Oceans and Weather Systems Unit Test and continue working on our Weather Scrapbook. the Essay review for unique individual this unit test is uploaded below: The Fall Final Exam is scheduled for next week. Of Acupuncture. You will eceive a review document on Tuesday in class. I have also uploaded it here for your convenience. an updated Scrapbook Guidelines Packet has also been uploaded below. It contains example tables and german, charts for The Different Types Essay weather map analyses and predictions. Week of digging, 11/29/10 – 12/3/10: Monday: The attached Cornell Notes will be completed in the Library using the on-line textbook. Homework: Complete any notes or summary if not completed in class. BRING WEATHER MAP FOR THURSDAY’S ACTIVITY.

Tuesday: The attached “Hurricane” GIZMO will be completed in of Acupuncture Essay, the Library during class. Individual. Homework: Please complete at home if not completed in class. Due: Wednesday, Dec.1, 2010. BRING WEATHER MAP FOR THURSDAY’S ACTIVITY. Wednesday: Lab: Sling Psychrometer and calculating Humidity. Complete lab write-up for homework if not completed in class. Due: Thursday, Dec.2, 2010.


Homework: Study for Quiz tomorrow. Friday: Quiz over “Earth’s Oceans and Types of Acupuncture, Weather Systems.” WEATHER SCRAPBOOK: WE WILL BEGIN THIS 5 DAY ASSIGNMENT TODAY AND WILL WORK ON IT IN CLASS THROUGH THURSDAY, DEC. 9, 2010. ALL DOCUMENTS WILL BE UNLOADED BY THURSDAY OF THIS WEEK. German History. PLEASE WORK ON FOR HOMEWORK IF YOU FALL BEHIND. OTHERWISE, THIS IS AN IN-CLASS ASSIGNMENT. Week of 11/15/10 – 11/19/10: Monday: Complete Chapter 14, Sec 3 Review, Questions #1-4.

6th grade on-line textbook. Tuesday: Science Fair Research and Forms Due Friday. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. Work on your 5 paragraphs and citations. Analysis. forms listed on your PINK Timeline. forms found on Science Fair Page of this website in the uploaded rules and guidelines packet. Wednesday: Complete your “Global Winds Patterns” Activity and The Different Types, turn in Thursday if not completed in class. Thursday: Science Fair Research and german people history, Forms Due Friday. Types Of Acupuncture. Work on your 5 paragraphs and citations. German People. TURN IN TOMORROW. Week of Types of Acupuncture Essay, 11/8/10 – 11/12/10. Monday: Complete your Cornell Notes after Reading Chapter 14, Sec 1 – 6th grade text on-line – “Energy in james baldwin, the Atmosphere.” Answer these two questions and turn them in on Tuesday:

1. Why is the sky blue? 2. The Different. Why are sunsets often red? The following powerpoint has been uploaded for your use to complete your notes and to answer these questions: Tuesday: Finish your lab write-up and graph, Heating the Earth” Turn it in on Wednesday. Wednesday: Read Chapter 14, Sec. History. 2, “Heat Transfer” Thursday: Use the above attached powerpoint to complete your Cornell Notes on The Different, Heat Transfer if you did not complete them in class. Friday: Work on your Science Fair Research and Science Project Introduction Page that includes your 5 paragraphs of research and MLA Citations. This and forms 1A, 1B, Checklist for Adult Sponsor and Research Plan Instructions are due on Friday, November 19, 2010, for all projects that were not considered special approval projects. Week of 11/01/10 – 11/05/10.

Science Fair Research: Special Approval Forms for “special approval” projects due Wednesday, November 3, 2010. District Deadline! Complete your GIZMOS if you have not done so. Ohio Vs Mapp. As you know, the The Different Essay due date for ohio vs mapp any unfinished GIZMO’s is Monday, November 1, 2010. Unit Test (open book and notes) on Friday! Science Fair Research. Special Approval Forms for special projects due Tomorrow – district deadline. Science Fair Research.

Worksheet, “Lunar Phases” Due: Thursday. Science Fair Research. Study for your Open Book and Notes Unit Test, “Sun, Moon, Earth System” – Test Tomorrow. Science Fair Research. Week of 10/25/10 – 10/29/10. Monday: Read Chapter 14, Sec 2, “Tides and Essay, the Lunar Cycle,” PP. 480-484. Complete the Section Review, p. 485, #’s 1-5. RESEARCH YOUR SCIENCE FAIR TOPIC: DUE WEDNESDAY.

Tuesday: RESEARCH YOUR SCIENCE FAIR TOPIC AND TYPE IT UP (SEE YOUR PINK TIMELINE) DUE TOMORROW! Wednesday: SCIENCE FAIR RESEARCH. Thursday: Read and james baldwin, Review “Eclipses” in the 7th grade on-line textbook, Chapter 9, Sec 2, pp. 309-311. The Different Types Essay. SCIENCE FAIR RESEARCH. Friday: WORK ON SCIENCE FAIR FORMS OVER THE WEEKEND (SEE PINK TIMELINE AND YOUR RULES AND GUIDELINES PACKET – REMEMBER, THESE ITEMS ARE ON-LINE WITH ACCESS TO ON-LINE FORMS ON THE SCIENCE FAIR PAGE OF THIS WEBSITE). Week of 10/18/10 – 10/22/10. Monday: Debrief: The Children’s Museum of digging analysis, “How the Earth Works.” Handout: Test REVIEW – “Earth’s Forces in Nature Unit Test” The review for this test is attached below. The Different Essay. The test will be on digging, Thursday, October 21, 2010. Of Acupuncture. Return the completed review, signed by types of business, a parent or guardian, teh day of the test for 5 bonus points (3 points of completion, 2 points for The Different Types Essay parent signature). Tuesday and Wednesday: Activity: Faults and Topography.

Students complete a model depicting strike-slip, reverse, and normal faults. (Chapter 9, pp. 3348-350. Thursday: UNIT TEST: Earth’s Forces in Nature. Friday: Start new unit: Pre- test: Sun, Moon, Earth System. Week of 10/4/10 – 10/8/10. Monday: Finish Audio-Visual Presentation and work on Tri-Board. Tuesday: Finish Audio-Visual Presetnation and work on Tri-Board. Handout – “Review” for Friday’s Quiz. German People History. The review is uploaded below: Wednesday: Complete Audio-Visual Presentation and Tri-Fold Boards – grade on Thursday.

Thursday: Grade Audio-Visual Presentations and Tri-Fold Boards. The Different Types. Start on Interactive Models. Friday: 15 Question Quiz, Chapter 9. Continue working on Interactive Models. Week of 09/27/10 – 10/01/10: Monday: Work on ohio vs mapp, Research/Pictures for Audio-Visual Presentation for Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL.

Work on Research/Pictures for Audio-Visual Presentation for of Acupuncture Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive. BRING SUPPLIES FOR MUSEUM MODEL. Work on Research/Audio-Visual Presentation for digging analysis Museum Project. UPLOAD TO H:Drive.


CONSTRUCTION OF OUR MODELS STARTS ON MONDAY, 10/04/10. Audio-Visual Presentation and Tri-Fold Board: Due: October 7, 2010. Interactive Model: Due: October 14, 2010. Week of 09/20/10 – 09/24/10: Monday, 09/20/10: Read Chapter 9, Sec 5 and 6 and complete the section review questions at types, the end of each section. Due Tuesday. Do the SUMMARY for the cornell notes for The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay Chapter 9, Sec. 1, 2, 3, 4 (notes given to you today in class – you need only people history, review them and complete the summary section. Tuesday, 09/21/10: Do the SUMMARY for the cornell notes for Chapter 9, Sec 5 and 6 (notes given to you today in The Different of Acupuncture Essay, class – you need only review them and complete the james baldwin summary section.

Wednesday, 09/22/10: Work on “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Landforms Worksheet” Due Friday, 09/24/10. Thursday, 09/23/10: Complete your Museum Analysis, “What Distinguishes A Children’s Museum From Other Museums?” if not completed. Complete “Plate Boundaries and Earth’s Landforms” if not completed. Due: Friday, 09/24/10. Week of 08/30/10 – 09/03/10: Monday, 08/30/10: Read Chapter 8, Sec 1 and 2 of the on-line textbook, “Tools of Types of Acupuncture Essay, Modern Astronomy” and “Characteristics of people, Stars.” Tuesday, 08/31/10: Complete Cornell Notes begun in class for The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay Chapter 1, Sec 1. DUE: WED, 09/01/10. Thursday, 09/02/10: Complete Cornell Notes on Chapter 8, Sec 2, “Characteristics of Stars” DUE: FRI, 09/03/10. Tuesday, 09/07/10: Read and complete Cornell Notes – Chapter 8, Sec 4, “Star Systems and german history, Galaxies” Due: Wednesday, 09/08/10. Wednesday, 09/08/10: Read and complete Cornell Notes – Chapter 8, Sec 5, “History of the Universe.” Due: Thursday, 09/09/10.

Thursday, 09/09/10: Lab Activity: “H-R Diagram” Finish Diagram and Conclusion Questions if not completed in The Different Essay, class. Due: Monday, 09/13/10. Week of September 13 – September 17: Monday, September 13, 2010: Big Bang Balloon Activty. Complete your write-up for homework if you do not finish in class. Due: Tuesday. Tuesday, Septermber 14, 2010: Topographic Map Activity.

Complete the james short lab write-up for homework if you do not finish in class. Due: Wednesday. Wednesday, September 15, 2010: FINISH YOUR TEST REVIEW, HAVE IT SIGNED BY A PARENT/GUARDIAN, AND RETURN IT ON THURSDAY FOR 5 BONUS POINTS ON THE TEST. STUDY FOR YOUR “CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UNIVERSE” TEST TOMORROW! Thursday, September 16, 2010: “Characteristics of the Universe” Test. The test review was handed out to The Different of Acupuncture Essay students on Thursday, Sept. 9. German History. It has been uploaded below as well. Students receive 5 bonus points on the test for completing the review and having it signed by their parents/guardians and returned the day of the test. Homework Thursday night: Read Chapter 9, Sec 1 and 2. Complete Sec 1 Review, p. 322, #’s 1-4 and Sec 2 Review, p. 325, #’s 1-5 on a sheet of notebook paper. Due: Friday.

Friday, September 17, 2010: Read Chapter 9, Sec 3 and 4. Complete Sec 3 Review, p. Types. 330, #’s 1-4 and Sec 4 Review, p. 337, #’s 1-5 on types of business organisation, a sheet of notebook paper. Due: Monday.

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RTOS2 : question about critical region #171. The Different. Why isn't it allowed to use osThreadNew(), osThreadSuspend() and osThreadResume() in critical regions? See rtx_thread.c lines 1505, 1589 and 1599. 0xc0170 commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. Individual. @Wazalogic have you tried it to run with without these conditions? As I recall it hard-faults, as it tries to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, make svc calls. JonatanAntoni commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. Types. In case of of Acupuncture Essay RTX5 we use SVC calls to ohio vs mapp, implement this management functions, yes. Thus interrupts must not be disabled. Can you explain your use case for placing osThreadXXX calls in The Different critical regions, i.e. having interrupts globally disabled? ilg-ul commented Mar 28, 2017 #8226; edited. Nhs Essays. where are documented the critical sections in CMSIS OS2?

I asked for Essay it many times in the past, but I don't remember receiving an answer. generally speaking, the types of business, implementation of critical sections does not necessarily imply having interrupts globally disabled; on v7m devices you can set the PRIMASK. any RTOS must have clear rules on The Different Types, how to enter/exit interrupts critical sections, and the mechanism must allow unlimited nesting; similar to scheduler critical sections, the safest implementation is to read the current status and save it to a variable, disable interrupts or change PRIMASK, do the critical code, and restore the people, saved status. CMSIS++ has clearly defined functions for this: and for the C API: In my project I need to perform context switching between specific threads as follows. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. The context switching should be pending until core_util_critical_section_exit(). The interrupt serivce routine can wake up a thread, using osThreadResume(thread), and context switching should not happen if the program is in james short a critical region. any RTOS must have clear rules on of Acupuncture Essay, how to enter/exit interrupts critical sections, and the mechanism must allow unlimited nesting; similar to scheduler critical sections, the safest implementation is to read the current status and save it to a variable, disable interrupts or change PRIMASK, do the critical code, and restore the saved status. Digging Analysis. I agree. FreeRTOS also supports this behaviour. I understand that this is limited by the SVC call implementation. However, from a design perspective this limitation is a design flaw. The semantics of the API functions should allow these functions in a critical region.

Critical regions just enable pending of Types of Acupuncture context switches until the unique, end of the critical region. For example, FreeRTOS implements this semantics and it gives good control of threads. Types Of Acupuncture. This is sample nhs essays, what multithreading is about! The fact that critical regions, osThreadSuspend and osThreadResume are very dangereous to use, should be no reason to exclude or limit them. FreeRTOS also supports this behaviour. yeah, just that the implementation is The Different Types Essay, suboptimal, it uses a counter, which does not play well at all if interrupts were disabled outside their RTOS ( exit() will see the counter to be zero, and prematurely enable the interrupts). as I said, the only absolutely safe implementation is to baldwin short, save the status on Types Essay, enter() and restore it on exit() (as CMSIS++ does). Baldwin Short Stories. Critical regions just enable pending of context switches until the end of the critical region. there are two kind of critical sections, but CMSIS RTOS does not acknowledge this. there are scheduler critical sections, which prevent context switches, and interrupt critical sections, which prevent interrupts with lower priority. Types Of Acupuncture. you probably need scheduler critical sections, which, if I remember right, were finally accepted in CMSIS RTOS2. Yes.

I can probably use any of them because I keep the critical sections very very small. @0xc0170 I have disabled the critical section and the code runs ok. People. However, I need the The Different of Acupuncture Essay, critical section to prevent race conditions. despite their name, scheduler critical sections aren't that critical , at least not as critical as interrupt critical sections. of course the real-time characteristics of the RTOS are affected by any type of critical section, but I think these things are somehow manageable. Digging. ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017. can you provide a bit more information about this code section. Essay. What is behind the digging, functions: core_util_critical_section_enter() and The Different Types of Acupuncture core_util_critical_section_exit(). Can you provide the source code of that functions? Why is it important to resume context switch when you are in a critical section. I would expect that the opposite is important?

I would assume that you do not want any context switches in a critical section. Why does such a sequence not work? What is behind the functions: core_util_critical_section_enter() and people core_util_critical_section_exit(). Can you provide the source code of of Acupuncture Essay that functions? this is a good example why the code for interrupt critical sections should be in types of business organisation the RTOS public API, because applications need it, and not having it in the API leads to re-implementations in the application, most of the time inconsistent with the system. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. I came from nhs essays, mbed. I used their code base (feature_cmsis5) which is derived from ARM’S cmsis5.

They couldn’t help me and therefore they sent me here. The functions core_util_critical_section_enter() and The Different of Acupuncture Essay core_util_critical_section_exit() come from mbed_critical.c. Sorry that I didn’t mentioned it. These functions use __disable_irq() and __enable_irq() from digging analysis, rt_HAL_CM.h. I have tried these functions as well and I got same problem. The critical region should disable context switching. This is Essay, what I would expect. In my case, the osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() must be performed in sequence without context switching in between. Also, the osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() must not yield in a critical region. If this is not the case then a context switch after osThreadResume() and before osThreadSuspend() could allow another thread (e.g. the one being resumed) to sample, resume this thread that has not been suspended yet.

This is a race condition causing deadlock. FYI, the sequence ‘osThreadSuspend();osThreadResume()’ is also a possible solution, but this may perform unnecessary overhead of going through the idle state. In a critcal region both sequences shouldn't matter=should behave the same. I looked at The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay osThreadGetPriority(). It seems to me that you cannot call osThreadGetPriority() in ohio vs mapp a critical region. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. Why not? Isn’t that odd? I am missing sound semantics in the API of cmsis5. ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017. Thanks for the clarification - that was important information for us.

This does not alter the interrupt system and should be sufficient the for majority of use cases. Thanks for pointing out to osKernelLock/osKernelUnlock. However, this does not work with osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() as expected. Is it better to use osEventFlagsSet() and osEventFlagsWait() instead of resp. osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend()? How does this behave within osKernelLock/osKernelUnlock? ReinhardKeil commented Apr 3, 2017.

Here is a bit more background: As you perhaps know, RTX5 is designed to be extended with MPU protection. As such RTX functions run in ohio vs mapp handler mode (called via SVC). In an MPU protected system, most threads should run in unprivileged mode and directly enabling/disabling IRQ is impossible. Essay. We are in the process get a safety certification for RTX5 and therefore we are reluctant to james, add RTOS function that enable/disable all IRQ as this introduces also safety risk. Incorrect handling may result in a faulty system since interrupt response times become unpredictable in The Different Types other parts of the application. Using osKernelLock and osKernelUnlock allows to disable thread switching and baldwin short is usually what is The Different, needed. But I'm open to get more information of real use cases.

While IRQs are disabled, the SVC calls to RTOS are also blocked. For important RTOS functions that should be callable from IRQ functions, a special handling is ohio vs mapp, implemented, however this adds overhead. We believe that it should be not required to call osThreadGetPriority from IRQ, but again I'm open for feedback to hear about potential use cases. In general, a good design approach should minimize the code that is executed in The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay the IRQ handler itself and the RTOS helps you to digging analysis, do that. Therefore disabling all interrupts in The Different of Acupuncture Essay a system (except in the system startup phase) should be never required. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited.

Thanks again. I see, I hit the protection mechanism. I agree, we should be very careful with functions like __disable_irq() and ISRs must be short. How can I perform my code (context switching) in unprivileged mode or can I switch to privileged mode? Consider the following example. Will context switching be pending until after osKernelRestoreLock(state) ? If so, then this could solve my problem. BTW: I am not using an osThreadGetPriority() in unique individual an ISR. I wonder if this protection is Types Essay, necessary for all functions. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. Analysis. Hi @gerhil, I admit the documentation is osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() is not as the best.

What did you expect? And what did you get? I made a small Blinky example with two threads and tried to The Different Essay, alter between them using. and this works as I expect. Analysis. But as you already mentioned I would rather use some event or thread flags to realize such a functionality if it appropriate. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. I am doing the same, but there seems to be a glitch that performs a yield inside the critical region. The Different Essay. My code is unique individual, too big to post here. I try to make an example. ilg-ul commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. there seems to The Different of Acupuncture, be a glitch that performs a yield inside the critical region. an yield() inside a scheduler critical section should be harmless, the current thread should continue without any problems. on the other side, I think that an yield() inside an interrupt critical section should trigger an error. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. @ilg-ul I mean yield performed by ohio vs mapp, osThreadResume() and osThreadSuspend() inside the critical section.

Example will follow. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. The following example should perform cooperative scheduling, I would have expected ordered output. etc. I get disordered results. Preempting results. Unique. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 3, 2017. The Different Essay. @gerhil Yes, i think your example reveals the problem.

You suspend the active thread while the types organisation, scheduler is locked. Suspending a thread puts this thread to be blocked immediately. The Different. Thus osThreadSuspend(self) is not expected to return until one issues osThreadResume() for this thread. My humble opinion is you should not rely on such a design. It might be much better to make use of other thread synchronization methods under those circumstances. Did you try to solve this using thread or event flags, yet? This shows that osThreadSuspend() and osThreadResume() are incomplete. I wonder if event flags will be useful this way. What will osEventFlagsWait(…) do in a critical section?

Same as osThreadSuspend()? I agree. This is not a design I will ever be using in an application. I am using this technique for a new type of real-time kernel on top of cmsis. Have you heard of ohio vs mapp “Communicating Sequential Processes” (CSP) by Tony Hoare and Bill Roscoe? It’s a theory of programming that provides true concurrency. It’s more than a process algebra. This programming model makes parallel software a lot simpler and a lot safer. Concurrency is not multithreading and The Different Types it is not parallelism.

Also, it does not mean “same time”. Concurrency is different. I am developing a new programming model based on CSP for sample C++ (and other modern programming languages). I want to make this programming model available for the ARM processor. Currently, it works with FreeRTOS for ARM, but I want to Types of Acupuncture, make it useful with cmsis-rtos. To make this work with cmsis, I need this type of digging context switching to work. This shows that osThreadSuspend() and osThreadResume() are incomplete. what makes them incomplete? they are the primitives for building any any synchronisation primitives. I did not check the new CMSIS RTOS2 pages, perhaps they do not explain what these two functions are intended; suspend() is Types of Acupuncture, intended (or at least was intended, when I suggested them) to types organisation, remove the current thread from the running list, and resume() was intended to add the The Different Types of Acupuncture, given thread to the running list. so, what makes them incomplete? ok, this is one of the new programming models.

I'm not sure it can be implemented on top of more classical APIs. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. what makes them incomplete? they are the primitives for building any any synchronisation primitives. I mean by incomplete, their semantics in the presence of a critical section is incomplete. This discussion is also found at digging FreeRTOS. Pending context switching until the end of a critical section is a good solution and logical to the semantics of a critical section. I believe that suspend and resume are thread control functions and not synchronization primitives. Types Essay. Suspend and resume in a critical section become administrative functions.

They should not yield. Semaphores and monitors are synchronization primitives. ok, this is one of the new programming models. I'm not sure it can be implemented on top of unique individual more classical APIs. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay. I build CSP with Dijkstra’s semaphores and Hoare’s monitors. I only need a critical section and james short stories suspend and resume from the The Different Types of Acupuncture, cmsis kernel for types of business context switching. The programming model is called Waza. suspend and resume are thread control functions and not synchronization primitives. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. my statement was that they are primitives for building any synchronisation primitives, not synchronization primitives themselves. their semantics in the presence of a critical section is incomplete. the individual, semantics of scheduler critical sections is very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed inside the critical section'; if you call resume(), the thread will be added to the ready list, but, being inside the scheduler critical section, the context switch is ignored for now. however the thread was enqueued in the ready list and remains there. if you call suspend(), normally the current thread is suspended and execution continues to a thread chosen by the scheduler, but, in The Different Types a scheduler critical section, the current thread is resumed immediately (suspending another thread than the current thread should not be allowed). I thought that this behaviour is obvious and ohio vs mapp expected. what would you add to make it complete? I don't know the The Different of Acupuncture, details of the RTX implementation, but this was the original expected behaviour, and I still think it is minimal and orthogonal. BTW, in your example the nhs essays, sequence [ lock(), resume(), suspend(), unlock() ] makes not much sense; according to the above semantics, a single resume() would be enough. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. my statement was that they are primitives for building any synchronisation primitives, not synchronization primitives themselves.

Ah yes. Sorry you are right. the semantics of scheduler critical sections is The Different, very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed . I would also except the behavior you describe. My example shows a different behavior. BTW, in your example the sequence [ lock(), resume(), suspend(), unlock() ] makes not much sense; according to of business organisation, the above semantics, a single resume() would be enough. Only one thread should perform at a time. The example resumes another thread and suspends the current thread. All threads have equal priorities, Without the suspend the semantics is open for non-deterministic behavior. My example shows a different behavior. then it should be a misunderstanding in the RTX implementation. The example resumes another thread and Types of Acupuncture Essay suspends the current thread. both these actions are performed by resume(). just try to replace in digging your example the The Different Essay, scheduler critical sections with a single resume().

FYI, I did extensive studies and testing with various solutions while designing and digging implementing µOS++ / CMSIS++. actually the synchronisation objects in µOS++ are highly portable and can run on top of another scheduler, with the layered design of Essay CMSIS++ using only these two suspend()/resume() functions (I have a functional version on top of the FreeRTOS scheduler). gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. Ohio Vs Mapp. then it should be a misunderstanding in Types of Acupuncture the RTX implementation. Yes, that is the problem here. both these actions are performed by resume(). just try to ohio vs mapp, replace in your example the scheduler critical sections with a single resume(). Does this work with a preemptive scheduler underneath? The CSP kernel is preemptive and I want it to be compatible with the underlying (preemptive) kernel. BTW, CSP is busy-waiting free. Ok, I have tested your suggestion and Essay the output seems to be time-sliced or printf is interfering.

I do not get the output I would expect. Nhs Essays. or printf is interfering. btw, please be aware that newlib itself is not thread aware. using stdio functions in multi-threaded apps is a gamble. Why is this thread DONE? that's ARM way of telling you to not expect anything more from them. gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. I am surprised and The Different Types of Acupuncture disappointed. I have to tell my customers not to used rtx2/cmsis5/mbed. People. I've already been there. when RTOS1 was out, I was also optimistic and Essay recommended it to my customers. I even had a RTOS1 API for ohio vs mapp my µOS++. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. but it was hopeless, the RTOS1 API triggered many protests and I had to abandon it.

RTOS2 is slightly better, but I still can't recommend it. :-( (not to mention that in baldwin short the mean time, given the Types of Acupuncture Essay, choice, my customers discovered that the ohio vs mapp, C API is somehow redundant and Types the µOS++ native C++ API is used now quite successfully). gerhil commented Apr 3, 2017 #8226; edited. JonatanAntoni did set the thread to DONE. JonatanAntoni added DONE and removed review labels 6 hours ago. I found the button Reopen #128522; RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. the semantics of scheduler critical sections is very simple and sample nhs essays clear: 'no context switches are performed . I would also except the behavior you describe. My example shows a different behavior. Types Of Acupuncture Essay. I have tried your example and it works as expected. There are no thread switches during critical sections (inside osKernelLock/Unlock).

JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @gerhil I am sorry for assuming the unique individual, issue is of Acupuncture Essay, DONE because you closed it by accident. Digging Analysis. Please feel free to (reopen and) continue commenting on issues you still have concerns about. Take also note of the label descriptions we added recently to the README. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. DONE does not mean we will ignore any further comments. @JonatanAntoni I read in the forum said that you added DONE and removed review status. Hi Robert, thank you for baldwin testing. I use mbed and perhaps there is a problem there. I will look into it. I use mbed to create projects. I am newbie with ARM tooling.

How can I create a project with this package (without mbed)? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017. @gerhil this depends on the toolchain and ide you are using. The basic idea of CMSIS software packs is described in our CMSIS documentation. We have created a so called Pack Manager and a Run Time Environment Manager (RTE). This is part of our MDK Development Tools, and provided as a open-source plug-in for Eclipse.

Can the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, plug in be used with MCUXpresso? I use MCUXpresso and mbed at the moment. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 4, 2017. I have no further information here because MCUXpresso is a ecosystem tool. Refer to the MCUXpresso community as well, please. History. How can I install the plugin? The readme says Download the from corresponding release, but where can I find the file? Can the The Different of Acupuncture, plug in be used with XXX? the general answer is 'yes, as long the XXX tools integrate the ARM packs plug-ins', otherwise expect things to be difficult (this is similar to the classical 'can I have my Ford in analysis any colour? yes, as long as it is The Different of Acupuncture Essay, black').

I did not check the latest version, but all my previous attempts to unique, use the plug-ins failed, for various reasons, and The Different of Acupuncture Essay I finally gave up. of course, if you have better experiences, or if you find the plug-ins integrated in other tools, please let me know, to re-evaluate. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @RobertRostohar I have updated mbed but still the same output. The printf statements show weird output, but it is alternating between Task1 and Task2. Ohio Vs Mapp. So, I have surrounded the printf statements with osKernelLock() and of Acupuncture Essay osKernelUnlock(). I get good printf output but the example is not alternating anymore. The output is: Any idea what the james baldwin stories, problem is? RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. Let me clarify my previous statements.

The example behaves as expected in relation that there is no context switch during critical section. However it doesn't work in a way that you have desired. I fully agree with following statements from this thread. the The Different of Acupuncture, semantics of scheduler critical sections is very simple and clear: 'no context switches are performed inside the critical section. if you call resume(), the thread will be added to the ready list, but, being inside the scheduler critical section, the context switch is of business organisation, ignored for now. if you call suspend(), normally the current thread is suspended and execution continues to a thread chosen by the scheduler, but, in Essay a scheduler critical section, the current thread is resumed immediately. osKernelLock() enters critical section osThreadResume(tid_thread2) puts thread2 into ready list however does not switch to it since scheduler is locked osThreadSuspend(tid_thread1) would normally suspend running thread1 however since scheduler is locked it returns immediately without context switch osKernelUnock() exits critical section since both running thread1 and ready thread2 have the same priority execution continues with thread1 and digging repeats the above steps until round robin switches to thread2 (outside critical section) The described behaviour is expected and explains also the disordered printf outputs. . I fully agree with following statements . but what do you think about the The Different of Acupuncture, following use case: except possible printf() oddities, in ohio vs mapp my opinion it should work. any idea why it did not in @gerhil's test? gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. @ilg-ul Yes it's odd. I would expect that it should work. The described behaviour is expected and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay explains also the disordered printf outputs. I would disagree with this behaviour. Ohio Vs Mapp. The output should be ordered. Each task is suspending itself and before that it resumes the other.

One thread of control should be active at The Different of Acupuncture Essay a time (alternating). Indeed there is short, no context switches in the critical section, but there is also no suspend immediately after the critical section. I just have commented the osThreadResume() statements in both tasks. Essay. See what happens. The osThreadSuspend does not suspend the task. This is sample nhs essays, not what I would expect, but is Essay, this the right behavior? This would mean that suspend is disabled in digging a critical section. The Different Types Of Acupuncture. Should I yield the task immediately after the osKernelUnliock() to make the suspend effective? there is also no suspend immediately. People. resume() , if not in of Acupuncture a critical section, should be immediate, i.e. suspend the current thread. RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017. resume() will put thread2 into ready list however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority). Adding yield() provides the desired functionality of alternating thread1 and thread2.

RobertRostohar commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. The osThreadSuspend does not suspend the task. This is sample, not what I would expect, but is this the The Different Types Essay, right behavior? Suspending a running thread inside a critical section would be a dead lock. Therefore the thread is effectively not suspended in that case.

See my previous comment for an example of alternating thread1 and thread2. ilg-ul commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority) hmmm. I know that you may consider this a matter of personal preferences, but for german history me this is just another inconsistence. The Different Essay. first, the function is called resume() , so when someone issues this call, he expects that thread to be resumed as soon as possible. second, generally most/all system calls should also act as yields. (the reason is the same as for adding preemption to sample, a cooperative scheduler, to increase scheduler turn around). so, both because this is a system call and because the own meaning of the 'resume' word, the resume() call is The Different Types Essay, expected to yield immediately. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. Suspending a running thread inside a critical section would be a dead lock. Therefore the thread is effectively not suspended in that case. See my previous comment for an example of alternating thread1 and thread2.

I had implemented the an example with yield at the end and this works. In my opinion it is logical if the yield is part of the outer osKernelUnlock(). However, i still have an issue with Waza (my library) and baldwin short the suspend()/Resume()/Lock mechanism. Types Essay. I am trying to figure out what that is. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority) This is correct. resume(), if not in a critical section, should be immediate, i.e. suspend the current thread. Ilg-ul, you have mentioned this before and I have been thinking about it. Digging. This assumption would be formally incorrect! I would not rely on such assumption. A resume() includes a non-deterministic choice of whether it should immediate suspend the current thread or not (=to continue). Any decision would be a valid decision.

There is also a non-deterministic choice of of Acupuncture which ready thread (or process) should run; the thread ready queue is non-deterministic. This fits with the formal semantics of types of business Parallel (CSP). This semantics also covers hardware parallellism where both threads continue at The Different of Acupuncture the same time by two parallel cores. This is valid for equal priorities. In case the priorities are unequal then the non-deterministic choice turns into a deterministic choice. In case resume() suspends immeditely, this should fits in this semantics, but I would not rely on it. It is better to assume that we don't know which thread continues after resume(). This is the same for types of business threads being blocked and Types of Acupuncture released on semaphores and monitors. Of Business Organisation. But there is a concern that makes semaphores and monitors slighly behave different (without breaking the semantics). This concern is fairness, which is based on The Different Types Essay, the shared resource being synchronized. Nhs Essays. We must assume (according to Essay, Tony Hoare) that a release involves priorities based on first-come-first-served.The one who waits the longest gets first to be resumed.

first, the function is called resume(), so when someone issues this call, he expects that thread to sample nhs essays, be resumed as soon as possible. I would not expect that the thread is to be resumed as soon as possible. The thread will be put on The Different Types of Acupuncture, the ready queue, that's good enough. second, generally most/all system calls should also act as yields. (the reason is the german, same as for adding preemption to a cooperative scheduler, to increase scheduler turn around). No, not at all! CSP provides the answers. This is why I love CSP as a programming model. This is why I develop Waza.

Concurrency does not suffer from Types, these difficult scheduling policies. Concurrency controls the yielding at a higher level of abstraction. With Waza you will use threads without designing with threads, This why people say, multithreading is unique, difficult and Types of Acupuncture Essay concurrency is easy. . to increase scheduler turn around). what is wrong with increasing the scheduler turn around? is it useless or is it harmful? if this is not important for one application, you can as well disable preemption or use a cooperative scheduler. globally the system should not be affected, just that responsiveness may increase. you can achieve a similar effect by increasing the preemption clock frequency. With preemption, the preemptive event should perform yield. This can be the end of a time-slice or a wakeup of digging a process. Yielding is not harmful, but often unnecessary. Events (=rendezvous between processes) are the perfect moments to yield. Multithreading does not support this model. System calls that are blocking must yield.

I avoid blocking system calls as much as possible. I use unbuffered channels to invoke these system calls. Channels are event makers. They determine when the The Different Types, program should yield (based on the event) and they determine which process should be resumed (based on ohio vs mapp, engagement of the processes). The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay. Events add responsive and reactive behavior to the program. Your design, i.e. the composition of processes and channels, will determine the optimal responsiveness and reactiveness of your program. There is no need to design with threads. This is a perfect programming model to people, create durable software that can effectively use the energy functions of the ARM processor. The Different Types. Durable software is reliable, robust, energy-saving and future-proof software. @gerhil, I do not challenge your model, it may be superior, but we are currently operating within the limits of a multithreading RTOS, and you complained loudly against increasing the scheduler turn around, but later, when asked why, did not provide any reason (or I did not understand your reply). I also understand that the behaviour of resume() may be non-determintistic, and individual applications should not count on it. ok, but if so, this must be clearly documented. however, since actual implementations usually make a decision on what to do, my recommendation for resume() is to yield, if not for The Different Types other theoretical reason, at least for history common sense consistency reasons and for improving responsiveness. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. but we are currently operating within the limits of a multithreading RTOS, and you complained loudly against increasing the scheduler turn around, but later, when asked why, did not provide any reason.

I use my previous reasoning in the model also in the (non-CSP) real-time scheduler. I use synchronization/scheduling patterns that makes the scheduler yield only The Different of Acupuncture Essay, when necessary. History. This includes Dijksta's semaphore, Hoare's monitor and the critical section. I use the critical section to implement Dijkstra's semaphore, I use this to Types of Acupuncture Essay, implement Hoare's monitor, and ohio vs mapp I use this to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, implement channels and the special process constructs (sequential, parallel, choice, catch). This work shows a balanced and optimal scheduler turn around that is defined by james short, your design.

Your design will determine the performance (responsiveness and reactiveness) of the program. The exit of the Types, critical section is digging analysis, important. It performs yield only when the The Different of Acupuncture, thread administration has changed to a point where yield is necessary, i.e. when there is a new current thread. Organisation. My suspend function would look like this. My resume function would look like this. So when I use a nested critical section construct, the yield is The Different Types of Acupuncture, pending until the exit of the critical section. For example: These are just a few examples. The patterns in Waza are very small and they yield when strictly necessary. ilg-ul commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited. increasing the scheduler turn around . I use my previous reasoning. Ohio Vs Mapp. ok, forget about it, if I ask you one thing and you reply another, we can keep it like this forever. Types. a nested critical section. nope. the organisation, first osKernelUnlock() will do exactly what it says, will unlock. for nested critical sections, you need to save the result of osKernelLock() and to use it with osKernelRestoreLock() the safe way to The Different Essay, implement critical sections is: this pattern works regardless the nesting level. similarly you can implement un-critical sections (mirror images of critical sections, where you want the ohio vs mapp, scheduler unlocked regardless its current status) with: this is the Types, C equivalent implementation of the C++ RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization) pattern, with the ohio vs mapp, resource acquired in the constructor and released in the destructor. Essay. this pattern should also be clearly explained in the documentation. gerhil commented Apr 4, 2017 #8226; edited.

for nested critical sections, you need to save the result of osKernelLock() and to short stories, use it with osKernelRestoreLock() You are right. I forgot about it. In Waza, I use state in the functions. ok, forget about it, if I ask you one thing and you reply another, we can keep it like this forever. I am very sorry. I think I am living a different paradigm, haha.

Your questions are good. In this world of of Acupuncture Essay concurrency I have found different answers to complex problems. gerhil commented Apr 5, 2017 #8226; edited. Ohio Vs Mapp. resume() will put thread2 into ready list however it won't pre-empt running thread1 (both have same priority). Adding yield() provides the desired functionality of alternating thread1 and thread2. Your example is not useful. It can happen that some other process performs yield and the alternating behavior is gone. I had implemented the an example with yield at the end and this works. I was wrong. The suspended threads play part of scheduling. The Different Types. This behavior is wrong. Without the james baldwin short stories, extra yield it seemed to work. But I was wrong.

The extra yield should not change the alternation of both threads. In my opinion, the osThreadSuspend() function is broken in a critical section. I would like to report this problem as a high priority BUG. I am sure that I have shown in The Different Types of Acupuncture the example above than the osThreadSuspend() behaves incorrectly in the scope of types of business organisation a critical section (osKernelLock()/osKernelUnlock()). See previous post, Note: I could not test this branch (cmsis_5) with the Gnu ARM tools, because I could not find the eclipse plug in. Instead, I have used the Types Essay, mbed branch (featured_cmsis5) and this works fine. I have used the latest updates. FYI: I have found a similar problem with the ESP32 microsprocessor. Espressif has fixed the problem by performing a yield on a trigger when the interrupts are enabled. This is a very nice fix.

I advise ARM to do something similar in the osKernelUnlock() function. Suggestion: Why not renaming osKernelLock() and osKernelUnlock() to osCriticalSectionEnter() and osCriticalSectionExit()? The terms Lock and Unlock are confusing. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Why not renaming osKernelLock() and osKernelUnlock() to digging, osCriticalSectionEnter() and osCriticalSectionExit()? because they do not have identical semantic. and there can also be interrupt critical sections. a scheduler critical section should be entered with a state = lock() and The Different Types Essay exited with restore(state) . a scheduler uncritical section should be entered with a state = unlock() and nhs essays exited with restore(state) . if there are examples in the documentation doing otherwise, they are wrong, since they do not allow nesting. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. a scheduler critical section should be entered with a state = lock() and exited with restore(state). The Different Of Acupuncture Essay. Yes.

I have seen examples using osKernelLock(); . People. ; osKernelUnlock(); . Of Acupuncture. I have used state=lock() and restore(state) and same problem. I will check again. Individual. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. performing a yield . I advise ARM to do something similar in the osKernelUnlock() function. you loudly complained about The Different of Acupuncture Essay increasing scheduler turn around (and improving responsiveness) by organisation, performing implicit yields in system calls. personally I do support this, yields should be performed on most system calls (of course, except those called from The Different of Acupuncture Essay, ISRs, and german people history selected calls, for The Different Essay good reasons), and threads of equal priority should be given the types of business, CPU immediately, or right after the scheduler lock is released. Yes. I have seen examples using osKernelLock(); . osKernelUnlock(). then they must be corrected. the save/restore pattern is just a good example of defensive programming. if you are absolutely sure that your critical sections will never nest (I wonder how can someone guarantee this for future code changes), then you can use the lock/unlock calls directly. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. the save/restore pattern is Types of Acupuncture, just a good example of defensive programming. Digging Analysis. if you are absolutely sure that your critical sections will never nest (I wonder how can someone guarantee this for future code changes), then you can use the lock/unlock calls directly. I agree. I used lock/unlock because this was similar to other SDKs on other platforms.

I have updated the example and the result is the same. I have put the printf statements in the critical section for better output. The output should be. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. as I already said, in of Acupuncture my opinion, with normal implicit yield() behaviour, the suspend() should not be needed, and the code might read: if this does not work, then the unique, RTOS implementation might have problems. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. This does not work as I expected. The osThreadSuspend is essential. The example is simple.

One task must suspend and of Acupuncture the other task must resume. Short Stories. This alternating behavior should not be influenced by osThreadYield() elsewhere in the program. PS. I forgot the yields in the example. I have added them. ilg-ul commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. The Different Essay. The osThreadSuspend is essential. it should not be. Digging Analysis. The example is simple. One task must suspend and the other task must resume. here we go again. please understand that resume() is not called enqueue_thread_to_ready_list() , but resume() for good reasons, it should resume the new thread, by of Acupuncture, doing an digging, implicit yield() if there are threads with the same priority or higher, and the yield() itself includes an implicit suspend() . The Different Types. suspend() (which may be called only from types, thread contexts) is intended to The Different Types Essay, implement synchronisation mechanisms, when there is nothing else to do in the current thread (and I insist it should not be allowed to be called with other threads), like waiting on a semaphore. resume() has a slightly more complex semantic, since it may be called from ISRs or from threads: when called from ISRs, it adds the given thread to the ready list, but cannot do more, since it is in analysis the ISR context; for example releasing a semaphore from ISR. when called from a thread, in addition to The Different Types, adding the thread to short, the ready list, it yields, to give the new thread a chance to run (if priorities are right); for example releasing a semaphore from another thread. adding an explicit suspend() after resume() is acceptable as long as this is what you want, since it means that after returning from the suspend() included in The Different the yielding resume() , which was triggered by another resume() called from another ISR/thread, the thread will suspend itself again, waiting for a second resume() . if the of business, current behaviour is different, then indeed we have a bug. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. I understand what you are saying.

The example changes things for Types of Acupuncture Essay the resume and suspend. The example does not work. This example works for FreeRTOS, Linux and Windows. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. I slightly modified your reproducer from above to demonstrate the current behavior: osThreadSuspend() returns an error when called to suspend the running thread with scheduler locked. osThreadSuspend() is not meant to digging, return until one calls osThreadResume() is called for the target thread. Subsequent calls to Types of Acupuncture Essay, osThreadResume() to a not suspended thread returns errors as well.

The altering between both threads are due to analysis, the osThreadYield() calls I added. These force a round-robin-schedule even if the running thread has not exceeded its time slice. As far as I understood you rather expect that for: the call to osThreadSuspend() should return. Thus the thread is not suspended instantly but as soon as the of Acupuncture, scheduler gets unlocked? This means osThreadSuspend() should get an exceptional behavior if its called in a scheduler critical region, instead of returning an error? gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited.

Please add the extra yield. This extra yield should have no influence, Thus the thread is not suspended instantly but as soon as the scheduler gets unlocked? The suspend is not suspending at all. It should suspend after leaving the scritical section. This means osThreadSuspend() should get an exceptional behavior if its called in a scheduler critical region, instead of returning an baldwin short, error? Why does it involve an exception or error? Suspending a thread in The Different of Acupuncture a critical section should be fine, only the yield is pending until the end of the critical section. Thanks for of business updating the code. The startup suspend/resume in my example was not necessary. I have added them to trace the behavior at the startup.

JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. @gerhil to visualize the impact of an extra yield, I duplicated the osThreadYield() only in task1. Now I get. Essay. This is because both threads are ready all the nhs essays, time. Thus a yield forces a thread switch. Task one yields twice as task two. Using FreeRTOS I can confirm a different behavior: In this case the calls to yield does not have any impact because only Types of Acupuncture Essay, one thread is ready at a time. Individual. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. Great!

Thanks for Types comparing it with FreeRTOS. Nhs Essays. Now we see a difference. What do you think? Should cmsis behave similar as FreeRTOS in Types Essay this example? I vote yes. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017.

We have to digging, think about this carefully, so please be patient. Are you blocked on this? Or are you able to continue your work based on CMSIS-FreeRTOS for now? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. @gerhil can you please enable configASSERT on of Acupuncture, your FreeRTOS example? I did this as I am analyzing the issue. Individual. Calling vTaskSuspend when scheduler is locked leads to an assertion for me. Referring to Types Essay, the FreeRTOS documentation of vTaskSuspendAll reveals that one must not call functions that have the potential to cause a context switch [..] while the scheduler is ohio vs mapp, suspended . Thus it seams RTX5 and The Different Types FreeRTOS behave similar, except that RTX5 returns error codes and organisation FreeRTOS issues assertions (if enabled). @JonatanAntoni Interesting.

I cannot use CMSIS-FreeRTOS directly because I have no Keil MDK license. I will try it with MCUXpresso. BTW I am using taskENTER_CRITICAL ()/taskEXIT_CRITICAL (). The critical sections I use are ultra small and ISRs of blocking I/O can resume threads. gerhil commented Apr 7, 2017 #8226; edited. @JonatanAntoni No problems with taskENTER_CRITICAL() / taskEXIT_CRITICAL() and vTaskSuspend() / vTaskResume() with configASSERT enabled. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. CMSIS-FreeRTOS is completely free and open source, no need for a Keil MDK license. It is a simple CMSIS-RTOS2 wrapper around vanilla FreeRTOS. Thus makes it very simple to switch back and forth between RTX5 an FreeRTOS. If you do not want to use MDK with RTE, you might also manually include the CMSIS-Packs to your project.

CMSIS-Packs are plain zip archives, beside the file extension and an additional pack description file inside. I would love to use MDK and RTE, but it's not for free, is it? JonatanAntoni commented Apr 7, 2017. You may start with MDK-Lite, this is free but has a 32kb code size limit for the linker. I have installed MDK-Lite and I can compile the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, project, but I cannot print the output of the digging, FDRM-K64F in the output window. printf prevents the program to run. I have tried to retarget the stdout, but I don't know how to implement stdout_putchar() to output to the uart.

I hope that this discussion pinpoints the problem and I hope that this will be solved in the near future. It would be great to use cmsis5 as an alternative to Types, FreeRTOS. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 11, 2017. @gerhil please let us fork this tool support issue into a separate discussion, i.e. per mail. Preferably we remove those off-topic posts afterwards to cleanup this thread in favor of the sample, original issue. JonatanAntoni commented Apr 24, 2017.

do you still have any concerns about suspending tasks? I reviewed the Types of Acupuncture Essay, code of FreeRTOS once more. I use release 9.0.0 and german people history my implementation of The Different Types Essay vTaskSuspend states at line 1618: This if statements cover the ohio vs mapp, case when you suspend the Types Essay, current task after the scheduler has been started. The configASSERT should prevent this case when uxSchedulerSuspended is not zero, i.e. the scheduler was locked by a call to vTaskSuspendAll . History. I can't use CMSIS5 for my projects because the The Different of Acupuncture Essay, suspend and resume functions do not work well in critical sections. Digging Analysis. This needs to be fixed by The Different Types Essay, ARM. For now I put CMSIS5 aside. Instead, I use FreeRTOS with MCUXpresso. FreeRTOS's suspend and resume functions work well in critical sections. The portYIELD_WITHIN_API() functions in unique individual vTaskSuspend () and vTaskResume() do not yield in The Different of Acupuncture critical sections.

This behavior is nhs essays, what I would expect from suspend (and resume) in CMSIS5, but CMSIS5 fails. I love to use CMSIS5 with Waza (for C++) in Essay the near future. Waza is a true concurrent programming model useful for embedded processors. People History. Waza takes CMSIS5 to a much higher quality standard. It makes parallel software sound, simple and defect-free on The Different of Acupuncture Essay, ARM processors. Multithreading API’s can’t do this! Currently, I am researching new design patterns for developing energy-saving software. This is nhs essays, part of Waza. Using concurrency is the most effective way to save energy in of Acupuncture Essay software. Unfortunately, I can’t demonstrate this with CMSIS5.

JonatanAntoni commented May 2, 2017. Thanks for your valuable feedback by providing new use cases for CMSIS-RTOS. As I have to balance between many interests when changing existent APIs I might not be able to refine osKernelLock() and osThreadSuspend() to fit your needs. Perhaps we can come up with an alternative solution that would work for you. As far as I understood you try to reuse some RTOS internals, i.e. the context switching. But you are not interested in the major parts of CMSIS-RTOSv2 public API. You are looking for functions that allow you to unique individual, manipulate the The Different of Acupuncture, ready list of the underlying RTOS and trigger context switching somehow explicitly.

Is this correct? Are you interested in an implementation agnostic API, i.e. to be able to put Waza on top of any RTOS implementation available? Or do you mind to unique, integrate RTX closely? IMO, you don’t have to change the API definitions to fix the problem. You have to refine the semantics of osKernelLock(), osThreadSuspend(), osThreadResume() and osKernelUnlock(). Nothing will break and The Different nothing will be out of balance. The best option is fixing this problem. Perhaps 4 new functions could help me, something like: osCriticalSectionBegin(); // like osKernelLock() (remember current thread) osThreadSuspending(); // like osThreadSuspend() without yielding.

osThreadResuming(); // like osThreadResume() without yielding. osCriticalSectionEnd(); // like osKernelUnlock() or restore with yielding (yields when the history, current thread has been changed into another thread) These functions can help to of Acupuncture, improve CMSIS.. These functions are enough to of business organisation, get Waza working. JonatanAntoni commented May 3, 2017. Hi @gerhil, thank you for your enhancement proposals. We will need some time to clearly think about all the implications of The Different either solution. Please be patient, I will report back as soon as possible. I understand. I am patient. I'm looking forward to hearing from you.

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To search our editions of Hume's texts: - enclose phrases in double quotation marks. - prefix words or phrases with + or - to force or exclude them. - otherwise, words and phrases are treated as disjunctive. - jump to any paragraph (e.g. T, E 5.6) - jump to any page (e.g. Types! SBN 12, Mil 30, Bea 7) Jump to: Display: Printed for individual, A. Millar , in Types Essay, the Strand. I t was the practice of the antients to address their compositions only to friends and equals, and to render their dedications monuments of regard and affection, not of servility and flattery.

In those days of ingenious and candid liberty, a dedication did honour to the person to whom it was addressed, without degrading the author. If any particular appeared towards the patron, it was at least the partiality of friendship and affection. Another instance of james baldwin short true liberty, of which antient times can alone afford us an example, is the Essay liberty of ohio vs mapp thought, which engaged men of Types letters, however different in analysis, their abstract opinions, to maintain a mutual friendship and regard; and never to quarrel about principles, while they agreed in inclinations and manners. Science was often the subject of disputation, never of animosity. Cicero , an of Acupuncture Essay, academic, addressed his philosophical treatises, sometimes to Brutus , a stoic; sometimes to Atticus , an epicurean. I have been seized with a strong desire of renewing these laudable practices of antiquity, by addressing the digging analysis following dissertations to you, my good friend: For such I will ever call and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, esteem you, notwithstanding the opposition, which prevails between us, with regard to many of types of business our speculative tenets. These differences of opinion I have only found to enliven our conversation; while our common passion for science and letters served as a cement to The Different Types our friendship. I still admired your genius, even when I imagined, that you lay under the influence of prejudice; and you sometimes told me, that you excused my errors, on account of the candor and sincerity, which, you thought, accompanied them. But to digging analysis tell truth, it is less my admiration of your fine genius, which has engaged me to Types of Acupuncture Essay make this address to you, than my esteem of your character and digging, my affection to Types Essay your person.

That generosity of mind which ever accompanies you; that cordiality of friendship, that spirited honour and integrity, have long interested me strongly in your behalf, and have made me desirous, that a monument of our mutual amity should be publicly erected, and, if possible, be preserved to posterity. I own too, that I have the james baldwin short stories ambition to be the first who shall in public express his admiration of your noble tragedy of Douglas ; one of the most interesting and pathetic pieces, that was ever exhibited on Types of Acupuncture Essay any theatre. Should I give it preference to the Merope of Maffei , and to that of Voltaire , which it resembles in its subject; should I affirm, that it contained more fire and spirit than the former, more tenderness and simplicity than the latter; I might be accused of partiality: And how could I entirely acquit myself, after the professions of sample nhs essays friendship, which I have made you? But the unfeigned tears which flowed from every eye, in the numerous representations which were made of it on this theatre; the unparalleled command, which you appeared to have over every affection of the human breast: These are incontestible proofs, that you possess the true theatric genius of Shakespear and Otway , refined from the unhappy barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of the other. My enemies, you know, and, I own, even sometimes my friends, have reproached me with the love of paradoxes and singular opinions; and I expect to of Acupuncture Essay be exposed to the same imputation, on account of the character, which I have here given of your Douglas . I shall be told, no doubt, that I had artfully chosen the only time, when this high esteem of that piece could be regarded as a paradox, to wit, before its publication; and that not being able to ohio vs mapp contradict in this particular the The Different Types sentiments of the short public, I have, at least, resolved to The Different of Acupuncture Essay go before them. But I shall be amply compensated for all these pleasantries, if you accept this testimony of my regard, and believe me to be, with the greatest sincerity, Your most affectionate Friend, and humble servant, A s every enquiry, which regards religion, is of the utmost importance, there are two questions in particular, which challenge our attention, to wit, that concerning its foundation in reason, and that concerning its origin in human nature. Happily, the first question, which is the most important, admits of the most obvious, at least, the clearest solution. Baldwin! The whole frame of nature bespeaks an of Acupuncture, intelligent author; and james baldwin stories, no rational enquirer can, after serious reflection, suspend his belief a moment with regard to the primary principles of genuine Theism and Religion.

But the other question, concerning the origin of religion in human nature, is exposed to some more difficulty. The belief of invisible, intelligent power has been very generally diffused over the human race, in all places and in all ages; but it has neither perhaps been so universal as to Types of Acupuncture admit of no exception, nor has it been, in any degree, uniform in the ideas, which it has suggested. Unique! Some nations have been discovered, who entertained no sentiments of Religion, if travellers and historians may be credited; and no two nations, and scarce any two men, have ever agreed precisely in the same sentiments. It would appear, therefore, that this preconception springs not from an original instinct or primary impression of nature, such as gives rise to self-love, affection between the sexes, love of progeny, gratitude, resentment; since every instinct of The Different Types of Acupuncture this kind has been found absolutely universal in all nations and ages, and has always a precise determinate object, which it inflexibly pursues. The first religious principles must be secondary; such as may easily be perverted by ohio vs mapp, various accidents and of Acupuncture, causes, and analysis, whose operation too, in some cases, may, by an extraordinary concurrence of circumstances, be altogether prevented. What those principles are, which give rise to the original belief, and what those accidents and Types of Acupuncture, causes are, which direct its operation, is the subject of ohio vs mapp our present enquiry.

Sect. I. That Polytheism was the primary Religion of Men. It appears to me, that, if we consider the improvement of human society, from rude beginnings to a state of of Acupuncture Essay greater perfection, polytheism or idolatry was, and necessarily must have been, the first and most ancient religion of mankind. This opinion I shall endeavour to confirm by the following arguments. It is digging analysis a matter of fact incontestable, that about 1700 years ago all mankind were polytheists. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! The doubtful and sceptical principles of short stories a few philosophers, or the of Acupuncture Essay theism, and that too not entirely pure, of one or two nations, form no objection worth regarding. Behold then the clear testimony of short stories history. The farther we mount up into antiquity, the more do we find mankind plunged into polytheism. No marks, no symptoms of any more perfect religion. The most ancient records of human race still present us with that system as the popular and Types, established creed.

The north, the south, the east, the west, give their unanimous testimony to the same fact. German History! What can be opposed to so full an The Different Types of Acupuncture, evidence? As far as writing or history reaches, mankind, in sample nhs essays, ancient times, appear universally to have been polytheists. Shall we assert, that, in more ancient times, before the knowledge of letters, or the discovery of any art or science, men entertained the principles of pure theism? That is, while they were ignorant and barbarous, they discovered truth: But fell into error, as soon as they acquired learning and politeness. But in this assertion you not only of Acupuncture Essay contradict all appearance of probability, but also our present experience concerning the unique individual principles and opinions of barbarous nations. The savage tribes of America , Africa , and The Different Essay, Asia are all idolaters. Not a single exception to this rule. Short! Insomuch, that, were a traveller to transport himself into any unknown region; if he found inhabitants cultivated with arts and science, though even upon of Acupuncture Essay that supposition there are odds against their being theists, yet could he not safely, till farther inquiry, pronounce any thing on that head: But if he found them ignorant and barbarous, he might beforehand declare them idolaters; and there scarcely is a possibility of his being mistaken.

It seems certain, that, according to the natural progress of human thought, the digging analysis ignorant multitude must first entertain some groveling and. familiar notion of superior powers, before they stretch their conception to that perfect Being, who bestowed order on the whole frame of nature. We may as reasonably imagine, that men inhabited palaces before huts and cottages, or studied geometry before agriculture; as assert that the Deity appeared to them a pure spirit, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent, before he was apprehended to be a powerful, though limited being, with human passions and appetites, limbs and organs. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay! The mind rises gradually, from inferior to superior: By abstracting from what is german people history imperfect, it forms an The Different of Acupuncture, idea of perfection: And slowly distinguishing the baldwin nobler parts of its own frame from the of Acupuncture Essay grosser, it learns to transfer only the former, much elevated and refined, to its divinity. Nothing could disturb this natural progress of thought, but some obvious and invincible argument, which might immediately lead the mind into the pure principles of theism, and ohio vs mapp, make it overleap, at Types of Acupuncture one bound, the vast interval which is interposed between the human and the divine nature.

But though I allow, that the unique individual order and frame of the universe, when accurately examined, affords such an argument; yet I can never think, that this consideration could have an influence on mankind, when they formed their first rude notions of religion. The causes of such objects, as are quite familiar to us, never strike our attention or curiosity; and however extraordinary or surprising these objects in themselves, they are passed over, by the raw and ignorant multitude, without much examination or enquiry. Adam , rising at once, in paradise, and in the full perfection of his faculties, would naturally, as represented by Milton , be astonished at the glorious appearances of nature, the heavens, the air, the The Different earth, his own organs and members; and would be led to ask, whence this wonderful scene arose. But a barbarous, necessitous animal (such as a man is on the first origin of society), pressed by james, such numerous wants and passions, has no leisure to admire the regular face of nature, or make enquiries concerning the cause of those objects, to which from his infancy he has been gradually accustomed. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay! On the contrary, the more regular and short stories, uniform, that is, the more perfect nature appears, the more is he familiarized to it, and the less inclined to scrutinize and examine it. A monstrous birth excites his curiosity, and is deemed a prodigy. It alarms him from its novelty; and immediately sets him a trembling, and sacrificing, and praying. But an animal, compleat in all its limbs and organs, is to him an ordinary spectacle, and produces no religious opinion or affection. Ask him, whence that animal arose; he will tell you, from the copulation of its parents. And these, whence?

From the copulation of theirs. Of Acupuncture! A few removes satisfy his curiosity, and set the ohio vs mapp objects at such a distance, that he entirely loses sight of them. Imagine not, that he will so much as start the. question, whence the first animal; much less, whence the whole system or united fabric of the universe arose. Or, if you start such a question to him, expect not, that he will employ his mind with any anxiety about a subject, so remote, so uninteresting, and which so much exceeds the bounds of of Acupuncture his capacity. But farther, if men were at unique first led into the belief of one Supreme Being, by reasoning from the The Different of Acupuncture frame of nature, they could never possibly leave that belief, in unique individual, order to embrace polytheism; but the same principles of reason, which at first produced and diffused over Types Essay mankind, so magnificent an individual, opinion, must be able, with greater facility, to Types preserve it. The first invention and proof of any doctrine is people much more difficult than the supporting and retaining of it. There is Types of Acupuncture Essay a great difference between historical facts and speculative opinions; nor is the knowledge of the one propagated in the same manner with that of the ohio vs mapp other. An historical fact, while it passes by oral tradition from eye-witnesses and contemporaries, is disguised in every successive narration, and may at last retain but very small, if any, resemblance of the original truth, on which it was founded. The frail memories of The Different of Acupuncture Essay men, their love of exaggeration, their supine carelessness; these principles, if not corrected by books and writing, soon pervert the account of historical events; where argument or reasoning has little or no place, nor can ever recal the truth, which has once escaped those narrations.

It is thus the fables of Hercules , Theseus , Bacchus are supposed to have been originally founded in true history, corrupted by tradition. But with regard to analysis speculative opinions, the case is far otherwise. If these opinions be founded on arguments so clear and obvious as to carry conviction with the generality of mankind, the The Different Essay same arguments, which at individual first diffused the of Acupuncture opinions, will still preserve them in their original purity. If the arguments be more abstruse, and more remote from vulgar apprehension, the opinions will always be confined to a few persons; and as soon as men leave the contemplation of the unique arguments, the opinions will immediately be lost and be buried in oblivion. Whichever side of this dilemma we take, it must appear impossible, that theism could, from reasoning, have been the primary religion of human race, and have afterwards, by its corruption, given birth to The Different of Acupuncture Essay polytheism and to sample nhs essays all the various superstitions of the heathen world. Reason, when obvious, prevents these corruptions: When abstruse, it keeps the principles entirely from the knowledge of the vulgar, who are alone liable to corrupt any principle or opinion. If we would, therefore, indulge our curiosity, in enquiring concerning the origin of religion, we must turn our thoughts towards polytheism, the primitive religion of uninstructed mankind. Were men led into Types of Acupuncture, the apprehension of baldwin short stories invisible, intelligent power by a contemplation of the works of Essay nature, they could never possibly entertain any conception but of one single being, who bestowed existence and order on this vast machine, and adjusted all its parts, according to one regular plan or connected system. For though, to persons of a certain turn of mind, it may not appear altogether absurd, that several independent beings, endowed with superior wisdom, might conspire in the contrivance and execution of one regular plan; yet is this a merely arbitrary supposition, which, even if allowed possible, must be confessed neither to be supported by probability nor necessity. All things in the universe are evidently of types organisation a piece. Every thing is adjusted to every thing.

One design prevails throughout the whole. And this uniformity leads the mind to acknowledge one author; because the conception of different authors, without any distinction of attributes or operations, serves only to Types of Acupuncture Essay give perplexity to the imagination, without bestowing any satisfaction on the understanding. The statue of individual Laocoon , as we learn from Pliny , was the work of three artists: But it is certain, that, were we not told so, we should never have imagined, that a groupe of figures, cut from one stone, and united in one plan, was not the work and contrivance of one statuary. To ascribe any single effect to the combination of several causes, is not surely a natural and obvious supposition. On the other hand, if, leaving the Types of Acupuncture works of nature, we trace the footsteps of individual invisible power in the various and contrary events of human life, we are necessarily led into polytheism and to the acknowledgment of several limited and imperfect deities. Storms and tempests ruin what is nourished by the sun.

The sun destroys what is of Acupuncture Essay fostered by the moisture of dews and rains. War may be favourable to types of business organisation a nation, whom the The Different of Acupuncture inclemency of the seasons afflicts with famine. Sickness and pestilence may depopulate a kingdom, amidst the most profuse plenty. The same nation is not, at the same time, equally successful by of business organisation, sea and by Types, land. And a nation, which now triumphs over its enemies, may anon submit to their more prosperous arms. In short, the conduct of events, or what we call the plan of a particular providence, is so full of of business organisation variety and uncertainty, that, if we suppose it immediately ordered by any intelligent beings, we must acknowledge a contrariety in their designs and intentions, a constant combat of opposite powers, and a repentance or change of intention in the same power, from impotence or levity. Of Acupuncture Essay! Each nation has its tutelar deity. Each element is subjected to its invisible power or agent. The province of each god is separate from that of another.

Nor are the operations of the digging same god always certain and of Acupuncture Essay, invariable. To-day he protects: To-morrow he abandons us. Prayers and ohio vs mapp, sacrifices, rites and ceremonies, well or ill performed, are the sources of his favour or enmity, and produce all the good or ill fortune, which are to be found amongst mankind. We may conclude, therefore, that, in all nations, which have embraced polytheism, the first ideas of religion arose not from The Different Essay, a contemplation of the works of digging analysis nature, but from a concern with regard to The Different Essay the events of life, and from the incessant hopes and fears, which actuate the types of business organisation human mind. Accordingly, we find, that all idolaters, having separated the of Acupuncture provinces of ohio vs mapp their deities, have recourse to that invisible agent, to whose authority they are immediately subjected, and Types, whose province it is to german people superintend that course of The Different of Acupuncture Essay actions, in which they are, at any time, engaged. Juno is invoked at marriages; Lucina at births. Neptune receives the analysis prayers of seamen; and of Acupuncture Essay, Mars of warriors. Unique! The husbandman cultivates his field under the protection of Ceres ; and the merchant acknowledges the authority of Mercury . Each natural event is supposed to be governed by some intelligent agent; and Types of Acupuncture, nothing prosperous or adverse can happen in life, which may not be the subject of peculiar prayers or thanksgivings0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . It must necessarily, indeed, be allowed, that, in order to carry men’s attention beyond the present course of things, or lead them into any inference concerning invisible intelligent power, they must be actuated by some passion, which prompts their thought and reflection; some motive, which urges their first enquiry. Ohio Vs Mapp! But what passion shall we here have recourse to, for explaining an effect of of Acupuncture such mighty consequence? Not speculative curiosity surely, or the pure love of truth. That motive is too refined for such gross apprehensions; and would lead men into digging analysis, enquiries concerning.

the frame of nature, a subject too large and comprehensive for their narrow capacities. No passions, therefore, can be supposed to work upon The Different Types such barbarians, but the ordinary affections of human life; the anxious concern for happiness, the of business organisation dread of of Acupuncture future misery, the terror of death, the thirst of revenge, the appetite for unique individual, food and other necessaries. Agitated by The Different Types, hopes and fears of individual this nature, especially the The Different latter, men scrutinize, with a trembling curiosity, the individual course of future causes, and examine the various and contrary events of human life. And in this disordered scene, with eyes still more disordered and astonished, they see the first obscure traces of divinity. Sect. III. The same subject continued. We are placed in this world, as in a great theatre, where the true springs and The Different Types Essay, causes of every event are entirely concealed from us; nor have we either sufficient wisdom to foresee, or power to prevent those ills, with which we are continually threatened. We hang in perpetual suspence between life and death, health and sickness, plenty and want; which are distributed amongst the human species by secret and unknown causes, whose operation is ohio vs mapp oft unexpected, and always unaccountable.

These unknown causes , then, become the The Different Essay constant object of our hope and sample nhs essays, fear; and while the The Different of Acupuncture passions are kept in perpetual alarm by an anxious expectation of the events, the imagination is equally employed in forming ideas of nhs essays those powers, on which we have so entire a dependance. Could men anatomize nature, according to The Different Essay the most probable, at least the most intelligible philosophy, they would find, that these causes are nothing but the particular fabric and structure of the minute parts of their own bodies and of external objects; and digging analysis, that, by a regular and constant machinery, all the events are produced, about which they are so much concerned. But this philosophy exceeds the comprehension of the ignorant multitude, who can only conceive the unknown causes in a general and confused manner; though their imagination, perpetually employed on the same subject, must labour to form some particular and distinct idea of them. The more they consider these causes themselves, and the uncertainty of their operation, the less satisfaction do they meet with in their researches; and, however unwilling, they must at last have abandoned so arduous an attempt, were it not for a propensity in of Acupuncture, human nature, which leads into a system, that gives them some satisfaction. There is an universal tendency among mankind to conceive all beings like themselves, and to transfer to every object, those qualities, with which they are familiarly acquainted, and of which they are intimately conscious. We find human faces in the moon, armies in the clouds; and by a natural propensity, if not corrected by experience and analysis, reflection, ascribe malice or good-will to every thing, that hurts or pleases us. Hence the frequency and beauty of the prosopop ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier ia in poetry; where trees, mountains and streams are personified, and the inanimate parts of nature acquire sentiment and passion. And though these poetical figures and expressions gain not on.

the belief, they may serve, at least, to prove a certain tendency in the imagination, without which they could neither be beautiful nor natural. Nor is a river-god or hamadryad always taken for Essay, a mere poetical or imaginary personage; but may sometimes enter into the real creed of the ignorant vulgar; while each grove or field is represented as possessed of a particular genius or invisible power, which inhabits and protects it. Nay, philosophers cannot entirely exempt themselves from this natural frailty; but have oft ascribed to inanimate matter the horror of a vacuum , sympathies, antipathies, and other affections of human nature. Of Business! The absurdity is not less, while we cast our eyes upwards; and transferring, as is too usual, human passions and The Different of Acupuncture, infirmities to the deity, represent him as jealous and revengeful, capricious and partial, and, in short, a wicked and foolish man, in every respect but his superior power and authority. Short Stories! No wonder, then, that mankind, being placed in such an absolute ignorance of causes, and The Different Types Essay, being at the same time so anxious concerning their future fortune, should immediately acknowledge a dependence on invisible powers, possessed of sentiment and intelligence. The unknown causes , which continually employ their thought, appearing always in the same aspect, are all apprehended to be of the german people same kind or species. Nor is The Different it long before we ascribe to them thought and reason and passion, and sometimes even the limbs and figures of men, in order to bring them nearer to a resemblance with ourselves. In proportion as any man’s course of life is governed by people, accident, we always find, that he encreases in superstition; as may particularly be observed of gamesters and sailors, who, though, of all mankind, the least capable of serious reflection, abound most in frivolous and Types Essay, superstitious apprehensions. The gods, says Coriolanus in Dionysius 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * , have an influence in every affair; but above all, in war; where the event is so uncertain. All human life, especially before the institution of order and good government, being subject to fortuitous accidents; it is natural, that superstition should prevail every where in barbarous ages, and put men on the most earnest enquiry concerning those invisible powers, who dispose of their happiness or misery. Organisation! Ignorant of astronomy and the anatomy of plants and animals, and too little curious to observe the admirable adjustment of final causes; they remain still unacquainted with a first and supreme creator, and of Acupuncture, with that infinitely perfect spirit, who alone, by his almighty will, bestowed order on analysis the whole frame of nature.

Such a magnificent idea is Types Essay too big for their narrow conceptions, which can neither observe the beauty of the work, nor comprehend the grandeur of its author. They suppose their deities, however potent and analysis, invisible, to be nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised from among mankind, and retaining all human passions and appetites, together with corporeal limbs and organs. Such limited beings, though masters of human fate, being, each of them, incapable of Essay extending his influence every where, must be vastly multiplied, in order to answer that variety of events, which happen over the whole face of nature. Thus every place is stored with a crowd of nhs essays local deities; and Types, thus polytheism has prevailed, and still prevails, among the greatest part of uninstructed mankind0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for james baldwin stories, ease of reference 3 * . Any of the human affections may lead us into Essay, the notion of invisible, intelligent power; hope as well as fear, gratitude as well as affliction: But if we examine our own hearts, or observe what passes around us, we shall find, that men are much oftener thrown on their knees by the melancholy than by the agreeable passions. Prosperity is easily received as our due, and unique individual, few questions are asked concerning its cause or author. It begets cheerfulness and Types of Acupuncture Essay, activity and alacrity and a lively enjoyment of every social and sensual pleasure: And during this state of mind, men have little leisure or inclination to individual think of the unknown invisible regions.

On the other hand, every disastrous accident alarms us, and sets us on enquiries concerning the principles whence it arose: Apprehensions spring up with regard to futurity: And the mind, sunk into diffidence, terror, and melancholy, has recourse to The Different every method of appeasing those secret intelligent powers, on individual whom our fortune is supposed entirely to depend. No topic is more usual with all popular divines than to display the advantages of Types of Acupuncture affliction, in bringing men to a due sense of religion; by subduing their confidence and sensuality, which, in times of prosperity, make them forgetful of a divine providence. Nor is this topic confined merely to modern religions. The ancients have also employed it. Fortune has never liberally, without envy, says a Greek historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4 * , bestowed an. unmixed happiness on mankind; but with all her gifts has ever conjoined some disastrous circumstance, in order to chastize men into a reverence for people history, the gods, whom, in a continued course of prosperity, they are apt to neglect and The Different Types Essay, forget . What age or period of life is the most addicted to types of business organisation superstition?

The weakest and most timid. What sex? The same answer must be given. The leaders and examples of every kind of superstition, says Strabo 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 5 #x2020; , are the women. These excite the men to devotion and supplications, and the observance of religious days. It is rare to meet with one that lives apart from the females, and yet is The Different Types addicted to unique individual such practices. The Different Of Acupuncture! And nothing can, for this reason, be more improbable, than the sample account given of an order of men among the Getes , who practised celibacy, and were notwithstanding the most religious fanatics. A method of Types reasoning, which would lead us to entertain a bad idea of the james stories devotion of The Different Essay monks; did we not know by people history, an experience, not so common, perhaps, in Strabo ’s days, that one may practise celibacy, and profess chastity; and yet maintain the closest connexions and most entire sympathy with that timorous and of Acupuncture, pious sex. Sect.

IV. Deities not considered as creators or formers of the world. The only point of theology, in of business, which we shall find a consent of mankind almost universal, is, that there is invisible, intelligent power in the world: But whether this power be supreme or subordinate, whether confined to one being, or distributed among several, what attributes, qualities, connexions, or principles of action ought to be ascribed to those beings; concerning all these points, there is the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay widest difference in the popular systems of theology. Our ancestors in Europe , before the revival of sample nhs essays letters, believed, as we do at present, that there was one supreme God, the author of The Different of Acupuncture Essay nature, whose power, though in people, itself uncontroulable, was yet often exerted by the interposition of his angels and subordinate ministers, who executed his sacred purposes. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay! But they also believed, that all nature was full of other invisible powers; fairies, goblins, elves, sprights; beings, stronger and mightier than men, but much inferior to the celestial natures, who surround the throne of unique God. Now, suppose, that any one, in those ages, had denied the Types of Acupuncture Essay existence of God and of his angels; would not his impiety justly have deserved the appellation of atheism, even though he had still allowed, by nhs essays, some odd capricious reasoning, that the popular stories of elves and fairies were just and well-grounded? The difference, on the one hand, between such a person and a genuine theist is infinitely greater than that, on the other, between him and The Different of Acupuncture, one that absolutely excludes all invisible intelligent power. And it is a fallacy, merely from the digging analysis casual resemblance of names, without any conformity of The Different Types Essay meaning, to rank such opposite opinions under the types organisation same denomination. To any one, who considers justly of the matter, it will appear, that the gods of all polytheists are no better than the elves or fairies of our ancestors, and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, merit as little any pious worship or veneration. Individual! These pretended religionists are really a kind of superstitious atheists, and acknowledge no being, that corresponds to our idea of a deity.

No first principle of mind or thought: No supreme government and administration: No divine contrivance or intention in the fabric of the world. The Chinese , when0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 6 * their prayers are not answered, beat their idols. The deities of the Laplanders are any large stone which they meet with of an extraordinary shape0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for of Acupuncture Essay, ease of reference 7 #x2020; . The Egyptian mythologists, in order to account for animal worship, said, that the gods, pursued by the violence of earth-born men, who were their enemies, had formerly been obliged to disguise themselves under the semblance of beasts0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of nhs essays reference 8 #x2021; . The Caunii , a nation in Types Essay, the Lesser Asia , resolving to individual admit no strange gods among them, regularly, at certain seasons, assembled themselves compleatly armed, beat the air with their lances, and proceeded in The Different Types, that manner to their frontiers; in order, as they said, to expel the german history foreign deities0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 9 #x1C1; . Not even the immortal gods, said some German nations to C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar , are a match for the Suevi 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 10 #xA7; . Many ills, says Dione in Homer to Venus wounded by Diomede , many ills, my daughter, have the gods inflicted on men: And many ills, in return, have men inflicted on the gods0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 11 * . Types! We need but open any classic author to meet with these gross representations of the deities; and Longinus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 12 #x2020; with reason observes, that such ideas of the divine nature, if literally taken, contain a true atheism. Some writers0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 13 #x2021; have been surprized, that the impieties of Aristophanes should have been tolerated, nay publicly acted and applauded by the Athenians ; a people so superstitious and of business organisation, so jealous of the public religion, that, at that very time, they put Socrates to The Different Types death for his imagined incredulity. But these writers do not consider, that the sample nhs essays ludicrous, familiar images, under which the gods are represented by that comic poet, instead of appearing impious, were the Types of Acupuncture Essay genuine lights in which the baldwin short stories ancients conceived their divinities. What conduct can be more criminal or mean, than that of Jupiter in the Amphitrion ? Yet that play, which represented his gallante exploits, was supposed so agreeable to him, that it was always acted in Rome by public authority, when the state was threatened with pestilence, famine, or any general calamity0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 14 #x1C1; . The Romans supposed, that, like all old letchers, he would be highly pleased with the recital of his former feats of prowess and vigour, and that no topic was so proper, upon which to flatter his vanity. The Lacedemonians , says Xenophon 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 15 #xA7; , always, during war, put up their petitions very early in the morning, in The Different Essay, order to be beforehand with their enemies, and, by being the first solicitors, pre-engage the gods in their. favour. We may gather from Seneca 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 16 * , that it was usual, for the votaries in the temples, to make interest with the analysis beadle or sexton, that they might have a seat near the image of the deity, in order to be the best heard in Types Essay, their prayers and james baldwin short, applications to him.

The Tyrians , when besieged by Alexander , threw chains on the statue of Hercules , to prevent that deity from deserting to the enemy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 17 #x2020; . Augustus , having twice lost his fleet by storms, forbad Neptune to be carried in Types Essay, procession along with the other gods; and fancied, that he had sufficiently revenged himself by that expedient0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of sample nhs essays reference 18 #x2021; . After Germanicus ’s death, the people were so enraged at their gods, that they stoned them in their temples; and openly renounced all allegiance to them0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 19 #x1C1; . To ascribe the origin and fabric of the universe to these imperfect beings never enters into the imagination of any polytheist or idolater. Hesiod , whose writings, with those of Homer , contained the canonical system of the heathens0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for of Acupuncture, ease of reference 20 #xA7; ; Hesiod , I say, supposes gods and men to have sprung equally from the james stories unknown powers of nature0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay reference 21 #x2020; . And throughout the sample nhs essays whole theogony of that author, Pandora is the The Different Types only instance of types creation or a voluntary production; and she too was formed by the gods merely from despight to Prometheus , who had furnished men with stolen fire from the celestial regions0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 22 #x2020;#x2020; . The ancient mythologists, indeed, seem throughout to have rather embraced the idea of generation than that of Types of Acupuncture creation or formation; and to have thence accounted for the origin of this universe. Ovid , who lived in a learned age, and had been instructed by philosophers in analysis, the principles of a divine creation or formation of the world; finding, that such an idea would not agree with the popular mythology, which he delivers, leaves it, in Types of Acupuncture, a manner, loose and detached from his system. Quisquis fuit ille Deorum0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 23 * ? Whichever of the gods it was, says he, that dissipated the chaos, and introduced order into the universe. It could neither be Saturn , he knew, nor Jupiter , nor Neptune , nor any of the received deities of paganism. His theological system had taught him nothing upon that head; and he leaves the matter equally undetermined. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of analysis reference 24 #x2020; , beginning his work with an enumeration of the most reasonable opinions concerning the Types origin of the german people world, makes no mention of a deity or intelligent mind; though it is evident from his history, that he was much more prone to superstition than to irreligion.

And in another passage0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 25 #x2021; , talking of the Ichthyophagi , a nation in India , he says, that, there being so great difficulty in accounting for their descent, we must conclude them to be aborigines , without any beginning of their generation, propagating their race from all eternity; as some of the physiologers, in treating of the origin of nature, have justly observed. “But in such subjects as these,” adds the historian, “which exceed all human capacity, it may well happen, that those, who discourse the most, know the least; reaching a specious appearance of truth in their reasonings, while extremely wide of the real truth and matter of fact.” A strange sentiment in The Different Types Essay, our eyes, to be embraced by a professed and zealous religionist0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 26 * ! But it was merely by german people, accident, that the question concerning the origin of the world did ever in ancient times enter into religious systems, or was treated of by theologers. The philosophers alone made profession of delivering systems of this kind; and it was pretty late too before these bethought themselves of having recourse to a mind or supreme intelligence, as the first cause of all. So far was it from being esteemed profane in those days to account for the origin of The Different Essay things without a deity, that Thales , Anaximenes , Heraclitus , and unique, others, who embraced that system of cosmogony, past unquestioned; while Anaxagoras , the first undoubted theist among the philosophers, was perhaps the first that ever was accused of atheism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 27 #x2020; . We are told by Sextus Empiricus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 28 #x2021; , that Epicurus , when a boy, reading with his preceptor these verses of Hesiod , Eldest of beings, chaos first arose; Next earth , wide-stretch’d, the seat of all: the young scholar first betrayed his inquisitive genius, by asking, And chaos whence?

But was told by The Different, his preceptor, that he must have recourse to the philosophers for a solution of sample nhs essays such questions. And from this hint Epicurus left philology and all other studies, in order to betake himself to that science, whence alone he expected satisfaction with regard to these sublime subjects. The common people were never likely to push their researches so far, or derive from reasoning their systems of religion; when philologers and mythologists, we see, scarcely ever discovered so much penetration. And even the philosophers, who discoursed of such topics, readily assented to the grossest theory, and admitted the joint origin of gods and men from Types of Acupuncture Essay, night and chaos; from fire, water, air, or whatever they established to be the ruling element. Nor was it only on their first origin, that the gods were supposed dependent on the powers of nature.

Throughout the whole period of their existence they were subjected to the dominion of fate or destiny. Think of the force of necessity, says Agrippa to the Roman people, that force, to ohio vs mapp which even the gods must submit0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 29 * . And the Younger Pliny 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 30 #x2020; , agreeably to this way of thinking, tells us, that amidst the darkness, horror, and confusion, which ensued upon the first eruption of Vesuvius , several concluded, that all nature was going to wrack, and that gods and The Different Types, men were perishing in one common ruin. It is great complaisance, indeed, if we dignify with the name of individual religion such an imperfect system of theology, and Types Essay, put it on a level with later systems, which are founded on history principles more just and more sublime. For my part, I can scarcely allow the principles even of Marcus Aurelius , Plutarch , and some other Stoics and Types, Academics , though much more refined than the pagan superstition, to be worthy of the honourable appellation of theism. For if the mythology of the heathens resemble the ancient European system of spiritual beings, excluding God and angels, and leaving only types of business fairies and sprights; the creed of these philosophers may justly be said to exclude a deity, and to leave only angels and fairies. Sect. V. Various Forms of Polytheism: Allegory, Hero-Worship. But it is chiefly our present business to consider the gross polytheism of the vulgar, and to trace all its various appearances, in the principles of human nature, whence they are derived.

Whoever learns by argument, the existence of invisible intelligent power, must reason from the admirable contrivance of natural objects, and must suppose the world to be the workmanship of that divine being, the original cause of all things. But the vulgar polytheist, so far from admitting that idea, deifies every part of the universe, and conceives all the conspicuous productions of nature, to be themselves so many real divinities. The sun, moon, and stars, are all gods according to his system: Fountains are inhabited by The Different Types Essay, nymphs, and trees by hamadryads: Even monkies, dogs, cats, and other animals often become sacred in his eyes, and james short stories, strike him with a religious veneration. And thus, however strong men’s propensity to believe invisible, intelligent power in Types, nature, their propensity is equally strong to rest their attention on sensible, visible objects; and in order to reconcile these opposite inclinations, they are led to unite the invisible power with some visible object. The distribution also of distinct provinces to the several deities is apt to cause some allegory, both physical and moral, to enter into the vulgar systems of polytheism.

The god of war will naturally be represented as furious, cruel, and impetuous: The god of poetry as elegant, polite, and amiable: The god of merchandise, especially in of business organisation, early times, as thievish and deceitful. The allegories, supposed in Homer and other mythologists, I allow, have often been so strained, that men of sense are apt entirely to Types of Acupuncture Essay reject them, and to consider them as the production merely of the fancy and people, conceit of The Different of Acupuncture Essay critics and commentators. But that allegory really has place in the heathen mythology is undeniable even on the least reflection. Cupid the son of Venus ; the Muses the daughters of Memory; Prometheus , the wise brother, and Epimetheus the foolish; Hygieia or the goddess of health descended from ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sculapius or the god of physic: Who sees not, in these, and in many other instances, the plain traces of allegory? When a god is supposed to preside over any passion, event, or system of actions, it is almost. unavoidable to give him a genealogy, attributes, and adventures, suitable to ohio vs mapp his supposed powers and influence; and to carry on that similitude and The Different of Acupuncture, comparison, which is naturally so agreeable to the mind of man. Allegories, indeed, entirely perfect, we ought not to organisation expect as the productions of ignorance and superstition; there being no work of genius that requires a nicer hand, or has been more rarely executed with success.

That Fear and Essay, Terror are the sons of Mars is just; but why by Venus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 31 * ? That Harmony is the daughter of Venus is nhs essays regular; but why by Mars 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for The Different Types Essay, ease of reference 32 #x2020; ? That Sleep is the brother of Death is suitable; but why describe him as enamoured of one of the Graces0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of ohio vs mapp reference 33 #x2021; ? And since the ancient mythologists fall into Types, mistakes so gross and palpable, we have no reason surely to expect such refined and long-spun allegories, as some have endeavoured to deduce from their fictions. Lucretius was plainly seduced by the strong appearance of allegory, which is observable in the pagan fictions. He first addresses himself to Venus as to of business organisation that generating power, which animates, renews, and beautifies the universe: But is soon betrayed by the mythology into incoherencies, while he prays to that allegorical personage to appease the furies of her lover Mars : An idea not drawn from allegory, but from the popular religion, and which Lucretius , as an Epicurean , could not consistently admit of. The deities of the vulgar are so little superior to human creatures, that, where men are affected with strong sentiments of veneration or gratitude for any hero or public benefactor, nothing can be more natural than to convert him into a god, and fill the heavens, after this manner, with continual recruits from among mankind. Most of the divinities of the ancient world are supposed to The Different Types of Acupuncture have once been men, and to have been beholden for their apotheosis to the admiration and affection of the people. The real history of their adventures, corrupted by types of business, tradition, and elevated by Essay, the marvellous, become a plentiful source of fable; especially in passing through the hands of poets, allegorists, and priests, who successively improved upon the wonder and astonishment of the ohio vs mapp ignorant multitude.

Painters too and sculptors came in for their share of profit in the sacred mysteries; and furnishing men with sensible representations of their divinities, whom they cloathed in The Different Essay, human figures, gave great encrease to ohio vs mapp the public devotion, and determined its object. It was probably for want of these arts in rude and barbarous ages, that men deified plants, animals, and even brute, unorganized matter; and Types of Acupuncture Essay, rather than be without a sensible object of worship, affixed divinity to such ungainly forms. Could any statuary of Syria , in baldwin short stories, early times, have formed a just figure of Apollo , the conic stone, Heliogabalus , had never become the object of such profound adoration, and been received as a representation of the The Different Essay solar deity0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 34 * . Stilpo was banished by unique individual, the council of Areopagus , for affirming that the Minerva in the citadel was no divinity; but the workmanship of Phidias , the sculptor0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 35 #x2020; . What degree of Types of Acupuncture Essay reason must we expect in the religious belief of the vulgar in other nations; when Athenians and Areopagites could entertain such gross conceptions? These then are the general principles of digging polytheism, founded in human nature, and little or nothing dependent on caprice and accident. As the causes , which bestow happiness or misery, are, in general, very little known and very uncertain, our anxious concern endeavours to attain a determinate idea of them; and Essay, finds no better expedient than to represent them as intelligent voluntary agents, like ourselves; only somewhat superior in digging, power and wisdom. The Different! The limited influence of digging these agents, and their great proximity to human weakness, introduce the various distribution and division of their authority; and thereby give rise to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay allegory. The same principles naturally deify mortals, superior in power, courage, or understanding, and produce hero-worship; together with fabulous history and mythological tradition, in people, all its wild and unaccountable forms.

And as an invisible spiritual intelligence is an object too refined for vulgar apprehension, men naturally affix it to some sensible representation; such as either the more conspicuous parts of nature, or the statues, images, and pictures, which a more refined age forms of its divinities. Almost all idolaters, of Types whatever age or country, concur in these general principles and conceptions; and even the particular characters and digging, provinces, which they assign to their deities, are not extremely different0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36 * . The Greek and Roman travellers and conquerors, without much difficulty, found their own deities every where; and said, This is The Different of Acupuncture Mercury , that Venus ; this Mars , that Neptune ; by whatever title the strange gods might be denominated. The goddess Hertha of german people history our Saxon ancestors seems to The Different of Acupuncture Essay be no other, according to Tacitus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 37 #x2020; , than the Mater Tellus of the Romans ; and digging analysis, his conjecture was evidently just. Sect. VI. Origin of Theism from Polytheism. The doctrine of one supreme deity, the author of nature, is very ancient, has spread itself over The Different of Acupuncture great and populous nations, and among them has been embraced by ohio vs mapp, all ranks and conditions of men: But whoever thinks that it has owed its success to the prevalent force of Types those invincible reasons, on which it is undoubtedly founded, would show himself little acquainted with the ignorance and stupidity of the people, and james baldwin, their incurable prejudices in favour of Types their particular superstitions. Even at this day, and in Europe , ask any of the vulgar, why he believes in an omnipotent creator of the world; he will never mention the beauty of final causes, of which he is wholly ignorant: He will not hold out his hand, and bid you contemplate the suppleness and variety of ohio vs mapp joints in The Different of Acupuncture, his fingers, their bending all one way, the counterpoise which they receive from the thumb, the softness and fleshy parts of the inside of nhs essays his hand, with all the other circumstances, which render that member fit for the use, to which it was destined. To these he has been long accustomed; and he beholds them with listlessness and unconcern. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! He will tell you of the sudden and unexpected death of individual such a one: The fall and bruise of The Different of Acupuncture Essay such another: The excessive drought of this season: The cold and rains of another.

These he ascribes to the immediate operation of providence: And such events, as, with good reasoners, are the chief difficulties in admitting a supreme intelligence, are with him the sole arguments for types, it. Many theists, even the most zealous and refined, have denied a particular providence, and have asserted, that the Sovereign mind or first principle of all things, having fixed general laws, by which nature is governed, gives free and The Different, uninterrupted course to these laws, and disturbs not, at every turn, the settled order of baldwin events by particular volitions. From the beautiful connexion, say they, and rigid observance of established rules, we draw the chief argument for theism; and from the same principles are enabled to answer the principal objections against it. But so little is this understood by the generality of mankind, that, wherever they observe any one to ascribe all events to natural causes, and to remove the particular interposition of a deity, they are apt to suspect him of the grossest infidelity. A little philosophy , says lord Bacon , makes men atheists: A great deal reconciles them to. religion. For men, being taught, by superstitious prejudices, to lay the The Different Essay stress on a wrong place; when that fails them, and they discover, by a little reflection, that the course of nature is regular and uniform, their whole faith totters, and falls to ruin. But being taught, by more reflection, that this very regularity and uniformity is the strongest proof of digging design and of a supreme intelligence, they return to The Different of Acupuncture Essay that belief, which they had deserted; and digging, they are now able to establish it on a firmer and more durable foundation. Convulsions in nature, disorders, prodigies, miracles, though the most opposite to the plan of a wise superintendent, impress mankind with the strongest sentiments of religion; the causes of events seeming then the most unknown and unaccountable. Madness, fury, rage, and an inflamed imagination, though they sink men nearest to the level of beasts, are, for a like reason, often supposed to be the only dispositions, in The Different Essay, which we can have any immediate communication with the Deity.

We may conclude, therefore, upon the whole, that, since the vulgar, in nations, which have embraced the doctrine of theism, still build it upon irrational and digging analysis, superstitious principles, they are never led into that opinion by any process of argument, but by a certain train of thinking, more suitable to of Acupuncture Essay their genius and james short stories, capacity. It may readily happen, in an idolatrous nation, that though men admit the existence of several limited deities, yet is there some one God, whom, in a particular manner, they make the object of their worship and adoration. They may either suppose, that, in the distribution of power and Essay, territory among the stories gods, their nation was subjected to of Acupuncture Essay the jurisdiction of that particular deity; or reducing heavenly objects to the model of things below, they may represent one god as the prince or supreme magistrate of the rest, who, though of the same nature, rules them with an authority, like that which an sample, earthly sovereign exercises over his subjects and vassals. Essay! Whether this god, therefore, be considered as their peculiar patron, or as the general sovereign of heaven, his votaries will endeavour, by every art, to insinuate themselves into his favour; and supposing him to be pleased, like themselves, with praise and flattery, there is digging no eulogy or exaggeration, which will be spared in their addresses to him. In proportion as men’s fears or distresses become more urgent, they still invent new strains of adulation; and even he who outdoes his predecessor in swelling up the titles of his divinity, is sure to Types Essay be outdone by his successor in newer and more pompous epithets of praise. Thus they proceed; till at last they arrive at german people history infinity itself, beyond which there is no farther progress: And it is well, if, in striving to get farther, and to represent a magnificent simplicity, they run not into inexplicable mystery, and destroy the intelligent nature of their deity, on.

which alone any rational worship or adoration can be founded. The Different Of Acupuncture! While they confine themselves to the notion of sample nhs essays a perfect being, the creator of the world, they coincide, by chance, with the principles of reason and The Different, true philosophy; though they are guided to that notion, not by reason, of which they are in a great measure incapable, but by nhs essays, the adulation and fears of the most vulgar superstition. We often find, amongst barbarous nations, and The Different Essay, even sometimes amongst civilized, that, when every strain of flattery has been exhausted towards arbitrary princes, when every human quality has been applauded to sample nhs essays the utmost; their servile courtiers represent them, at last, as real divinities, and point them out to the people as objects of adoration. How much more natural, therefore, is it, that a limited deity, who at first is supposed only the immediate author of the Types Essay particular goods and unique, ills in life, should in the end be represented as sovereign maker and modifier of the The Different Types of Acupuncture universe? Even where this notion of a supreme deity is already established; though it ought naturally to lessen every other worship, and abase every object of reverence, yet if a nation has entertained the opinion of a subordinate tutelar divinity, saint, or angel; their addresses to that being gradually rise upon them, and encroach on the adoration due to their supreme deity. The Virgin Mary , ere checked by the reformation, had proceeded, from being merely a good woman, to unique usurp many attributes of the Almighty: God and St. Nicholas go hand in hand, in all the prayers and petitions of the Muscovites . Thus the deity, who, from love, converted himself into a bull, in order to Essay carry off Europa ; and who, from ambition, dethroned his father, Saturn , became the digging Optimus Maximus of the heathens. Thus, the God of Abraham , Isaac , and Jacob , became the supreme deity or Jehovah of the Jews . The Jacobins , who denied the immaculate conception, have ever been very unhappy in The Different of Acupuncture Essay, their doctrine, even though political reasons have kept the Romish church from condemning it. The Cordeliers have run away with all the popularity.

But in the fifteenth century, as we learn from Boulainvilliers 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 38 * , an Italian Cordelier maintained, that, during the three days, when Christ was interred, the hypostatic union was dissolved, and that his human nature was not a proper object of adoration, during that period. German People! Without the art of divination, one might foretel, that so gross and impious a blasphemy would not fail to be anathematized by the people. It was the occasion of great insults on the part of the Jacobins ; who now got some recompence for their misfortunes in the war about the immaculate conception. Rather than relinquish this propensity to adulation, religionists, in The Different of Acupuncture, all ages, have involved themselves in the greatest absurdities and organisation, contradictions. Homer , in one passage, calls Oceanus and Tethys the original parents of all things, conformably to the established mythology and tradition of the Greeks : Yet, in other passages, he could not forbear complimenting Jupiter , the Essay reigning deity, with that magnificent appellation; and accordingly denominates him the father of unique individual gods and men. He forgets, that every temple, every street was full of the The Different ancestors, uncles, brothers, and ohio vs mapp, sisters of this Jupiter ; who was in reality nothing but an upstart parricide and Types of Acupuncture Essay, usurper. A like contradiction is observable in Hesiod ; and is so much the less excusable, as his professed intention was to deliver a true genealogy of the james baldwin short stories gods. Were there a religion (and we may suspect Mahometanism of this inconsistence) which sometimes painted the Deity in the most sublime colours, as the creator of heaven and earth; sometimes degraded him nearly to of Acupuncture a level with human creatures in his powers and short, faculties; while at the same time it ascribed to Types of Acupuncture Essay him suitable infirmities, passions, and partialities, of the moral kind: That religion, after it was extinct, would also be cited as an instance of those contradictions, which arise from the gross, vulgar, natural conceptions of mankind, opposed to their continual propensity towards flattery and ohio vs mapp, exaggeration. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! Nothing indeed would prove more strongly the divine origin of any religion, than to find (and happily this is the unique case with Christianity) that it is free from The Different Types Essay, a contradiction, so incident to human nature. Sect.VII. Confirmation of types of business organisation this Doctrine.

It appears certain, that, though the The Different Essay original notions of the vulgar represent the Divinity as a limited being, and consider him only as the particular cause of health or sickness; plenty or want; prosperity or adversity; yet when more magnificent ideas are urged upon them, they esteem it dangerous to refuse their assent. Will you say, that your deity is finite and bounded in his perfections; may be overcome by a greater force; is subject to human passions, pains, and infirmities; has a beginning, and may have an end? This they dare not affirm; but thinking it safest to comply with the higher encomiums, they endeavour, by an affected ravishment and devotion, to german ingratiate themselves with him. As a confirmation of this, we may observe, that the assent of the vulgar is, in this case, merely verbal, and that they are incapable of conceiving those sublime qualities, which they seemingly attribute to the Deity. Their real idea of him, notwithstanding their pompous language, is The Different still as poor and frivolous as ever. That original intelligence, say the Magians , who is the ohio vs mapp first principle of all things, discovers himself immediately to the mind and understanding alone; but has placed the sun as his image in the visible universe; and when that bright luminary diffuses its beams over the earth and The Different Essay, the firmament, it is a faint copy of the glory, which resides in the higher heavens. If you would escape the displeasure of this divine being, you must be careful never to set your bare foot upon the ground, nor spit into analysis, a fire, nor throw any water upon it, even though it were consuming a whole city0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 39 * . Who can express the perfections of the Almighty? say the Mahometans. Even the noblest of his works, if compared to The Different Types of Acupuncture him, are but dust and rubbish. German History! How much more must human conception fall short of his infinite perfections?

His smile and Types of Acupuncture, favour renders men for ever happy; and to obtain it for your children, the best method is to cut off from them, while infants, a little bit of skin, about half the breadth of a farthing. Ohio Vs Mapp! Take two bits of cloth0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 40 #x2020; , say the Roman catholics , about an inch or an The Different Types of Acupuncture, inch and a half square, join them by the corners with two strings or pieces of tape about sixteen inches long, throw this over your head, and make one of the bits of cloth lie upon your. breast, and the other upon your back, keeping them next your skin: There is not a better secret for recommending yourself to that infinite Being, who exists from eternity to james baldwin stories eternity. The Getes , commonly called immortal, from their steady belief of the of Acupuncture Essay soul’s immortality, were genuine theists and unique individual, unitarians. They affirmed Zamolxis , their deity, to be the only true god; and asserted the worship of all other nations to be addressed to mere fictions and Types, chimeras. But were their religious principles any more refined, on analysis account of these magnificent pretensions? Every fifth year they sacrificed a human victim, whom they sent as a messenger to their deity, in of Acupuncture, order to inform him of their wants and necessities. And when it thundered, they were so provoked, that, in order to return the defiance, they let fly arrows at him, and declined not the combat as unequal.

Such at least is the account, which Herodotus gives of the types theism of the immortal Getes 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 41 #x2021; . Sect. VIII. Flux and reflux of polytheism and theism. It is remarkable, that the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay principles of religion have a kind of digging flux and reflux in the human mind, and that men have a natural tendency to rise from idolatry to theism, and to sink again from theism into idolatry. Types Essay! The vulgar, that is, indeed, all mankind, a few excepted, being ignorant and uninstructed, never elevate their contemplation to the heavens, or penetrate by unique, their disquisitions into the secret structure of vegetable or animal bodies; so far as to discover a supreme mind or original providence, which bestowed order on every part of nature.

They consider these admirable works in a more confined and selfish view; and The Different Types of Acupuncture, finding their own happiness and james short stories, misery to depend on the secret influence and unforeseen concurrence of external objects, they regard, with perpetual attention, the unknown causes , which govern all these natural events, and distribute pleasure and pain, good and ill, by their powerful, but silent, operation. Types Essay! The unknown causes are still appealed to on every emergence; and in this general appearance or confused image, are the perpetual objects of human hopes and fears, wishes and apprehensions. By degrees, the active imagination of men, uneasy in this abstract conception of objects, about which it is incessantly employed, begins to render them more particular, and to clothe them in shapes more suitable to its natural comprehension. It represents them to ohio vs mapp be sensible, intelligent beings, like mankind; actuated by love and The Different of Acupuncture, hatred, and flexible by unique, gifts and entreaties, by The Different Types of Acupuncture, prayers and sacrifices. Hence the origin of religion: And hence the origin of idolatry or polytheism. But the same anxious concern for happiness, which begets the idea of these invisible, intelligent powers, allows not mankind to remain long in the first simple conception of them; as powerful, but limited beings; masters of human fate, but slaves to destiny and ohio vs mapp, the course of nature. Men’s exaggerated praises and compliments still swell their idea upon them; and elevating their deities to the utmost bounds of perfection, at last beget the attributes of unity and Essay, infinity, simplicity and of business, spirituality. Essay! Such refined ideas, being somewhat disproportioned to vulgar comprehension, remain not long in their original purity; but require to be supported by the notion of inferior mediators or subordinate agents, which interpose between mankind and organisation, their supreme deity.

These demi-gods or middle beings, partaking more of human nature, and being more familiar to us, become the chief objects of devotion, and gradually recal that idolatry, which had been formerly banished by the ardent prayers and panegyrics of timorous and indigent mortals. But as these idolatrous religions fall every day into grosser and more vulgar conceptions, they at last destroy themselves, and, by the vile representations, which they form of their deities, make the tide turn again towards theism. But so great is the propensity, in this alternate revolution of human sentiments, to return back to idolatry, that the utmost precaution is not able effectually to prevent it. And of this, some theists, particularly the Jews and Mahometans , have been sensible; as appears by their banishing all the arts of statuary and painting, and not allowing the representations, even of human figures, to be taken by marble or colours; lest the common infirmity of mankind should thence produce idolatry. The feeble apprehensions of men cannot be satisfied with conceiving their deity as a pure spirit and perfect intelligence; and yet their natural terrors keep them from imputing to him the least shadow of limitation and imperfection. They fluctuate between these opposite sentiments. The same infirmity still drags them downwards, from an omnipotent and spiritual deity, to a limited and corporeal one, and from a corporeal and limited deity to a statue or visible representation. The same endeavour at elevation still pushes them upwards, from the statue or material image to the invisible power; and from the invisible power to an infinitely perfect deity, the creator and sovereign of the universe.

Sect. IX. Comparison of these Religions, with regard to Persecution and The Different of Acupuncture Essay, Toleration. Polytheism or idolatrous worship, being founded entirely in vulgar traditions, is liable to this great inconvenience, that any practice or opinion, however barbarous or corrupted, may be authorized by individual, it; and of Acupuncture, full scope is given, for knavery to impose on credulity, till morals and german history, humanity be expelled from there is a 'from' here in all editions up to and including that of 1770; it seems to have vanished from the 1772 and 1777 editions by mistake the religious systems of Types of Acupuncture mankind. James Short! At the same time, idolatry is attended with this evident advantage, that, by limiting the powers and functions of of Acupuncture its deities, it naturally admits the gods of other sects and ohio vs mapp, nations to a share of divinity, and renders all the various deities, as well as rites, ceremonies, or traditions, compatible with each other0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 42 * . Theism is opposite both in The Different Essay, its advantages and types organisation, disadvantages. As that system supposes one sole deity, the perfection of reason and goodness, it should, if justly prosecuted, banish every thing frivolous, unreasonable, or inhuman from religious worship, and Types of Acupuncture Essay, set before men the most illustrious example, as well as the most commanding motives, of justice and benevolence.

These mighty advantages are not indeed over-balanced (for that is not possible), but somewhat diminished, by inconveniencies, which arise from the vices and prejudices of mankind. While one sole object of devotion is acknowledged, the worship of other deities is regarded as absurd and impious. Nay, this unity of object seems naturally to require the unity of faith and ceremonies, and furnishes designing men with a pretence for representing their adversaries as profane, and the objects of divine as well as human vengeance. Digging Analysis! For as each sect is positive that its own faith and worship are entirely acceptable to the deity, and as no one can conceive, that the same being should be pleased with different and opposite rites and principles; the several sects fall naturally. into animosity, and mutually discharge on each other that sacred zeal and rancour, the most furious and implacable of all human passions. The tolerating spirit of idolaters, both in ancient and modern times, is very obvious to any one, who is the least conversant in the writings of historians or travellers. When the oracle of Delphi was asked, what rites or worship was most acceptable to The Different Types of Acupuncture the gods? Those which are legally established in each city, replied the oracle0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for baldwin, ease of Types of Acupuncture Essay reference 43 * . Even priests, in those ages, could, it seems, allow salvation to types of business organisation those of a different communion.

The Romans commonly adopted the The Different Types Essay gods of the conquered people; and never disputed the attributes of those local and national deities, in nhs essays, whose territories they resided. The religious wars and persecutions of the Egyptian idolaters are indeed an exception to this rule; but are accounted for by ancient authors from reasons singular and remarkable. Different species of The Different animals were the deities of the different sects among the Egyptians ; and the deities being in continual war, engaged their votaries in sample nhs essays, the same contention. The worshippers of dogs could not long remain in peace with the adorers of cats or wolves0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for Types of Acupuncture Essay, ease of reference 44 * . But where that reason took not place, the Egyptian superstition was not so incompatible as is commonly imagined; since we learn from Herodotus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 45 #x2020; , that very large contributions were given by Amasis towards rebuilding the temple of organisation Delphi . The intolerance of almost all religions, which have maintained the unity of God, is as remarkable as the contrary principle of polytheists. The implacable narrow spirit of the Jews is well known. Mahometanism set out with still more bloody principles; and even to The Different of Acupuncture Essay this day, deals out damnation, though not fire and german history, faggot, to all other sects. And if, among Christians , the English and Dutch have embraced the Essay principles of toleration, this singularity has proceeded from the digging analysis steady resolution of the civil magistrate, in opposition to the continued efforts of priests and bigots. The disciples of Zoroaster shut the doors of heaven against all but the Magians 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 46 #x2021; . Nothing could more obstruct the progress of the Persian conquests, than the furious zeal of that nation against the temples and images of the Greeks . And after the Types overthrow of that empire we find Alexander , as a polytheist, immediately re-establishing the worship of the Babylonians , which their former princes, as monotheists, had carefully abolished0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for nhs essays, ease of reference 47 #x1C1; . Even the blind and devoted attachment of that conqueror to Types of Acupuncture Essay the Greek superstition hindered not but he himself sacrificed according to the Babylonish rites and ceremonies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 48 #xA7; . So sociable is polytheism, that the utmost fierceness and antipathy, which it meets with in an opposite german, religion, is scarcely able to disgust it, and of Acupuncture Essay, keep it at a distance. Augustus praised extremely the nhs essays reserve of his grandson, Caius C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar , when this latter prince, passing by Jerusalem , deigned not to sacrifice according to the Jewish law. Types Essay! But for what reason did Augustus so much approve of this conduct? Only, because that religion was by the Pagans esteemed ignoble and barbarous0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 49 * . I may venture to affirm, that few corruptions of idolatry and polytheism are more pernicious to society than this corruption of theism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 50 #x2020; , when carried to the utmost height.

The human sacrifices of the people Carthaginians , Mexicans , and many barbarous nations0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 51 #x2021; , scarcely exceed the inquisition and The Different Types of Acupuncture, persecutions of individual Rome and Madrid . For besides, that the effusion of blood may not be so great in the former case as in the latter; besides this, I say, the human victims, being chosen by lot, or by some exterior signs, affect not, in so considerable a degree, the rest of the society. Whereas virtue, knowledge, love of liberty, are the of Acupuncture qualities, which call down the fatal vengeance of inquisitors; and when expelled, leave the society in the most shameful ignorance, corruption, and bondage. The illegal murder of one man by a tyrant is more pernicious than the death of sample nhs essays a thousand by pestilence, famine, or any undistinguishing calamity. In the temple of Diana at Aricia near Rome , whoever murdered the present priest, was legally entitled to be installed his successor0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for The Different Types of Acupuncture, ease of reference 52 #x1C1; . A very singular institution! For, however barbarous and bloody the types of business common superstitions often are to the laity, they usually turn to the advantage of the holy order. Sect. X. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay! With regard to courage or abasement.

From the comparison of theism and idolatry, we may form some other observations, which will also confirm the vulgar observation, that the corruption of the ohio vs mapp best things gives rise to the worst. Where the deity is represented as infinitely superior to mankind, this belief, though altogether just, is apt, when joined with superstitious terror, to sink the human mind into the lowest submission and abasement, and to represent the monkish virtues of mortification, penance, humility, and The Different of Acupuncture, passive suffering, as the only qualities which are acceptable to him. Digging! But where the gods are conceived to be only a little superior to mankind, and to have been, many of them, advanced from of Acupuncture Essay, that inferior rank, we are more at our ease in our addresses to ohio vs mapp them, and may even, without profaneness, aspire sometimes to a rivalship and emulation of them. Hence activity, spirit, courage, magnanimity, love of The Different Types of Acupuncture liberty, and all the ohio vs mapp virtues which aggrandize a people. The heroes in paganism correspond exactly to the saints in popery and holy dervises in Mahometanism . The place of Hercules , Theseus , Hector , Romulus , is now supplied by Dominic , Francis , Anthony , and Benedict . Instead of the The Different Types destruction of monsters, the subduing of tyrants, the defence of our native country; whippings and fastings, cowardice and humility, abject submission and stories, slavish obedience, are become the means of obtaining celestial honours among mankind.

One great incitement to the pious Alexander in his warlike expeditions was his rivalship of Hercules and Bacchus , whom he justly pretended to have excelled0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 53 * . Brasidas , that generous and noble Spartan , after falling in battle, had heroic honours paid him by the inhabitants of Amphipolis , whose defence he had embraced0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 54 #x2020; . And in general, all founders of states and colonies among the Greeks were raised to this inferior rank of divinity, by Types Essay, those who reaped the analysis benefit of their labours. This gave rise to the observation of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay Machiavel 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 55 #x2021; , that the doctrines of the Christian religion (meaning the catholic; for he knew no other) which recommend only passive courage and suffering, had subdued the spirit of. mankind, and had fitted them for slavery and subjection. An observation, which would certainly be just, were there not many other circumstances in human society which controul the genius and individual, character of a religion. Brasidas seized a mouse, and being bit by it, let it go. There is nothing so contemptible, said he, but what may be safe, if it has but courage to The Different Types Essay defend itself0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of of business organisation reference 56 #x1C1; . The Different Types Essay! Bellarmine patiently and humbly allowed the fleas and other odious vermin to sample nhs essays prey upon him. We shall have heaven, said he, to The Different Essay reward us for our sufferings: But these poor creatures have nothing but the enjoyment of the present life0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 57 #xA7; . James Stories! Such difference is there between the maxims of a Greek hero and a Catholic saint. Sect.

XI. With regard to reason or absurdity. Here is another observation to the same purpose, and of Acupuncture Essay, a new proof that the corruption of the best things begets the worst. If we examine, without prejudice, the ancient heathen mythology, as contained in the poets, we shall not discover in it any such monstrous absurdity, as we may at sample first be apt to apprehend. Where is the difficulty in conceiving, that the same powers or principles, whatever they were, which formed this visible world, men and animals, produced also a species of The Different Types Essay intelligent creatures, of digging more refined substance and Types of Acupuncture Essay, greater authority than the organisation rest? That these creatures may be capricious, revengeful, passionate, voluptuous, is easily conceived; nor is any circumstance more apt, among ourselves, to engender such vices, than the licence of absolute authority. And in short, the The Different of Acupuncture Essay whole mythological system is so natural, that, in the vast variety of planets and words worlds originally 'words'; previous editions have 'worlds' here, which is obviously what was intended , contained in this universe, it seems more than probable, that, somewhere or other, it is really carried into execution. The chief objection to of business it with regard to this planet, is, that it is The Different Essay not ascertained by any just reason or authority. The ancient tradition, insisted on ohio vs mapp by heathen priests and theologers, is Types of Acupuncture but a weak foundation; and transmitted also such a number of contradictory reports, supported, all of them, by equal authority, that it became absolutely impossible to fix a preference amongst them. A few volumes, therefore, must contain all the polemical writings of pagan priests: And their whole theology must consist more of traditional stories and superstitious practices than of philosophical argument and controversy.

But where theism forms the fundamental principle of individual any popular religion, that tenet is so conformable to sound reason, that philosophy is apt to incorporate itself with such a system of theology. And if the Types of Acupuncture Essay other dogmas of that system be contained in a sacred book, such as the Alcoran, or be determined by digging, any visible authority, like that of the Types Roman pontiff, speculative reasoners naturally carry on their assent, and embrace a theory, which has been instilled into nhs essays, them by their earliest education, and which also possesses some degree of consistence and uniformity. But as these appearances are sure, all of of Acupuncture Essay them, to prove deceitful, philosophy will soon find herself very unequally yoked with her new associate; and instead of. regulating each principle, as they advance together, she is at every turn perverted to serve the purposes of superstition. For besides the unavoidable incoherences, which must be reconciled and adjusted; one may safely affirm, that all popular theology, especially the scholastic, has a kind of analysis appetite for absurdity and contradiction. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! If that theology went not beyond reason and common sense, her doctrines would appear too easy and familiar. Amazement must of necessity be raised: Mystery affected: Darkness and obscurity sought after: And a foundation of merit afforded to the devout votaries, who desire an unique individual, opportunity of subduing their rebellious reason, by the belief of the The Different of Acupuncture most unintelligible sophisms. Ecclesiastical history sufficiently confirms these reflections. When a controversy is started, some people always pretend with certainty to foretell the issue.

Whichever opinion, say they, is most contrary to plain sense is sure to prevail; even where the general interest of the system requires not that decision. Though the reproach of heresy may, for some time, be bandied about among the disputants, it always rests at last on the side of reason. Types! Any one, it is Types pretended, that has but learning enough of ohio vs mapp this kind to The Different Essay know the definition of Arian , Pelagian , Erestian , Socinian , Sabellian , Eutychian , Nestorian , Monothelite , c. not to mention Protestant , whose fate is yet uncertain, will be convinced of the truth of this observation. It is thus a system becomes more absurd in the end, merely from analysis, its being reasonable and philosophical in the beginning. To oppose the torrent of scholastic religion by such feeble maxims as these, that it is impossible for the same thing, to be and not to be , that the whole is greater than a part , that two and three make five ; is pretending to stop the ocean with a bull-rush. Will you set up profane reason against sacred mystery? No punishment is great enough for your impiety. And the of Acupuncture Essay same fires, which were kindled for heretics, will serve also for the destruction of philosophers. Sect.

XII. With regard to Doubt or Conviction. We meet every day with people so sceptical with regard to unique history, that they assert it impossible for any nation ever to believe such absurd principles as those of Greek and Egyptian paganism; and at the same time so dogmatical with regard to religion, that they think the same absurdities are to be found in no other communion. Cambyses entertained like prejudices; and very impiously ridiculed, and even wounded, Apis , the great god of the Types of Acupuncture Essay Egyptians , who appeared to his profane senses nothing but a large spotted bull. But Herodotus judiciously ascribes this sally of passion to a real madness or disorder of the brain: Otherwise, says the historian, he never would have openly affronted any established worship. For on sample nhs essays that head, continues he, every nation are best satisfied with their own, and think they have the advantage over every other nation. It must be allowed, that the Roman Catholics are a very learned sect; and that no one communion, but that of the church of England , can dispute their being the most learned of all the Christian churches: Yet Averroes , the famous Arabian , who, no doubt, had heard of the Egyptian superstitions, declares, that, of all religions, the most absurd and nonsensical is that, whose votaries eat, after having created, their deity. I believe, indeed, that there is no tenet in all paganism, which would give so fair a scope to ridicule as this of the real presence: For it is so absurd, that it eludes the force of all argument. There are even some pleasant stories of that kind, which, though somewhat profane, are commonly told by the Catholics themselves.

One day, a priest, it is said, gave inadvertently, instead of the sacrament, a counter, which had by accident fallen among the holy wafers. The communicant waited patiently for some time, expecting it would dissolve on his tongue: But finding that it still remained entire, he took it off. I wish, cried he to the priest, you have not committed some mistake: I wish you have not given me God the Father: He is so hard and tough there is no swallowing him. A famous general, at that time in the Muscovite service, having come to Paris for the recovery of his wounds, brought along with him a young Turk , whom he had taken prisoner. Some of the doctors of the Sorbonne (who are altogether as positive as the dervises of Constantinople ) thinking. it a pity, that the poor Turk should be damned for want of instruction, solicited Mustapha very hard to turn Christian, and promised him, for The Different of Acupuncture, his encouragement, plenty of good wine in this world, and paradise in the next.

These allurements were too powerful to be resisted; and analysis, therefore, having been well instructed and catechized, he at The Different of Acupuncture last agreed to receive the digging sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper. The priest, however, to make every thing sure and The Different Essay, solid, still continued his instructions; and began the next day with the usual question, How many Gods are there? None at all, replies Benedict ; for that was his new name. How! None at all! cries the ohio vs mapp priest. To be sure, said the honest proselyte.

You have told me all along that there is but one God: And yesterday I eat him. Such are the doctrines of our brethren the Catholics. But to these doctrines we are so accustomed, that we never wonder at them: Though in a future age, it will probably become difficult to Types persuade some nations, that any human, two-legged creature could ever embrace such principles. And it is nhs essays a thousand to one, but these nations themselves shall have something full as absurd in their own creed, to which they will give a most implicit and most religious assent. I lodged once at Paris in the same hotel with an The Different, ambassador from Tunis , who, having passed some years at London , was returning home that way.

One day I observed his Moorish excellency diverting himself under the porch, with surveying the splendid equipages that drove along; when there chanced to pass that way some Capucin friars, who had never seen a Turk ; as he, on his part, though accustomed to the European dresses, had never seen the grotesque figure of a Capucin: And there is no expressing the mutual admiration, with which they inspired each other. Had the german people chaplain of the of Acupuncture Essay embassy entered into ohio vs mapp, a dispute with these Franciscans , their reciprocal surprize had been of the same nature. Thus all mankind stand staring at one another; and there is no beating it into their heads, that the turban of the African is not just as good or as bad a fashion as the Essay cowl of the European . Short Stories! He is a very honest man, said the prince of Sallee , speaking of de Ruyter , It is a pity he were a Christian. How can you worship leeks and onions? we shall suppose a Sorbonnist to say to a priest of Sais . Of Acupuncture! If we worship them, replies the latter; at least, we do not, at types of business the same time, eat them. But what strange objects of Types Essay adoration are cats and monkies? says the learned doctor. They are at least as good as the relics or rotten bones of of business organisation martyrs, answers his no less learned antagonist. Are you not mad, insists the Catholic, to cut one another’s throat about the preference of a. cabbage or a cucumber? Yes, says the The Different Types of Acupuncture pagan; I allow it, if you will confess, that those are still madder, who fight about the preference among volumes of sophistry, ten thousand of which are not equal in individual, value to one cabbage or cucumber0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 58 * . Every by-stander will easily judge (but unfortunately the by-standers are few) that, if nothing were requisite to establish any popular system, but exposing the absurdities of The Different Types of Acupuncture other systems, every votary of every superstition could give a sufficient reason for his blind and bigotted attachment to the principles in which he has been educated. People History! But without so extensive a knowledge, on Types which to ground this assurance (and perhaps, better without it), there is not wanting a sufficient stock of religious zeal and faith among mankind. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 59 #x2020; gives a remarkable instance to baldwin short stories this purpose, of which he was himself an eye-witness. While Egypt lay under the greatest terror of the Roman name, a legionary soldier having inadvertently been guilty of the sacrilegious impiety of killing a cat, the whole people rose upon him with the The Different Essay utmost fury; and types, all the efforts of the prince were not able to The Different of Acupuncture Essay save him.

The senate and people of Rome , I am persuaded, would not, then, have been so delicate with regard to their national deities. Digging! They very frankly, a little after that time, voted Augustus a place in the celestial mansions; and would have dethroned every god in The Different Types of Acupuncture, heaven, for his sake, had he seemed to analysis desire it. Presens divus habebitur Augustus , says Horace . That is a very important point: And in other nations and The Different Types, other ages, the same circumstance has not been deemed altogether indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 60 * . Notwithstanding the sanctity of our holy religion, says Tully 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 61 #x2020; , no crime is more common with us than sacrilege: But was it ever heard of, that an Egyptian violated the temple of a cat, an ibis, or a crocodile? There is german no torture, an Egyptian would not undergo, says the same author in another place0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for The Different of Acupuncture, ease of reference 62 #x2021; , rather than injure an ibis, an aspic, a cat, a dog, or a crocodile. Thus it is strictly true, what Dryden observes, “Of whatsoe’er descent their godhead be, “Stock, stone, or other homely pedigree, “In his defence his servants are as bold, “As if he had been born of people history beaten gold.” Absolom and Achitophel. Nay, the Types of Acupuncture Essay baser the materials are, of ohio vs mapp which the divinity is composed, the greater devotion is he likely to excite in the breasts of Essay his deluded votaries. Ohio Vs Mapp! They exult in their shame, and make a merit with their deity, in braving, for The Different of Acupuncture Essay, his sake, all the ridicule and contumely of his enemies. Ten thousand Crusaders inlist themselves under the holy banners; and even openly triumph in those parts of their religion, which their adversaries regard as the most reproachful. There occurs, I own, a difficulty in the Egyptian system of nhs essays theology; as indeed, few systems of that kind are entirely free from difficulties. It is evident, from their method of propagation, that a couple of cats, in fifty years, would stock a whole kingdom; and if that religious veneration were still paid them, it would, in twenty more, not only be easier in Egypt to find a god than a man, which Petronius says was the case in some parts of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay Italy ; but the german gods must at Types of Acupuncture last entirely starve the german people men, and leave themselves neither priests nor votaries remaining.

It is probable, therefore, that this wise nation, the most celebrated in antiquity for prudence and sound policy, foreseeing such dangerous consequences, reserved all their worship for the full-grown divinities, and The Different, used the freedom to drown the holy spawn or little sucking gods, without any scruple or remorse. And thus the practice of warping the tenets of religion, in order to serve temporal interests, is not, by any means, to be regarded as an james short stories, invention of these later ages. The learned, philosophical Varro , discoursing of religion, pretends not to deliver any thing beyond probabilities and appearances: Such was his good sense and moderation! But the passionate, the zealous Augustin , insults the noble Roman on his scepticism and reserve, and The Different of Acupuncture, professes the most thorough belief and assurance0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 63 * . A heathen poet, however, contemporary. with the saint, absurdly esteems the religious system of the latter so false, that even the credulity of children, he says, could not engage them to believe it0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ohio vs mapp, ease of reference 64 #x2020; . Is it strange, when mistakes are so common, to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay find every one positive and dogmatical? And that the zeal often rises in proportion to the error? Moverunt, says Spartian , ea tempestate, Jud ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier i bellum quod vetabantur mutilare genitalia0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 65 #x2021; . If ever there was a nation or a time, in which the public religion lost all authority over mankind, we might expect, that infidelity in Rome , during the Ciceronian age, would openly have erected its throne, and that Cicero himself, in every speech and ohio vs mapp, action, would have been its most declared abettor. But it appears, that, whatever sceptical liberties that great man might take, in The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, his writings or in philosophical conversation; he yet avoided, in the common conduct of life, the organisation imputation of of Acupuncture Essay deism and profaneness. Even in his own family, and to his wife Terentia , whom he highly trusted, he was willing to appear a devout religionist; and there remains a letter, addressed to her, in which he seriously desires her to offer sacrifice to Apollo and ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sculapius , in gratitude for the recovery of his health0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for digging, ease of reference 66 #x1C1; . Pompey ’s devotion was much more sincere: In all his conduct, during the civil wars, he paid a great regard to auguries, dreams, and The Different Types of Acupuncture, prophesies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 67 #xA7; . Augustus was tainted with superstition of every kind.

As it is reported of Milton , that his poetical genius never flowed with ease and individual, abundance in the spring; so Augustus observed, that his own genius for dreaming never was so perfect during that season, nor was so much to be relied on, as during the rest of the year. Types Of Acupuncture! That great and able emperor was also extremely uneasy, when he happened to change his shoes, and put the right foot shoe on the left foot0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 68 * . In short it cannot be doubted, but the votaries of the established superstition of antiquity were as numerous in ohio vs mapp, every state, as those of the modern religion are at present. Its influence was as universal; though it was not so great. As many people gave their assent to it; though that assent was not seemingly so strong, precise, and affirmative. We may observe, that, notwithstanding the dogmatical, imperious style of all superstition, the conviction of the religionists, in all ages, is more affected than real, and scarcely ever approaches, in any degree, to The Different Essay that solid belief and german people history, persuasion, which governs us in the common affairs of of Acupuncture life. Men dare not avow, even to their own hearts, the doubts which they entertain on such.

subjects: They make a merit of implicit faith; and disguise to themselves their real infidelity, by the strongest asseverations and most positive bigotry. But nature is too hard for all their endeavours, and suffers not the obscure, glimmering light, afforded in those shadowy regions, to equal the strong impressions, made by common sense and by experience. The usual course of men’s conduct belies their words, and shows, that their assent in these matters is some unaccountable operation of the mind between disbelief and conviction, but approaching much nearer to the former than to the latter. Since, therefore, the mind of man appears of so loose and unsteady a texture, that, even at present, when so many persons find an interest in continually employing on it the chissel and the hammer, yet are they not able to engrave theological tenets with any lasting impression; how much more must this have been the case in ohio vs mapp, ancient times, when the retainers to the holy function were so much fewer in comparison? No wonder, that the appearances were then very inconsistent, and that men, on some occasions, might seem determined infidels, and enemies to the established religion, without being so in reality; or at least, without knowing their own minds in that particular. Another cause, which rendered the ancient religions much looser than the modern, is, that the The Different Types of Acupuncture former were traditional and the latter are scriptural ; and the tradition in the former was complex, contradictory, and, on many occasions, doubtful; so that it could not possibly be reduced to any standard and canon, or afford any determinate articles of faith. The stories of the gods were numberless like the popish legends; and though every one, almost, believed a part of these stories, yet no one could believe or know the unique individual whole: While, at the same time, all must have acknowledged, that no one part stood on a better foundation than the rest. The traditions of The Different Types Essay different cities and unique, nations were also, on many occasions, directly opposite; and no reason could be assigned for preferring one to the other. And as there was an infinite number of stories, with regard to which tradition was nowise positive; the gradation was insensible, from the most fundamental articles of faith, to those loose and precarious fictions.

The pagan religion, therefore, seemed to vanish like a cloud, whenever one approached to it, and examined it piecemeal. It could never be ascertained by The Different Types of Acupuncture, any fixed dogmas and principles. And though this did not convert the types generality of mankind from so absurd a faith; for Types of Acupuncture, when will the digging people be reasonable? yet it made them faulter and hesitate more in maintaining their principles, and was even apt to produce, in certain dispositions of mind, some practices and opinions, which had the appearance of determined infidelity. To which we may add, that the Types Essay fables of the pagan religion were, of themselves, light, easy, and familiar; without devils, or seas of brimstone, or any object that could much terrify the individual imagination. Who could forbear smiling, when he thought of the loves of Mars and Venus , or the amorous frolics of Jupiter and Pan ? In this respect, it was a true poetical religion; if it had not rather too much levity for the graver kinds of poetry. We find that it has been adopted by modern bards; nor have these talked with greater freedom and irreverence of the The Different Types of Acupuncture gods, whom they regarded as fictions, than the ancients did of the nhs essays real objects of their devotion. The inference is by no means just, that, because a system of religion has made no deep impression on the minds of a people, it must therefore have been positively rejected by all men of The Different of Acupuncture Essay common sense, and that opposite principles, in unique individual, spite of the prejudices of education, were generally established by Types, argument and reasoning. I know not, but a contrary inference may be more probable. The less importunate and assuming any species of superstition appears, the baldwin short stories less will it provoke men’s spleen and indignation, or engage them into enquiries concerning its foundation and origin.

This in The Different Types of Acupuncture, the mean time is obvious, that the empire of all religious faith over the understanding is wavering and uncertain, subject to history every variety of humour, and dependent on the present incidents, which strike the imagination. The difference is only in the degrees. An ancient will place a stroke of impiety and one of superstition alternately, throughout a whole discourse0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69 * : A modern often thinks in the same way, though he may be more guarded in his expression. Lucian tells us expressly0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of The Different Essay reference 70 #x2020; that whoever believed not the most ridiculous fables of paganism was deemed by of business organisation, the people profane and impious. To what purpose, indeed, would that agreeable author have employed the whole force of his wit and satire against the national religion, had not that religion been generally believed by his countrymen and The Different of Acupuncture, contemporaries?

Livy 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 71 #x2021; acknowledges as frankly, as any divine would at present, the common incredulity of his age; but then he condemns it as severely. And who can imagine, that a national superstition, which could delude so ingenious a man, would not also impose on the generality of the people? The Stoics bestowed many magnificent and even impious epithets on their sage; that he alone was rich, free, a king, and equal to the immortal gods. Sample! They forgot to add, that he was not inferior in prudence and understanding to an old woman. For surely nothing can be more pitiful than the sentiments, which that sect entertained with regard to religious matters; while they seriously agree with the The Different common augurs, that, when a raven croaks from the left, it is a good omen; but a bad one, when a rook makes a noise from the same quarter. Pan ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the individual text easier tius was the The Different Essay only Stoic , among the Greeks , who so much as doubted with regard to auguries and divinations0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of ohio vs mapp reference 72 * . Marcus Antoninus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of The Different of Acupuncture Essay reference 73 #x2020; tells us, that he himself had received many admonitions from the gods in his sleep. It is true, Epictetus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 74 #x2021; forbids us to regard the language of rooks and ravens; but it is not, that they do not speak truth: It is only, because they can foretel nothing but the breaking of our neck or the forfeiture of our estate; which are circumstances, says he, that nowise concern us. Thus the Stoics join a philosophical enthusiasm to a religious superstition. The force of their mind, being all turned to people history the side of morals, unbent itself in that of religion0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for Types of Acupuncture, ease of reference 75 #x1C1; . Plato 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of people reference 76 #xA7; introduces Socrates affirming, that the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay accusation of impiety raised against him was owing entirely to his rejecting such fables, as those of Saturn ’s castrating his father Uranus , and Jupiter ’s dethroning Saturn : Yet in a subsequent dialogue0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 77 #x2020; , Socrates confesses, that the doctrine of the mortality of the soul was the received opinion of the people. Is there here any contradiction?

Yes, surely: But the contradiction is not in Plato ; it is in the people, whose religious principles in general are always composed of the german most discordant parts; especially in an age, when superstition sate so easy and light upon them0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 78 #x2020;#x2020; . The same Cicero , who affected, in his own family, to appear a devout religionist, makes no scruple, in The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, a public court of judicature, of treating the doctrine of a future state as a ridiculous fable, to which no body could give any attention0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 79 * . Types Of Business! Sallust 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 80 #x2020; represents C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar as speaking the of Acupuncture same language in the open senate0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 81 #x2021; . But that all these freedoms implied not a total and universal infidelity and scepticism amongst the people, is too apparent to be denied. Though some parts of the national religion hung loose upon the minds of types men, other parts adhered more closely to them: And it was the Types of Acupuncture chief business of the sceptical philosophers to show, that there was no more foundation for digging analysis, one than for The Different Types of Acupuncture, the other. This is the artifice of Cotta in the dialogues concerning the unique nature of the The Different gods . He refutes the whole system of baldwin short stories mythology by leading the orthodox gradually, from the The Different Types Essay more momentous stories, which were believed, to the more frivolous, which every one ridiculed: From the gods to the goddesses; from the goddesses to the nymphs; from the nymphs to the fawns and satyrs. Nhs Essays! His master, Carneades , had employed the same method of reasoning0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 82 #x1C1; . Upon the whole, the greatest and most observable differences between a traditional, mythological religion, and a systematical, scholastic one, are two: The former is often more reasonable, as consisting only of a multitude of stories, which, however groundless, imply no express absurdity and demonstrative contradiction; and of Acupuncture Essay, sits also so easy and light on men’s mind, that, though it may be as universally received, it happily makes no such deep impression on the affections and understanding. Sect. XIII. Impious conceptions of the divine nature in popular religions of both kinds. The primary religion of mankind arises chiefly from an anxious fear of future events; and what ideas will naturally be entertained of invisible, unknown powers, while men lie under dismal apprehensions of any kind, may easily be conceived. Every image of vengeance, severity, cruelty, and malice must occur, and must augment the ghastliness and unique, horror, which oppresses the amazed religionist. A panic having once seized the mind, the active fancy still farther multiplies the objects of terror; while that profound darkness, or, what is worse, that glimmering light, with which we are environed, represents the spectres of divinity under the most dreadful appearances imaginable.

And no idea of perverse wickedness can be framed, which those terrified devotees do not readily, without scruple, apply to their deity. This appears the natural state of Types of Acupuncture religion, when surveyed in one light. But if we consider, on the other hand, that spirit of praise and eulogy, which necessarily has place in all religions, and which is the consequence of these very terrors, we must expect a quite contrary system of theology to individual prevail. Every virtue, every excellence, must be ascribed to the divinity, and no exaggeration will be deemed sufficient to reach those perfections, with which he is endowed. Of Acupuncture! Whatever strains of panegyric can be invented, are immediately embraced, without consulting any arguments or ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the sample text easier nomena: It is esteemed a sufficient confirmation of them, that they give us more magnificent ideas of the Types Essay divine objects of our worship and adoration. Here therefore is a kind of contradiction between the different principles of human nature, which enter into religion. Our natural terrors present the notion of a devilish and malicious deity: Our propensity to adulation leads us to acknowledge an excellent and german, divine. And the influence of these opposite principles are various, according to the different situation of the human understanding. In very barbarous and ignorant nations, such as the Africans and Indians , nay even the The Different Japonese , who can form no extensive ideas of power and knowledge, worship may be paid to a being, whom they confess to be wicked and detestable; though they may be cautious, perhaps, of pronouncing this. judgment of him in public, or in individual, his temple, where he may be supposed to Types Essay hear their reproaches. Such rude, imperfect ideas of the Divinity adhere long to all idolaters; and it may safely be affirmed, that the Greeks themselves never got entirely rid of them.

It is remarked by Xenophon 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 83 * , in praise of Socrates , that this philosopher assented not to the vulgar opinion, which supposed the ohio vs mapp gods to know some things, and The Different of Acupuncture, be ignorant of others: He maintained, that they knew every thing; what was done, said, or even thought. But as this was a strain of philosophy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for types of business organisation, ease of reference 84 #x2020; much above the conception of his countrymen, we need not be surprised, if very frankly, in their books and conversation, they blamed the deities, whom they worshipped in The Different Essay, their temples. It is observable, that Herodotus in particular scruples not, in many passages, to ascribe envy to sample nhs essays the gods; a sentiment, of all others, the most suitable to a mean and devilish nature. The pagan hymns, however, sung in Types of Acupuncture, public worship, contained nothing but epithets of praise; even while the sample nhs essays actions ascribed to the gods were the most barbarous and detestable. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! When Timotheus , the nhs essays poet, recited a hymn to Diana , in which he enumerated, with the greatest eulogies, all the actions and attributes of that cruel, capricious goddess: May your daughter, said one present, become such as the deity whom you celebrate0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 85 * . But as men farther exalt their idea of their divinity; it is their notion of his power and knowledge only, not of his goodness, which is Types of Acupuncture improved. Nhs Essays! On the contrary, in proportion to the supposed extent of his science and authority, their terrors naturally augment; while they believe, that no secrecy can conceal them from his scrutiny, and that even the inmost recesses of Types of Acupuncture their breast lie open before him. They must then be careful not to form expressly any sentiment of blame and disapprobation. All must be applause, ravishment, extacy. And while their gloomy apprehensions make them ascribe to him measures of conduct, which, in human creatures, would be highly blamed, they must still affect to praise and admire that conduct in the object of their devotional addresses. Thus it may safely be affirmed, that popular religions are really, in the conception of their more vulgar votaries, a species of d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to types organisation make searching the text easier monism; and of Acupuncture Essay, the higher the deity is exalted in james short stories, power and knowledge, the lower of course is he depressed in goodness and benevolence; whatever epithets of praise may be bestowed on The Different Types of Acupuncture him by. his amazed adorers.

Among idolaters, the words may be false, and belie the secret opinion: But among more exalted religionists, the opinion itself contracts a kind of falsehood, and belies the inward sentiment. The heart secretly detests such measures of cruel and implacable vengeance; but the judgment dares not but pronounce them perfect and unique individual, adorable. And the additional misery of this inward struggle aggravates all the Essay other terrors, by which these unhappy victims to superstition are for ever haunted. Lucian 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 86 * observes that a young man, who reads the history of the gods in people history, Homer or Hesiod , and finds their factions, wars, injustice, incest, adultery, and other immoralities so highly celebrated, is of Acupuncture much surprised afterwards, when he comes into the world, to observe that punishments are by law inflicted on the same actions, which he had been taught to of business ascribe to superior beings. The contradiction is still perhaps stronger between the representations given us by some later religions and Essay, our natural ideas of generosity, lenity, impartiality, and justice; and in proportion to the multiplied terrors of these religions, the barbarous conceptions of the ohio vs mapp divinity are multiplied upon us0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 87 #x2020; . Nothing can preserve untainted the. genuine principles of morals in our judgment of human conduct, but the absolute necessity of these principles to the existence of society. If common conception can indulge princes in a system of ethics, somewhat different from Types of Acupuncture, that which should regulate private persons; how much more those superior beings, whose attributes, views, and nature are so totally unknown to us? Sunt superis sua jura0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 88 * . The gods have maxims of justice peculiar to themselves.

Sect. XIV. Bad influence of popular religions on morality. Here I cannot forbear observing a fact, which may be worth the attention of types such as make human nature the object of their enquiry. It is certain, that, in every religion, however sublime the The Different Essay verbal definition which it gives of unique its divinity, many of the votaries, perhaps the greatest number, will still seek the divine favour, not by virtue and good morals, which alone can be acceptable to a perfect being, but either by frivolous observances, by intemperate zeal, by rapturous extasies, or by the belief of Types of Acupuncture Essay mysterious and absurd opinions. The least part of the Sadder , as well as of the Pentateuch , consists in sample, precepts of morality; and we may also be assured, that that part was always the least observed and regarded. When the old Romans were attacked with a pestilence, they never ascribed their sufferings to their vices, or dreamed of The Different of Acupuncture repentance and amendment. They never thought, that they were the general robbers of the world, whose ambition and avarice made desolate the history earth, and The Different, reduced opulent nations to want and beggary. Types Of Business! They only created a dictator0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89 #x2020; , in order to Essay drive a nail into a door; and by baldwin short stories, that means, they thought that they had sufficiently appeased their incensed deity.

In ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier gina , one faction forming a conspiracy, barbarously and treacherously assassinated seven hundred of their fellow-citizens; and carried their fury so far, that, one miserable fugitive having fled to the temple, they cut off his hands, by The Different of Acupuncture, which he clung to the gates, and carrying him out of holy ground, immediately murdered him. By this impiety, says Herodotus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 90 * , (not by the other many cruel assassinations) they offended the gods, and contracted an inexpiable guilt. Nay, if we should suppose, what never happens, that a popular religion were found, in which it was expressly declared, that nothing but morality could gain the divine favour; if an analysis, order of priests were instituted to inculcate this opinion, in daily sermons, and with all the arts of persuasion; yet so inveterate are the people’s prejudices, that, for want of some other superstition, they would make the very attendance on these sermons the essentials of religion, rather than place them in Types of Acupuncture Essay, virtue and good morals. The. sublime prologue of Zaleucus ’s laws0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 91 #x2020; inspired not the Locrians , so far as we can learn, with any sounder notions of the measures of acceptance with the deity, than were familiar to the other Greeks . This observation, then, holds universally: But still one may be at some loss to account for nhs essays, it.

It is sufficient to observe, that the people, every where, degrade their deities into a similitude with themselves, and consider them merely as a species of human creatures, somewhat more potent and The Different Essay, intelligent. This will not remove the difficulty. For there is no man so stupid, as that, judging by his natural reason, he would not esteem virtue and honesty the most valuable qualities, which any person could possess. Why not ascribe the same sentiment to his deity? Why not make all religion, or the chief part of it, to consist in these attainments? Nor is it satisfactory to of business say, that the practice of morality is more difficult than that of superstition; and The Different Essay, is therefore rejected. For, not to organisation mention the excessive pennances of the Brachmans and Talapoins ; it is certain, that the Rhamadan of the Essay Turks , during which the poor wretches, for many days, often in the hottest months of the german history year, and in some of the hottest climates of the world, remain without eating or drinking from the rising to The Different the setting sun; this Rhamadan , I say, must be more severe than the practice of any moral duty, even to the most vicious and depraved of mankind. The four lents of the Muscovites , and the austerities of some Roman Catholics , appear more disagreeable than meekness and digging, benevolence. In short, all virtue, when men are reconciled to The Different Types of Acupuncture it by ever so little practice, is agreeable: All superstition is for ever odious and burthensome. Perhaps, the following account may be received as a true solution of the difficulty.

The duties, which a man performs as a friend or parent, seem merely owing to his benefactor or children; nor can he be wanting to these duties, without breaking through all the ties of nhs essays nature and morality. Types Essay! A strong inclination may prompt him to the performance: A sentiment of order and moral obligation joins its force to these natural ties: And the whole man, if truly virtuous, is drawn to his duty, without any effort or endeavour. Even with regard to the virtues, which are more austere, and more founded on digging analysis reflection, such as public spirit, filial duty, temperance, or integrity; the moral obligation, in our apprehension, removes all pretension to of Acupuncture religious merit; and the virtuous conduct is deemed no more than what we owe to society and to ourselves. Nhs Essays! In all this, a superstitious man finds nothing, which he has properly performed for the sake of this deity, or which can peculiarly recommend him to the divine favour and protection. He considers not, that the most genuine method of Types Essay serving the divinity is by promoting the happiness of his creatures. He still looks out for some more immediate service of the german people supreme Being, in order to allay those terrors, with which he is haunted. And any practice, recommended to him, which either serves to The Different of Acupuncture no purpose in life, or offers the strongest violence to his natural inclinations; that practice he will the more readily embrace, on account of those very circumstances, which should make him absolutely reject it. James Baldwin! It seems the The Different more purely religious, because it proceeds from no mixture of any other motive or consideration. And if, for its sake, he sacrifices much of his ease and quiet, his claim of merit appears still to james baldwin rise upon him, in proportion to the zeal and devotion which he discovers. In restoring a loan, or paying a debt, his divinity is nowise beholden to him; because these acts of The Different of Acupuncture Essay justice are what he was bound to perform, and what many would have performed, were there no god in sample, the universe. But if he fast a day, or give himself a sound whipping; this has a direct reference, in his opinion, to the service of God.

No other motive could engage him to such austerities. By these distinguished marks of devotion, he has now acquired the divine favour; and may expect, in recompence, protection and safety in Essay, this world, and eternal happiness in the next. Hence the greatest crimes have been found, in many instances, compatible with a superstitious piety and devotion: Hence, it is justly regarded as unsafe to draw any certain inference in favour of a man’s morals from the fervour or strictness of his religious exercises, even though he himself believe them sincere. Nay, it has been observed, that enormities of the blackest dye have been rather apt to produce superstitious terrors, and encrease the religious passion. Bomilcar , having formed a conspiracy for individual, assassinating at once the whole senate of Types Essay Carthage , and invading the liberties of his country, lost the opportunity, from a continual regard to omens and unique, prophecies. Those who undertake the most criminal and most dangerous enterprizes are commonly the most superstitious ; as an ancient historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 92 * remarks on this occasion. Their devotion and Types of Acupuncture Essay, spiritual faith rise with their fears.

Catiline was not contented with the established deities, and received rites of the national religion: His anxious terrors made him seek new inventions of this kind0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of unique individual reference 93 #x2020; ; which he never probably had dreamed of, had he remained a good citizen, and obedient to the laws of his country. To which we may add, that, after the Types of Acupuncture commission of crimes, there arise remorses and secret horrors, which give no rest to german history the mind, but make it have recourse to of Acupuncture religious rites and ceremonies, as expiations of its offences. Whatever weakens or disorders the internal frame promotes the interests of german people superstition: And nothing is more destructive to them than a manly, steady virtue, which either preserves us from Types of Acupuncture, disastrous, melancholy accidents, or teaches us to bear them. During such calm sunshine of the mind, these spectres of false divinity never make their appearance. On the other hand, while we abandon ourselves to the natural undisciplined suggestions of our timid and nhs essays, anxious hearts, every kind of barbarity is of Acupuncture Essay ascribed to the supreme Being, from the terrors with which we are agitated; and every kind of caprice, from the methods which we embrace in order to appease him. Unique Individual! Barbarity , caprice ; these qualities, however nominally disguised, we may universally observe, form the ruling character of the deity in The Different, popular religions. Even priests, instead of german people correcting these depraved ideas of mankind, have often been found ready to foster and encourage them. The more tremendous the divinity is represented, the more tame and submissive do men become to his ministers: And the more unaccountable the measures of acceptance required by him, the more necessary does it become to abandon our natural reason, and yield to their ghostly guidance and direction. Thus it may be allowed, that the artifices of men aggravate our natural infirmities and follies of Types of Acupuncture Essay this kind, but never originally beget them. Their root strikes deeper into the mind, and springs from the german people essential and universal properties of human nature. Though the stupidity of The Different Types men, barbarous and uninstructed, be so great, that they may not see a sovereign author in the more obvious works of nature, to ohio vs mapp which they are so much familiarized; yet it scarcely seems possible, that any one of good understanding should reject that idea, when once it is suggested to him.

A purpose, an intention, a design is The Different Essay evident in analysis, every thing; and The Different Types of Acupuncture, when our comprehension is unique so far enlarged as to contemplate the first rise of this visible system, we must adopt, with the strongest conviction, the idea of some intelligent cause or author. The uniform maxims too, which prevail throughout the whole frame of the universe, naturally, if not necessarily, lead us to conceive this intelligence as single and undivided, where the prejudices of education oppose not so reasonable a theory. Even the Types of Acupuncture Essay contrarieties of nature, by discovering themselves every where, become proofs of some consistent plan, and establish one single purpose or intention, however inexplicable and incomprehensible. Good and ill are universally intermingled and confounded; happiness and misery, wisdom and folly, virtue and vice. Digging! Nothing is pure and entirely of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay a piece. All advantages are attended with disadvantages. Stories! An universal compensation prevails in The Different Types Essay, all conditions of being and james short, existence. The Different Types! And it is not possible for us, by our most chimerical wishes, to form the analysis idea of a station or situation altogether desirable. The draughts of life, according to the poet’s fiction, are always mixed from the Essay vessels on each hand of Jupiter : Or if any cup be presented altogether pure, it is drawn only, as the same poet tells us, from the left-handed vessel.

The more exquisite any good is, of which a small specimen is afforded us, the sharper is the evil, allied to it; and ohio vs mapp, few exceptions are found to this uniform law of nature. The most sprightly wit borders on madness; the highest effusions of joy produce the The Different of Acupuncture Essay deepest melancholy; the most ravishing pleasures are attended with the most cruel lassitude and disgust; the james short stories most flattering hopes make way for the severest disappointments. Types! And, in general, no course of life has such safety (for happiness is not to be dreamed of) as the sample nhs essays temperate and moderate, which maintains, as far as possible, a mediocrity, and a kind of insensibility, in every thing. As the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay good, the great, the sublime, the ravishing are found eminently in the genuine principles of theism; it may be expected, from the analogy of nature, that the base, the unique absurd, the mean, the terrifying will be equally discovered in religious fictions and chimeras. The universal propensity to believe in Essay, invisible, intelligent power, if not an original instinct, being at least a general attendant of unique human nature, may be considered as a kind of mark or stamp, which the divine workman has set upon his work; and nothing surely can more dignify mankind, than to be thus selected from all other parts of the creation, and to Essay bear the image or impression of the universal Creator. But consult this image, as it appears in the popular religions of the world. How is the german deity disfigured in The Different Types, our representations of him! What caprice, absurdity, and immorality are attributed to him! How much is he degraded even below the character, which we should naturally, in common life, ascribe to a man of sense and virtue! What a noble privilege is it of human reason to attain the knowledge of the supreme Being; and, from the visible works of analysis nature, be enabled to infer so sublime a principle as its supreme Creator? But turn the reverse of the medal.

Survey most nations and most ages. Examine the religious principles, which have, in fact, prevailed in of Acupuncture Essay, the world. People! You will scarcely be persuaded, that they are any thing but sick men’s dreams: Or perhaps will regard them more as the playsome whimsies of monkies in human shape, than the serious, positive, dogmatical asseverations of a being, who dignifies himself with the name of rational. Hear the verbal protestations of all men: Nothing so certain as their religious tenets. Examine their lives: You will scarcely think that they repose the smallest confidence in of Acupuncture Essay, them. The greatest and truest zeal gives us no security against hypocrisy: The most open impiety is digging attended with a secret dread and compunction.

No theological absurdities so glaring that they have not, sometimes, been embraced by men of the greatest and most cultivated understanding. Types Of Acupuncture! No religious precepts so rigorous that they have not been adopted by the most voluptuous and most abandoned of men. Ignorance is the mother of james baldwin short Devotion: A maxim that is proverbial, and confirmed by general experience. Look out for a people, entirely destitute of religion: If you find them at all, be assured, that they are but few degrees removed from brutes. What so pure as some of the morals, included in some theological systems? What so corrupt as some of the The Different Types Essay practices, to which these systems give rise? The comfortable views, exhibited by the belief of futurity, are ravishing and delightful. But how quickly vanish on the appearance of its terrors, which keep a more firm and durable possession of the human mind? The whole is a riddle, an ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nigma, an inexplicable mystery. Doubt, uncertainty, suspence of individual judgment appear the only result of of Acupuncture our most accurate scrutiny, concerning this subject.

But such is the frailty of human reason, and such the irresistible contagion of opinion, that even this deliberate doubt could scarcely be upheld; did we not enlarge our view, and opposing one species of superstition to another, set them a quarrelling; while we ourselves, during their fury and contention, happily make our escape, into the calm, though obscure, regions of philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for people, ease of The Different Types reference 3. The following lines of ohio vs mapp Euripides are so much to of Acupuncture Essay the present purpose, that I cannot forbear quoting them: ??? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????, ???’ ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????. ??????? ?’???’?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????, ???????? ??????????, ?? ???????. ??????? ??????. Baldwin Stories! Hecuba . “There is nothing secure in The Different, the world; no glory, no prosperity. The gods toss all life into confusion; mix every thing with its reverse; that all of digging us, from our ignorance and uncertainty, may pay them the more worship and reverence.” #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for The Different Types Essay, ease of ohio vs mapp reference 8. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! Diod. Sic. People! lib. i. Lucian. de Sacrificiis. The Different Types Essay! Ovid alludes to the same tradition, Metam. li.v. l. 321. So also Manilius , lib. James Short Stories! iv. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of of Acupuncture reference 26.

The same author, who can thus account for history, the origin of the world without a Deity, esteems it impious to of Acupuncture explain from physical causes, the common accidents of analysis life, earthquakes, inundations, and tempests; and devoutly ascribes these to the anger of Jupiter or Neptune . A plain proof, whence he derived his ideas of religion. See lib. xv. p. 364. Ex edit. The Different Types Essay! Rhodomanni . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 34. Herodian . lib. v. Jupiter Ammon is represented by Curtius as a deity of the same kind, lib. iv. cap. 7. The Arabians and digging analysis, Persinuntians adored also shapeless unformed stones as their deity. Arnob. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay! lib. vi. So much did their folly exceed that of the Egyptians . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36. See C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar of the religion of the digging Gauls , De bello Gallico, lib. xi. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 60. Types Of Acupuncture! When Louis the XIVth took on himself the protection of the Jesuits’ College of Clermont , the society ordered the king’s arms to organisation be put up over the gate, and took down the cross, in order to make way for it: Which gave occasion to the following epigram:

Sustulit hinc Christi, posuitque insignia Regis: Impia gens, alium nescit habere Deum. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69. Witness this remarkable passage of Tacitus : “Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ter multiplices rerum humanarum casus, c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier lo terraque prodigia, fulminum monitus futurorum pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the Types text easier sagia, l ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ta, tristia, ambigua, manifesta. Nec enim unquam atrocioribus populi Romani cladibus, magisque justis judiciis approbatum est, non esse cur ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to types organisation make searching the text easier Diis securitatem nostram, esse ultionem.” Hist. lib. i. Augustus ’s quarrel with Neptune is an The Different of Acupuncture Essay, instance of the same kind. Had not the emperor believed Neptune to be a real being, and to have dominion over the sea, where had been the foundation of his anger? And if he believed it, what madness to provoke still farther that deity? The same observation may be made upon Quintilian ’s exclamation, on account of the death of digging analysis his children, lib. vi. Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier f. #x1C1; originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for The Different of Acupuncture Essay, ease of reference 75. The Stoics, I own, were not quite orthodox in the established religion; but one may see, from these instances, that they went a great way: And the people undoubtedly went every length. #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 81.

Cicero (Tusc. Individual! Qu ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier st.) lib. i. cap. 5, 6. and Seneca (Epist. 24), as also Juvenal (Satyr. 2.), maintain that there is no boy or old woman so ridiculous as to believe the poets in their accounts of The Different Types of Acupuncture a future state. Why then does Lucretius so highly exalt his master for freeing us from these terrors? Perhaps the generality of mankind were then in the disposition of ohio vs mapp Cephalus in Plato (de Rep. lib. i.) who while he was young and healthful could ridicule these stories; but as soon as he became old and of Acupuncture Essay, infirm, began to entertain apprehensions of their truth.

This we may observe not to be unusual even at present. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 84. It was considered among the ancients, as a very extraordinary, philosophical paradox, that the sample nhs essays presence of the gods was not confined to the heavens, but were extended every where; as we learn from Lucian Hirmotimus sive De sectis . #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89. Called Dictator clavis figend ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier causa. T. Livii , l. vii. c. 3. NOTE [YY], p. 409. [Bea 38.] added for ease of reference.

“F ragilis laboriosa mortalitas in partes ista digessit, infirmitatis su ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier memor, ut portionibus quisquis coleret, quo maxime indigeret.” Plin. lib. ii. cap. 7. So early as Hesiod ’s time there were 30,000 deities. Oper. Dier. The Different Of Acupuncture! lib. i. ver. 250.

But the german people task to be performed by these seems still too great for their number. The provinces of the deities were so subdivided, that there was even a God of Sneezing . See Arist. Probl. sect. 33. cap. 7. The province of copulation, suitably to the importance and dignity of it, was divided among several deities. NOTE [ZZ], p. 420. [Bea 47.] added for Types Essay, ease of reference.

I t will be easy to give a reason, why Thales , Anaximander , and those early philosophers, who really were atheists, might be very orthodox in the pagan creed; and why Anaxagoras and Socrates , though real theists, must naturally, in ancient times, be esteemed impious. The blind, unguided powers of nature, if they could produce men, might also produce such beings as Jupiter and Neptune , who being the most powerful, intelligent existences in the world, would be proper objects of worship. Ohio Vs Mapp! But where a supreme intelligence, the first cause of all, is The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay admitted, these capricious beings, if they exist at all, must appear very subordinate and unique, dependent, and The Different of Acupuncture Essay, consequently be excluded from the rank of stories deities. Plato (de leg. lib. x.) assigns this reason for the imputation thrown on Anaxagoras , namely his denying the divinity of the stars, planets, and other created objects. NOTE [AAA], p. 436. [Bea 60.] added for ease of reference. V errius Flaccus , cited by Pliny , lib. xxviii. The Different Of Acupuncture! cap. 2. affirmed, that it was usual for the Romans , before they laid siege to any town, to unique individual invocate the tutelar deity of the place, and by promising him greater honours than those he at present enjoyed, bribe him to betray his old friends and The Different of Acupuncture Essay, votaries. The name of the german people tutelar deity of The Different Essay Rome was for this reason kept a most religious mystery; lest the enemies of the nhs essays republic should be able, in the same manner, to draw him over to their service. For without the name, they thought, nothing of that kind could be practised. Of Acupuncture! Pliny says, that the common form of invocation was preserved to his time in the ritual of the pontifs.

And Macrobius has transmitted a copy of it from the secret things of Sammonicus Serenus . NOTE [BBB], p. 439. [Bea 62.] added for ease of unique reference. M ost nations have fallen into this guilt of human sacrifices; though, perhaps, that impious superstition has never prevailed very much in any civilized nation, unless we except the Carthaginians . For the Tyrians soon abolished it. A sacrifice is conceived as a present; and any present is delivered to their deity by destroying it and rendering it useless to men; by burning what is solid, pouring out the liquid, and killing the animate. For want of The Different Types a better way of doing him service, we do ourselves an injury; and fancy that we thereby express, at least, the heartiness of our good-will and adoration. Thus our mercenary devotion deceives ourselves, and imagines it deceives the deity. NOTE [CCC], p. 447. [Bea 69.] added for ease of reference.

I t is strange that the Egyptian religion, though so absurd, should yet have borne so great a resemblance to the Jewish , that ancient writers even of the greatest genius were not able to observe any difference between them. For it is remarkable that both Tacitus , and Suetonius , when they mention that decree of the senate, under Tiberius , by which the Egyptian and Jewish proselytes were banished from Rome , expressly treat these religions as the same; and it appears, that even the decree itself was founded on that supposition. “Actum de sacris ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the unique individual text easier gyptiis , Judaicisque pellendis; factumque patrum consultum, ut quatuor millia libertini generis ea superstitione infecta, quis idonea ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier tas, in insulam Sardiniam veherentur, coercendis illic latrociniis; si ob gravitatem c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier li interissent, vile damnum: Ceteri cederent Italia , nisi certam ante diem profanos ritus exuissent.” Tacit. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! Tacit. small capitals added, in keeping with formatting preferences elsewhere; the name is in small capitals in the 1772 edition, and is changed here presumably by mistake ann. lib. ii, c. 85. “Externas c ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier remonias, ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the analysis text easier gyptios , Judaicosque ritus compescuit; coactus qui superstitione ea tenebantur, religiosas vestes cum instrumento omni comburere, c.” Sueton. Tiber. c. 36. Of Acupuncture! These wise heathens, observing something in the general air, and genius, and spirit of the two religions to be the same, esteemed the differences of their dogmas too frivolous to deserve any attention. NOTE [DDD], p. 455. [Bea 74.] added for ease of reference. X enophon ’s conduct, as related by himself, is, at once, an incontestable proof of the general credulity of mankind in those ages, and types, the incoherencies, in all ages, of men’s opinions in religious matters. That great captain and philosopher, the disciple of Socrates , and one who has delivered some of the most refined sentiments with regard to a deity, gave all the following marks of vulgar, pagan superstition. Types! By Socrates ’s advice, he consulted the james baldwin short stories oracle of Delphi , before he would engage in of Acupuncture, the expedition of Cyrus . De exped. German! lib. iii. p. 294. ex edit Leuncl.

Sees a dream the night after the generals were seized; which he pays great regard to, but thinks ambiguous. Id. p. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay! 295. He and the whole army regard sneezing as a very lucky omen. Id. p. 300. Has another dream, when he comes to the river Centrites , which his fellow-general, Chirosophus , also pays great regard to. Id. lib. iv. p. 323.

The Greeks , suffering from a cold north wind, sacrifice to it; and the historian observes, that it immediately abated. Id. Nhs Essays! p. 329. Xenophon consults the sacrifices in [Bea 75] secret, before he would form any resolution with himself about settling a colony. Lib. v. p. 359. He was himself a very skilful augur.

Id. p. 361. Is determined by the victims to The Different Essay refuse the sole command of the army which was offered him. Lib. vi. Types Of Business Organisation! p. 273. Cleander , the Spartan , though very desirous of Types of Acupuncture it, refuses it for the same reason. Id. p. Digging Analysis! 392. Xenophon mentions an Types Essay, old dream with the interpretation given him, when he first joined Cyrus , p. 373. Mentions also the place of ohio vs mapp Hercules ’s descent into hell as believing it, and says the marks of it are still remaining. Of Acupuncture Essay! Id. p. 375. Had almost starved the army, rather than lead them to the field against the auspices.

Id. German People History! p. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! 382, 383. His friend, Euclides , the augur, would not believe that he had brought no money from the expedition; till he ( Euclides ) sacrificed, and then he saw the matter clearly in the Exta. Lib. vii. p. 425. The same philosopher, proposing a project of mines for the encrease of the Athenian revenues, advises them first to ohio vs mapp consult the oracle. De rat. red. p. 392.

That all this devotion was not a farce, in order to serve a political purpose, appears both from the facts themselves, and from the genius of Types Essay that age, when little or nothing could be gained by digging analysis, hypocrisy. Besides, Xenophon , as appears from his Memorabilia, was a kind of heretic in those times, which no political devotee ever is. Types Of Acupuncture! It is for the same reason, I maintain, that Newton , Locke , Clarke , c. being Arians or Socinians , were very sincere in the creed they professed: And I always oppose this argument to james stories some libertines, who will needs have it, that it was impossible but that these philosophers must have been hypocrites. NOTE [EEE], p. 460. [Bea 79.] added for ease of Types of Acupuncture Essay reference. B acchus , a divine being, is represented by ohio vs mapp, the heathen mythology as the inventor of Essay dancing and the theatre. Plays were anciently even a part of public worship on the most solemn occasions, and often employed in times of pestilence, to appease the offended deities.

But they have been zealously proscribed by the godly in later ages; and the playhouse, according to a learned divine, is the unique porch of hell. But in Types of Acupuncture Essay, order to digging analysis show more evidently, that it is possible for a religion to represent the divinity in still a more immoral and unamiable light than he was pictured by the ancients, we shall cite a long passage from an author of taste and imagination, who was surely no enemy to Christianity. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! It is the Chevalier Ramsay , a writer, who had so laudable an inclination to be orthodox, that his reason never found any difficulty, even in the doctrines which free-thinkers scruple the most, the trinity, incarnation, and people, satisfaction: His humanity alone, of which he seems to have had a great stock, rebelled against the doctrines of eternal reprobation and predestination. He expresses himself thus: ‘What strange ideas,’ says he, ‘would an Indian or a Chinese philosopher have of our holy religion, if they judged by the schemes given of it by our modern free-thinkers, and pharisaical doctors of all sects? According to the odious and too vulgar system of these incredulous scoffers and credulous scribblers, “The God of the Jews is a most cruel, unjust, partial, and Types Essay, fantastical being. He created, about 6000 years ago, a man and a woman, and placed them in people history, a fine garden of Asia , of which there are no remains.

This garden was furnished with all sorts of trees, fountains, and flowers. He allowed them the use of all the fruits of this beautiful garden, except one, that was planted in the midst thereof, and that had in it a secret virtue of preserving them in continual health and vigour of body and mind, of exalting their natural powers and making them wise. The devil entered into the body of Types of Acupuncture a serpent, and solicited the first woman to sample eat of this forbidden fruit; she engaged her husband to do the same. To punish this slight curiosity and natural desire of The Different life and knowledge, God not only threw our first parents out of paradise, but he condemned all their posterity to temporal misery, and ohio vs mapp, the greatest part of them to eternal pains, though the Types of Acupuncture Essay souls of these innocent children have no more relation to digging that of Adam than to those of Nero and Mahomet ; since, according to the scholastic drivellers, fabulists, and mythologists, all souls are created pure, and infused immediately into The Different, mortal bodies, [Bea 80] so soon as the f ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to unique individual make searching the text easier tus is formed. To accomplish the barbarous, partial decree of predestination and of Acupuncture Essay, reprobation, God abandoned all nations to darkness, idolatry, and nhs essays, superstition, without any saving knowledge or salutary graces; unless it was one particular nation, whom he chose as his peculiar people.

This chosen nation was, however, the most stupid, ungrateful, rebellious and The Different of Acupuncture Essay, persidious of all nations. After God had thus kept the sample far greater part of all the human species, during near 4000 years, in a reprobate state, he changed all of a sudden, and took a fancy for other nations beside the Jews . Then he sent his only begotten Son to the world, under a human form, to appease his wrath, satisfy his vindictive justice, and die for The Different Types, the pardon of sin. Very few nations, however, have heard of nhs essays this gospel; and all the rest, though left in invincible ignorance, are damned without exception, or any possibility of remission. The greatest part of those who have heard of it, have changed only some speculative notions about God, and some external forms in of Acupuncture Essay, worship: For, in other respects, the bulk of Christians have continued as corrupt as the rest of mankind in their morals; yea, so much the more perverse and criminal, that their lights were greater. Digging! Unless it be a very small select number, all other Christians, like the pagans, will be for ever damned; the great sacrifice offered up for them will become void and of no effect; God will take delight for ever, in their torments and blasphemies; and The Different Types, though he can, by one fiat change their hearts, yet they will remain for ohio vs mapp, ever unconverted and unconvertible, because he will be for ever unappeasable and irreconcileable. It is true, that all this makes God odious, a hater of souls, rather than a lover of of Acupuncture them; a cruel, vindictive tyrant, an history, impotent or a wrathful d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier mon, rather than an all-powerful, beneficent father of spirits: Yet all this is a mystery.

He has secret reasons for his conduct, that are impenetrable; and though he appears unjust and barbarous, yet we must believe the contrary, because what is injustice, crime, cruelty, and the blackest malice in us, is in him justice, mercy, and sovereign goodness.” Thus the incredulous free-thinkers, the judaizing Christians, and the fatalistic doctors have disfigured and dishonoured the Essay sublime mysteries of our holy faith; thus they have confounded the nature of good and evil; transformed the most monstrous passions into divine attributes, and surpassed the pagans in unique, blasphemy, by ascribing to the eternal nature, as perfections, what makes the most horrid crimes amongst men. The grosser pagans contented themselves with divinizing lust, incest, and adultery; but the predestinarian doctors have divinized cruelty, wrath, fury, vengeance, and all the blackest vices.’ See the Chevalier Ramsay ’s philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion, Part II. p. 401. The same author asserts, in other places, that the Arminian and Molinist schemes serve very little to mend the matter: And having thus thrown himself out of all received sects of Christianity, he is obliged to Types Essay advance a system of his own, which is a kind of Origenism , and supposes the pre-existence of the souls both of men and beasts, and the eternal salvation and conversion of all men, beasts, and devils. But this notion, being quite peculiar to himself, we need not treat of. I thought the opinions of james baldwin short this ingenious author very curious; but I pretend not to warrant the justness of Essay them. 1. S ome objects produce immediately an agreeable sensation, by the original structure of our organs, and are thence denominated Good ; as others, from organisation, their immediate disagreeable sensation, acquire the appellation of Evil . Thus moderate warmth is agreeable and good; excessive heat painful and evil.

Some objects again, by being naturally conformable or contrary to passion, excite an of Acupuncture Essay, agreeable or painful sensation; and are thence called Good or Evil . The punishment of an adversary, by gratifying revenge, is good; the sickness of a companion, by affecting friendship, is evil. 2. All good or evil, whence-ever it arises, produces various passions and digging, affections, according to the light in which it is surveyed. When good is certain or very probable, it produces Joy : When evil is in the same situation, there arises Grief or Sorrow . When either good or evil is uncertain, it gives rise to Types Essay Fear or Hope , according to the degree of uncertainty on one side or the other. Desire arises from good considered simply; and Aversion , from evil. The Will exerts itself, when either the presence of the good or absence of the digging evil may be attained by any action of the mind or body. 3. None of these passions seem to contain any thing curious or remarkable, except Hope and Fear , which, being derived from the probability of any good or evil, are mixed passions, that merit our attention. Probability arises from an opposition of contrary chances or causes, by which the mind is The Different Types not allowed to fix on either side; but is incessantly tossed from ohio vs mapp, one to another, and is determined, one moment, to consider an object as existent, and another moment as the contrary. The imagination or understanding, call it which you please, fluctuates between the opposite views; and though perhaps it may be oftener turned to one side than the other, it is impossible for it, by reason of the opposition of of Acupuncture causes or chances, to rest on either. Of Business! The pro and con of the The Different Types question alternately prevail; and the mind, surveying the objects in sample, their opposite causes, finds such a contrariety as destroys all certainty or established opinion. Suppose, then, that the object, concerning which we are doubtful, produces either desire or aversion; it is The Different evident, that, according as the mind turns itself to people one side or the other, it must feel a momentary impression of joy or sorrow.

An object, whose existence we desire, gives satisfaction, when we think of those causes, which produce it; and for the same reason, excites grief. or uneasiness from the opposite Essay, consideration. So that, as the understanding, in probable questions, is people divided between the contrary points of view, the Types of Acupuncture heart must in the same manner be divided between opposite emotions. Now, if we consider the human mind, we shall observe, that, with regard to the passions, it is baldwin stories not like a wind instrument of music, which, in running over all the notes, immediately loses the sound when the breath ceases; but rather resembles a string-instrument, where, after each stroke, the vibrations still retain some sound, which gradually and The Different Types, insensibly decays. The imagination is of business organisation extremely quick and agile; but the passions, in comparison, are slow and restive: For which reason, when any object is presented, which affords a variety of views to the one and emotions to the other; though the fancy may change its views with great celerity; each stroke will not produce a clear and distinct note of passion, but the one passion will always be mixed and confounded with the other. According as the probability inclines to good or evil, the passion of grief or joy predominates in the composition; and these passions being intermingled by means of the contrary views of the imagination, produce by the union the Types of Acupuncture passions of hope or fear. 4. As this theory seems to carry its own evidence along with it, we shall be more concise in unique, our proofs. The passions of fear and hope may arise, when the chances are equal on both sides, and no superiority can be discovered in of Acupuncture Essay, one above the german history other.

Nay, in The Different of Acupuncture, this situation the passions are rather the strongest, as the mind has then the least foundation to rest upon, and is tost with the greatest uncertainty. Throw in a superior degree of james baldwin stories probability to the side of grief, you immediately see that passion diffuse itself over the composition, and tincture it into fear. Encrease the probability, and by that means the grief; the fear prevails still more and of Acupuncture, more, ’till at ohio vs mapp last it runs insensibly, as the joy continually diminishes, into The Different Essay, pure grief. After you have brought it to this situation, diminish the grief, by a contrary operation to that, which encreased it, to wit, by diminishing the probability on the melancholy side; and you will see the passion clear every moment, ’till it changes insensibly into hope; which again runs, by slow degrees, into joy, as you encrease that part of the composition, by types of business organisation, the encrease of the probability. The Different Types! Are not these as plain proofs, that the passions of fear and hope are mixtures of grief and joy, as in optics it is a proof, that a coloured ray of the sun, passing through a prism, is a composition of two others, when, as you diminish or encrease the types quantity of either, you find it prevail proportionably, more or less, in the composition? 5. Probability is of two kinds; either when the object is itself uncertain, and to be determined by chance; or when, though the object be already. certain, yet it is uncertain to our judgment, which finds a number of proofs or presumptions on The Different Types of Acupuncture each side of the question. Both these kinds of probability cause fear and hope; which must proceed from that property, in which they agree; namely, the uncertainty and fluctuation which they bestow on the passion, by that contrariety of views, which is common to both.

6. It is a probable good or evil, which commonly causes hope or fear; because probability, producing an sample nhs essays, inconstant and Essay, wavering survey of an object, occasions naturally a like mixture and uncertainty of passion. But we may observe, that, wherever, from other causes, this mixture can be produced, the passions of fear and history, hope will arise, even though there be no probability. An evil, conceived as barely possible , sometimes produces fear; especially if the evil be very great. A man cannot think on The Different excessive pain and torture without trembling, if he runs the least risque of suffering them. The smallness of the probability is compensated by the greatness of the evil. But even impossible evils cause fear; as when we tremble on the brink of a precipice, though we know ourselves to be in perfect security, and analysis, have it in our choice, whether we will advance a step farther.

The immediate presence of the evil influences the imagination and produces a species of The Different of Acupuncture belief; but being opposed by the reflection on our security, that belief is sample immediately retracted, and causes the same kind of passion, as when, from a contrariety of chances, contrary passions are produced. Evils, which are certain , have sometimes the same effect as the The Different Essay possible or impossible. A man, in a strong prison, without the least means of escape, trembles at the thoughts of the ohio vs mapp rack, to The Different of Acupuncture Essay which he is sentenced. The evil is here fixed in itself; but the mind has not courage to fix upon it; and this fluctuation gives rise to a passion of a similar appearance with fear. 7. But it is not only where good or evil is sample nhs essays uncertain as to its existence , but also as to its kind , that fear or hope arises. If any one were told that one of his sons is suddenly killed; the Types Essay passion, occasioned by this event, would not settle into grief, ’till he got certain information which of his sons he had lost.

Though each side of the digging analysis question produces here the same passion; that passion cannot settle, but receives from the imagination, which is unfixed, a tremulous unsteady motion, resembling the mixture and contention of grief and joy. 8. Thus all kinds of uncertainty have a strong connexion with fear, even though they do not cause any opposition of passions, by the opposite views, which they present to us. Should I leave a friend in any malady, I should feel more anxiety upon his account, than if he were present; though perhaps I am not only incapable of The Different Types Essay giving him assistance, but likewise of. judging concerning the event of his sickness. There are a thousand little circumstances of analysis his situation and condition, which I desire to The Different of Acupuncture know; and the knowledge of them would prevent that fluctuation and uncertainty, so nearly allied to fear. Horace has remarked this ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon. Ut assidens implumibus pullus avis. Serpentum allapsus timet, Magis relictis; non, ut adsit, auxili. Latura plus pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sentibus.

A virgin on types her bridal-night goes to bed full of fears and apprehensions, though she expects nothing but pleasure. The confusion of The Different of Acupuncture Essay wishes and joys, the newness and greatness of the unknown event, so embarrass the mind, that it knows not in analysis, what image or passion to fix itself. 9. Concerning the mixture of affections, we may remark, in general, that when contrary passions arise from objects nowise connected together, they take place alternately. Thus when a man is afflicted for the loss of of Acupuncture Essay a law-suit, and joyful for the birth of a son, the mind, running from the agreeable to the calamitous object; with whatever celerity it may perform this motion, can scarcely temper the one affection with the other, and remain between them in a state of indifference. It more easily attains that calm situation, when the same event is of a mixed nature, and contains something adverse and something prosperous in its different circumstances. For in that case, both the passions, mingling with each other by means of the relation, often become mutually destructive, and leave the ohio vs mapp mind in Essay, perfect tranquillity. But suppose, that the object is not a compound of types organisation good and evil, but is considered as probable or improbable in any degree; in that case, the The Different Types of Acupuncture contrary passions will both of types organisation them be present at The Different Essay once in people history, the soul, and instead of balancing and tempering each other, will subsist together, and by their union produce a third impression or affection, such as hope or fear. The influence of the relations of ideas (which we shall explain more fully afterwards) is The Different of Acupuncture Essay plainly seen in this affair. In contrary passions, if the objects be totally different , the sample passions are like two opposite liquors in different bottles, which have no influence on each other. If the objects be intimately connected , the passions are like an of Acupuncture Essay, alcali and an acid , which, being mingled, destroy each other.

If the types of business organisation relation be more imperfect, and consist in the contradictory views of the same object, the passions are like oil and vinegar, which, however mingled, never perfectly unite and incorporate. The effect of a mixture of passions, when one of Types of Acupuncture them is predominant, and swallows up the other, shall be explained afterwards. 1. Besides those passions above-mentioned, which arise from a direct pursuit of digging good and aversion to evil, there are others which are of Types a more complicated nature, and imply more than one view or consideration. Thus Pride is a certain satisfaction in sample, ourselves, on account of some accomplishment or possession, which we enjoy: Humility , on the other hand, is a dissatisfaction with ourselves, on account of some defect or infirmity. Love or Friendship is a complacency in another, on account of his accomplishments or services: Hatred , the contrary. 2. In these two sets of passion, there is an obvious distinction to be made between the object of the passion and its cause . The object of pride and humility is self: The cause of the passion is Types Essay some excellence in the former case; some fault, in the latter. The object of love and hatred is some other person: The causes, in like manner, are either excellencies or faults. With regard to all these passions, the causes are what excite the sample nhs essays emotion; the object is what the mind directs its view to when the emotion is excited.

Our merit, for instance, raises pride; and it is essential to pride to turn our view on ourselves with complacency and satisfaction. Now, as the causes of these passions are very numerous and various, though their object be uniform and simple; it may be a subject of curiosity to consider, what that circumstance is, in which all these various causes agree; or in other words, what is the real efficient cause of the The Different of Acupuncture passion. We shall begin with pride and humility. 3. In order to explain the causes of these passions, we must reflect on certain principles, which, though they have a mighty influence on every operation, both of the understanding and passions, are not commonly much insisted on by philosophers. The first of these is the association of ideas, or that principle, by which we make an james short stories, easy transition from one idea to another. However uncertain and Types Essay, changeable our thoughts may be, they are not entirely without rule and method in their changes.

They usually pass with regularity, from one object, to what resembles it, is contiguous to it, or produced by it0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . When one idea is present to the imagination, any other, united by these relations, naturally follows it, and enters with more facility, by means of that introduction. The second property, which I shall observe in the human mind, is a like association of impressions or emotions. All resembling impressions are connected together; and no sooner one arises, than the rest naturally follow. Grief and disappointment give rise to anger, anger to envy, envy to malice, and malice to grief again. Types Of Business! In like manner, our temper, when elevated with joy, naturally throws itself into love, generosity, courage, pride, and other resembling affections. In the third place, it is observable of these two kinds of association, that they very much assist and forward each other, and that the Types Essay transition is more easily made, where they both concur in digging, the same object. Thus, a man, who, by an injury received from The Different Essay, another, is sample very much discomposed and ruffled in his temper, is apt to The Different Types of Acupuncture find a hundred subjects of hatred, discontent, impatience, fear, and other uneasy passions; especially, if he can discover these subjects in or near the person, who was the object of his first emotion. Those principles, which forward the transition of ideas, here concur with those which operate on the passions; and both, uniting in one action, bestow on the mind a double impulse.

Upon this occasion I may cite a passage from an people history, elegant writer, who expresses himself in the following manner0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of The Different Types of Acupuncture reference 2 * : “As the fancy delights in every thing, that is great, strange, or beautiful, and is still the more pleased the sample nhs essays more it finds of these perfections in the same object, so it is capable of receiving new satisfaction by the assistance of another sense. Thus, any continual sound, as the music of of Acupuncture birds, or a fall of waters, awakens every moment the mind of the beholder, and makes him more attentive to the several beauties of the place, that lie before him. Thus, if there arises a fragrancy of smells or perfumes, they heighten the james short stories pleasure of the Types of Acupuncture Essay imagination, and make even the colours and verdure of the landscape appear more agreeable; for the ideas of both senses recommend each other, and types organisation, are pleasanter together than where they enter the mind separately: As the different colours of a picture, when they are well disposed, set off one another, and receive an additional beauty from the advantage of the situation.” In these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to The Different Essay make searching the people history text easier nomena, we may remark the association both of impressions and The Different Essay, ideas; as well as the mutual assistance these associations lend to each other. 4. It seems to me, that both these species of relation have place in producing Pride or Humility , and are the real, efficient causes of the passion. With regard to the first relation, that of ideas, there can be no question. Digging! Whatever we are proud of must, in some manner, belong to us. Types Essay! It is always. our knowledge, our sense, beauty, possessions, family, on which we value ourselves. Self, which is the object of the german people passion, must still be related to that quality or circumstance, which causes the passion. There must be a connexion between them; an easy transition of the imagination; or a facility of the conception in passing from one to The Different the other.

Where this connexion is wanting, no object can either excite pride or humility; and the more you weaken the connexion, the more you weaken the passion. 5. James Baldwin Short Stories! The only subject of enquiry is, whether there be a like relation of impressions or sentiments, wherever pride or humility is felt; whether the circumstance, which causes the passion, previously excites a sentiment similar to the passion; and whether there be an easy transfusion of the one into of Acupuncture, the other. The feeling or sentiment of pride is baldwin stories agreeable; of humility, painful. An agreeable sensation is, therefore, related to the former; a painful, to the latter. And if we find, after examination, that every object, which produces pride, produces also a separate pleasure; and every object, which causes humility, excites in like manner a separate uneasiness; we must allow, in that case, that the present theory is fully proved and ascertained. The double relation of ideas and sentiments will be acknowledged incontestable. 6. To begin with personal merit and demerit, the most obvious causes of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay these passions; it would be entirely foreign to our present purpose to unique individual examine the foundation of moral distinctions. It is The Different Types sufficient to observe, that the foregoing theory concerning the origin of the passions may be defended on any hypothesis. The most probable system, which has been advanced to explain the difference between vice and james short, virtue, is, that either from a primary constitution of nature, or from a sense of public or private interest, certain characters, upon the very view and contemplation, produce uneasiness; and others, in like manner, excite pleasure. The Different Types! The uneasiness and satisfaction, produced in the spectator, are essential to vice and virtue. To approve of a character, is to feel a delight upon its appearance.

To disapprove of it, is to be sensible of an uneasiness. The pain and pleasure, therefore, being, in a manner, the primary source of blame or praise, must also be the causes of all their effects; and consequently, the causes of digging pride and humility, which are the unavoidable attendants of that distinction. But supposing this theory of morals should not be received; it is still evident that pain and pleasure, if not the Types sources of moral distinctions, are at least inseparable from them. A generous and noble character affords a satisfaction even in the survey; and when presented to short stories us, though only in a poem or fable, never fails to charm and delight us. On the other hand, cruelty and treachery displease from their very nature; nor is it. possible ever to reconcile us to these qualities, either in ourselves or others. Of Acupuncture! Virtue, therefore, produces always a pleasure distinct from the pride or self-satisfaction which attends it: Vice, an uneasiness separate from the humility or remorse. But a high or low conceit of ourselves arises not from those qualities alone of the mind, which, according to common systems of ethics, have been defined parts of moral duty; but from any other, which have a connexion with pleasure or uneasiness. Nothing flatters our vanity more than the analysis talent of Types of Acupuncture pleasing by our wit, good-humour, or any other accomplishment; and nothing gives us a more sensible mortification, than a disappointment in any attempt of that kind. No one has ever been able to tell precisely, what wit is, and to shew why such a system of thought must be received under that denomination, and such another rejected. It is by taste alone we can decide concerning it; nor are we possessed of any other standard, by which we can form a judgment of this nature.

Now what is this taste , from which true and false wit in a manner receive their being, and without which no thought can have a title to either of these denominations? It is plainly nothing but a sensation of pleasure from unique, true wit, and of disgust from false, without our being able to tell the reasons of that satisfaction or uneasiness. The power of Types Essay exciting these opposite sensations is, therefore, the very essence of true or false wit; and digging analysis, consequently, the Types of Acupuncture Essay cause of ohio vs mapp that vanity or mortification, which arises from The Different, one or the other. 7. Beauty of all kinds gives us a peculiar delight and satisfaction; as deformity produces pain, upon whatever subject it may be placed, and whether surveyed in an animate or inanimate object. If the beauty or deformity belong to stories our own face, shape, or person, this pleasure or uneasiness is converted into pride or humility; as having in this case all the circumstances requisite to produce a perfect transition, according to The Different the present theory.

It would seem, that the very essence of beauty consists in its power of producing pleasure. All its effects, therefore, must proceed from this circumstance: And if beauty is so universally the subject of vanity, it is only from its being the cause of german history pleasure. Concerning all other bodily accomplishments, we may observe in general, that whatever in ourselves is either useful, beautiful, or surprizing, is an object of pride; and the contrary of humility. These qualities agree in producing a separate pleasure; and agree in nothing else. We are vain of the surprizing adventures which we have met with, the escapes which we have made, the Essay dangers to which we have been exposed; as well as of our surprising feats of vigour and activity. Hence the origin of vulgar lying; where men, without any interest, and merely out of vanity, heap up a number of extraordinary events, which are either the fictions of their brain; or, if true, have no connexion with themselves. Their fruitful invention supplies them with a variety of adventures; and where that talent is wanting, they appropriate such as belong to others, in order to gratify their vanity: For between that passion, and the sentiment of pleasure, there is always a close connexion. 8. Unique Individual! But though pride and Types, humility have the qualities of our mind and body, that is, of individual self, for The Different of Acupuncture Essay, their natural and more immediate causes; we find by sample nhs essays, experience, that many other objects produce these affections. We found vanity upon houses, gardens, equipage, and other external objects; as well as upon personal merit and accomplishments. This happens when external objects acquire any particular relation to ourselves, and are associated or connected with us.

A beautiful fish in the ocean, a well-proportioned animal in a forest, and Types of Acupuncture, indeed, any thing, which neither belongs nor is related to us, has no manner of influence on our vanity; whatever extraordinary qualities it may be endowed with, and whatever degree of surprize and admiration it may naturally occasion. It must be someway associated with us, in order to digging analysis touch our pride. Its idea must hang, in a manner, upon that of Types of Acupuncture Essay ourselves; and german, the transition from one to Types of Acupuncture Essay the other must be easy and natural. Men are vain of the types of business organisation beauty either of their country, or their county, or even of their parish. Here the idea of beauty plainly produces a pleasure.

This pleasure is related to pride. The object or cause of The Different Types Essay this pleasure is, by ohio vs mapp, the supposition, related to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay self, the object of pride. By this double relation of sentiments and ideas, a transition is made from one to the other. Men are also vain of the happy temperature of the climate, in which they are born; of the fertility of their native soil; of the goodness of the wines, fruits, or victuals, produced by it; of the softness or force of their language, with other particulars of that kind. These objects have plainly a reference to the pleasures of of business organisation sense, and are originally considered as agreeable to Types of Acupuncture Essay the feeling, taste or hearing. How could they become causes of pride, except by means of that transition above explained? There are some, who discover a vanity of an opposite german, kind, and affect to depreciate their own country, in The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, comparison of those, to which they have travelled. These persons find, when they are at home, and surrounded with their countrymen, that the strong relation between them and their own nation is shared with so many, that it is in a manner lost to them; whereas, that distant relation to a foreign country, which is ohio vs mapp formed by their having. seen it, and lived in it, is Essay augmented by their considering how few have done the same. For this reason, they always admire the types of business organisation beauty, utility, and rarity of what they met with abroad, above what they find at home. Since we can be vain of a country, climate , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions or any inanimate object, which bears a relation to us; it is no wonder we should be vain of the qualities of those, who are connected with us by blood or friendship.

Accordingly we find, that any qualities which, when belonging to ourselves, produce pride, produce also, in The Different Types, a less degree, the same affection, when discovered in persons, related to us. The beauty, address, merit, credit, and honours of their kindred are carefully displayed by the proud, and ohio vs mapp, are considerable sources of their vanity. As we are proud of riches in The Different, ourselves, we desire, in order to gratify our vanity, that every one who has any connexion with us, should likewise be possessed of sample them, and are ashamed of such as are mean or poor among our friends and relations. Our forefathers being regarded as our nearest relations; every one naturally affects to be of a good family, and to be descended from a long succession of rich and honourable ancestors. Those, who boast of the antiquity of their families, are glad when they can join this circumstance, that their ancestors, for many generations, have been uninterrupted proprietors of the same portion of land, and that their family has never changed its possessions, or been transplanted into any other county or province. It is an additional subject of vanity, when they can boast, that these possessions have been transmitted through a descent, composed entirely of males, and that the The Different Types honours and fortune have never passed through any female. Let us endeavour to explain these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena from the foregoing theory.

When any one values himself on the antiquity of his family, the subjects of his vanity are not merely the extent of time and number of ancestors (for in that respect all mankind are alike), but these circumstances, joined to the riches and credit of his ancestors, which are supposed to reflect a lustre on himself, upon analysis account of his connexion with them. Since therefore the passion depends on the connexion, whatever strengthens the Types of Acupuncture connexion must also encrease the passion, and whatever weakens the connexion must diminish the passion. But it is evident, that the analysis sameness of the possessions must strengthen the relation of The Different Types ideas, arising from blood and german, kindred, and convey the fancy with greater facility from one generation to another; from the remotest ancestors to Types Essay their posterity, who are both their heirs and their descendants. By this facility, the sentiment is transmitted more entire, and excites a greater degree of pride and vanity. The case is the same with the ohio vs mapp transmission of the honours and fortune, through a succession of The Different Types males, without their passing through any female. It is an obvious quality of human nature, that the imagination naturally turns to whatever is organisation important and considerable; and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, where two objects are presented, a small and a great, it usually leaves the former, and dwells entirely on the latter. This is the types organisation reason, why children commonly bear their father’s name, and Essay, are esteemed to be of a nobler or meaner birth, according to his family. And though the organisation mother should be possessed of superior qualities to the father, as often happens, the general rule prevails, notwithstanding the exception, according to the doctrine, which shall be explained afterwards.

Nay, even when a superiority of any kind is so great, or when any other reasons have such an The Different of Acupuncture Essay, effect, as to german people make the children rather represent the mother’s family than the Essay father’s, the general rule still retains an sample nhs essays, efficacy, sufficient to weaken the relation, and make a kind of breach in the line of ancestors. The imagination runs not along them with the same facility, nor is able to transfer the honour and credit of the ancestors to their posterity of the same name and family so readily, as when the transition is conformable to The Different Types the general rule, and passes through the male line, from father to unique individual son, or from brother to brother. 9. The Different Essay! But property , as it gives us the fullest power and authority over any object, is the relation, which has the greatest influence on these passions0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 * . Every thing, belonging to a vain man, is the digging analysis best that is any where to be found. Types Essay! His houses, equipage, furniture, cloaths, horses, hounds, excel all others in his conceit; and it is easy to observe, that, from the least advantage in any of these , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions he draws a new subject of pride and vanity. His wine, if you will believe him, has a finer flavour than any other; his cookery is more exquisite; his table more orderly; his servants more expert; the individual air, in which he lives, more healthful; the soil, which he cultivates, more fertile; his fruits ripen earlier, and to greater perfection: Such a thing is remarkable for its. novelty; such another for its antiquity: This is the Types Essay workmanship of a famous artist; that belonged once to such a prince or great man. All objects, in a word, which are useful, beautiful, or surprizing, or are related to such, may, by means of property, give rise to this passion.

These all agree in giving pleasure. This alone is common to them; and therefore must be the quality, that produces the passion, which is their common effect. As every new instance is a new argument, and as the instances are here without number; it would seem, that this theory is sufficiently confirmed by experience. Riches imply the power of digging analysis acquiring whatever is The Different Types agreeable; and unique, as they comprehend many particular objects of The Different Essay vanity, necessarily become one of the chief causes of that passion. 10. History! Our opinions of all kinds are strongly affected by society and sympathy, and it is The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay almost impossible for us to support any principle or sentiment, against the universal consent of every one, with whom we have any friendship or correspondence. But of all our opinions, those, which we form in our own favour; however lofty or presuming; are, at bottom, the unique individual frailest, and the most easily shaken by the contradiction and opposition of others. Our great concern, in this case, makes us soon alarmed, and keeps our passions upon the watch: Our consciousness of partiality still makes us dread a mistake: And the very difficulty of judging concerning an The Different of Acupuncture Essay, object, which is never set at analysis a due distance from us, nor is seen in a proper point of view, makes us hearken anxiously to the opinions of others, who are better qualified to form just opinions concerning us. Hence that strong love of The Different fame, with which all mankind are possessed.

It is in order to fix and confirm their favourable opinion of themselves, not from any original passion, that they seek the applauses of others. Analysis! And when a man desires to be praised, it is for the same reason, that a beauty is pleased with surveying herself in a favourable looking-glass, and seeing the reflection of The Different Types Essay her own charms. Though it be difficult, in all points of speculation, to distinguish a cause, which encreases an digging, effect, from one, which solely produces it; yet in the present case the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the of Acupuncture Essay text easier nomena seem pretty strong and satisfactory in history, confirmation of the of Acupuncture foregoing principle. We receive a much greater satisfaction from the digging approbation of those whom we ourselves esteem and approve of, than of those whom we contemn and Types of Acupuncture, despise. When esteem is obtained after a long and intimate acquaintance, it gratifies our vanity in a peculiar manner.

The suffrage of those, who are shy and backward in giving praise, is attended with an additional relish and enjoyment, if we can obtain it in our favour. Where a great man is delicate in his choice of analysis favourites, every one courts with greater earnestness his countenance and protection. Praise never gives us much pleasure, unless it concur with our own opinion, and extol us for those qualities, in which we chiefly excel. These ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena seem to prove, that the favourable suffrages of the world are regarded only Types of Acupuncture as authorities, or as confirmations of our own opinion. And if the opinions of james baldwin stories others have more influence in this subject than in of Acupuncture, any other, it is easily accounted for from the nature of the subject. 11. Thus few objects, however related to digging analysis us, and whatever pleasure they produce, are able to excite a great degree of pride or self-satisfaction; unless they be also obvious to others, and engage the approbation of the The Different Types spectators. People! What disposition of Essay mind so desirable as the peaceful, resigned, contented; which readily submits to all the dispensations of analysis providence, and preserves a constant serenity amidst the greatest misfortunes and disappointments? Yet this disposition, though acknowledged to be a virtue or excellence, is seldom the foundation of great vanity or self-applause; having no brilliancy or exterior lustre, and rather cheering the heart, than animating the behaviour and conversation.

The case is the same with many other qualities of the The Different mind, body, or fortune; and this circumstance, as well as the double relations above mentioned, must be admitted to be of consequence in the production of these passions. A second circumstance, which is of consequence in this affair, is the constancy and durableness of the object. German People History! What is very casual and inconstant, beyond the The Different Types common course of human affairs, gives little joy, and less pride. We are not much satisfied with the thing itself; and are still less apt to ohio vs mapp feel any new degree of self-satisfaction upon its account. Types Essay! We foresee and anticipate its change; which makes us little satisfied with the thing itself: We compare it to ourselves, whose existence is more durable; by which means its inconstancy appears still greater. It seems ridiculous to make ourselves the object of a passion, on account of a quality or possession, which is of so much shorter duration, and attends us during so small a part of our existence. A third circumstance, not to unique individual be neglected, is that the Types of Acupuncture Essay objects, in order to german people produce pride or self-value, must be peculiar to us, or at The Different Types Essay least common to us with a few others. Digging Analysis! The advantages of sun-shine, good weather, a happy climate, c. distinguish us not from any of our companions, and give us no preference or superiority.

The comparison, which we are every moment apt to make, presents no inference to our advantage; and we still remain, notwithstanding these enjoyments, on a level with all our friends and acquaintance. As health and sickness vary incessantly to all men, and there is no one, who is solely or certainly fixed in either; these accidental blessings and calamities are in of Acupuncture, a manner separated from sample, us, and are not considered as a foundation for vanity or humiliation. But wherever a malady of any kind is so rooted in Types, our constitution, that we no longer entertain any hope of recovery, from types of business, that moment it damps our self-conceit, as is evident in old men, whom nothing mortifies more than the consideration of their age and The Different of Acupuncture, infirmities. They endeavour, as long as possible, to conceal their blindness and deafness, their rheums and gouts; nor do they ever avow them without reluctance and uneasiness. And though young men are not ashamed of every head-ach or cold which they fall into; yet no topic is more proper to sample mortify human pride, and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, make us entertain a mean opinion of our nature, than this, that we are every moment of our lives subject to such infirmities. This proves, that bodily pain and sickness are in themselves proper causes of james stories humility; though the custom of estimating every thing, by comparison, more than by its intrinsic worth and value, makes us overlook those calamities, which we find incident to every one, and of Acupuncture Essay, causes us to form an idea of nhs essays our merit and character, independent of them. We are ashamed of such maladies as affect others, and are either dangerous or disagreeable to them. Of the epilepsy; because it gives a horror to every one present: Of the itch; because it is infectious: Of the king’s evil; because it often goes to posterity.

Men always consider the sentiments of others in their judgment of themselves. A fourth circumstance, which has an influence on these passions, is general rules ; by which we form a notion of different ranks of men, suitably to the power or riches of which they are possessed; and this notion is not changed by any peculiarities of the The Different of Acupuncture health or temper of the persons, which may deprive them of all enjoyment in their possessions. Custom readily carries us beyond the just bounds in our passions, as well as in our reasonings. It may not be amiss to observe on this occasion, that the influence of general rules and maxims on the passions very much contributes to facilitate the effects of all the german principles or internal mechanism, which we here explain. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! For it seems evident, that, if a person full grown, and of the same nature with ourselves, were on a sudden transported into our world, he would be much embarrassed with every object, and unique individual, would not readily determine what degree of love or hatred, of pride or humility, or of any other passion should be excited by it. The passions are often varied by very inconsiderable principles; and these do not always play with perfect regularity, especially on the first trial. But as custom or practice has brought to light all these principles, and has settled the The Different Essay just value of digging analysis every thing; this must certainly. contribute to the easy production of the passions, and guide us, by means of general established rules, in the proportions, which we ought to observe in preferring one object to another. This remark may, perhaps, serve to obviate difficulties, that may arise concerning some causes, which we here ascribe to The Different Essay particular passions, and people, which may be esteemed too refined to The Different operate so universally and certainly, as they are found to do.

1. In running over all the causes, which produce the passion of pride or that of humility; it would readily occur, that the same circumstance, if transferred from ourselves to another person, would render him the object of love or hatred, esteem or contempt. The virtue, genius, beauty, family, riches, and authority of others beget favourable sentiments in unique individual, their behalf; and their vice, folly, deformity, poverty, and meanness excite the contrary sentiments. The double relation of impressions and ideas still operates on The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay these passions of love and hatred; as on the former of pride and humility. Whatever gives a separate pleasure or pain, and is related to another person or connected with him, makes him the object of our affection or disgust. Hence too injury or contempt towards us is types one of the greatest sources of our hatred; services or esteem, of our friendship. 2. Sometimes a relation to ourselves excites affection towards any person. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! But there is ohio vs mapp always here implied a relation of sentiments, without which the other relation would have no influence0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of The Different Types reference 4 * . A person, who is related to us, or connected with us, by blood, by similitude of fortune, of adventures, profession, or country, soon becomes an agreeable companion to us; because we enter easily and familiarly into his sentiments and conceptions: Nothing is strange or new to us: Our imagination, passing from self, which is ever intimately present to us, runs smoothly along the relation or connexion, and conceives with a full sympathy the person, who is nearly related to self. Ohio Vs Mapp! He renders himself immediately acceptable, and is at once on an easy footing with us: No distance, no reserve has place, where the person introduced is supposed so closely connected with us. Relation has here the same influence as custom or acquaintance, in exciting affection; and from like causes. The ease and satisfaction, which, in both cases, attend our intercourse or commerce, is the source of the friendship.

3. The passions of love and hatred are always followed by, or rather conjoined with, benevolence and anger. It is this conjunction, which chiefly distinguishes these affections from pride and Types, humility. For pride and humility are pure emotions in the soul, unattended with any desire, and. not immediately exciting us to action. James Baldwin Short Stories! But love and hatred are not compleat within themselves, nor rest in The Different of Acupuncture Essay, that emotion, which they produce; but carry the mind to something farther. Love is always followed by a desire of happiness to the person beloved, and an aversion to his misery: As hatred produces a desire of the sample misery, and an aversion to the happiness of the person hated. These opposite desires seem to be originally and primarily conjoined with the passions of love and of Acupuncture Essay, hatred. It is a constitution of nature, of which we can give no farther explication. 4. Unique Individual! Compassion frequently arises, where there is The Different Essay no preceding esteem or friendship; and compassion is an uneasiness in the sufferings of digging analysis another. It seems to spring from the intimate and strong conception of his sufferings; and our imagination proceeds by degrees, from the lively idea to the real feeling of another’s misery. Malice and envy also arise in the mind without any preceding hatred or injury; though their tendency is exactly the same with that of anger and ill-will.

The comparison of ourselves with others seems to The Different of Acupuncture be the source of envy and malice. Unique! The more unhappy another is, the more happy do we ourselves appear in our own conception. 5. The similar tendency of compassion to that of benevolence, and of envy to anger, forms a very close relation between these two sets of passions; though of a different kind from that which was insisted on of Acupuncture Essay above. It is not a resemblance of feeling or sentiment, but a resemblance of digging tendency or direction. Its effect, however, is the same, in producing an association of passions.

Compassion is seldom or never felt without some mixture of tenderness or friendship : ; originally a colon; the lowercase 'a' following suggests that a semi-colon was intended, and there is a semi-colon here in all the previous editions (N.B. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay! prior to the 1772 edition, the types of business semi-colon in the next sentence was a colon (with a capital 'A' following), but the flow clearly suggests the same apposition in each sentence, thus it is natural to suppose that Hume later aligned the punctuation accordingly) and envy is naturally accompanied with anger or ill-will. To desire the happiness of another, from whatever motive, is a good preparative to affection; and to delight in another’s misery almost unavoidably begets aversion towards him. Even where interest is the source of our concern, it is commonly attended with the same consequences. A partner is a natural object of friendship; a rival of enmity. 6. Poverty, meanness, disappointment, produce contempt and dislike: But when these misfortunes are very great, or are represented to us in very strong colours, they excite compassion, and tenderness, and friendship. How is The Different Essay this contradiction to be accounted for? The poverty and meanness of another, in their common appearance, gives us uneasiness, by a species of imperfect sympathy; and this uneasiness produces aversion or dislike, from the resemblance of sentiment. But when we enter more intimately into another’s concerns, and wish for his happiness, as well as feel his misery, friendship or good-will arises, from the similar tendency of the inclinations. A bankrupt, at first, while the idea of his misfortunes is fresh and recent, and while the comparison of organisation his present unhappy situation with his former prosperity operates strongly upon us, meets with compassion and friendship.

After these ideas are weakened or obliterated by time, he is in danger of compassion dislike originally 'compassion'; from the context it seems clear that this is an error (N.B. this paragraph was first added in the 1777 edition, so unfortunately there are no other editions to check) and contempt. 7. In respect, there is a mixture of humility, with the esteem or affection: In contempt, a mixture of pride. The amorous passion is usually compounded of complacency in beauty, a bodily appetite, and friendship or affection. The Different! The close relation of these sentiments is very obvious, as well as their origin from each other, by means of that relation. Were there no other ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the german history text easier nomenon to reconcile us to The Different Essay the present theory, this alone, methinks, were sufficient. 1. Digging! The present theory of the passions depends entirely on the double relations of sentiments and ideas, and the mutual assistance, which these relations lend to each other. It may not, therefore, be improper to illustrate these principles by Types of Acupuncture, some farther instances.

2. The virtues, talents, accomplishments, and possessions of others, make us love and esteem them: Because these objects excite a pleasing sensation, which is related to german history love; and as they have also a relation or connexion with the person, this union of ideas forwards the union of sentiments, according to the foregoing reasoning. But suppose, that the person, whom we love, is also related to us, by blood, country, or friendship; it is evident, that a species of pride must also be excited by The Different Types of Acupuncture, his accomplishments and possessions; there being the same double relation, which we have all along insisted on. The person is related to us, or there is an easy transition of thought from him to us; and the sentiments, excited by his advantages and virtues, are agreeable, and consequently related to pride. Ohio Vs Mapp! Accordingly we find, that people are naturally vain of the good qualities or high fortune of their friends and countrymen. 3. But it is Types of Acupuncture observable, that, if we reverse the order of the passions, the ohio vs mapp same effect does not follow. We pass easily from love and affection to The Different of Acupuncture Essay pride and vanity; but not from the latter passions to the former, though all the relations be the digging analysis same.

We love not those who are related to us, on account of our own merit; though they are naturally vain on account of our merit. What is the reason of this difference? The transition of the imagination to ourselves, from objects related to us, is always easy; both on account of the relation, which facilitates the transition, and because we there pass from remoter objects, to those which are contiguous. But in passing from ourselves to objects, related to us; though the former principle forwards the transition of thought, yet the latter opposes it; and consequently there is not the same easy transfusion of passions from Types Essay, pride to love as from love to digging pride. 4. The virtues, services, and fortune of one man inspire us readily with esteem and The Different Types, affection for another related to him. The son of our friend is naturally entitled to our friendship: The kindred of a very great man value themselves, and german, are valued by others, on account of The Different Essay that relation. The force of the double relation is here fully displayed. 5. Baldwin Stories! The following are instances of another kind, where the of Acupuncture operation of these principles may still be discovered. Envy arises from a superiority in ohio vs mapp, others; but it is observable, that it is not the great disproportion between us, which excites that passion, but on the contrary, our proximity. A great disproportion cuts off the The Different Types of Acupuncture relation of the ideas, and either keeps us from german, comparing ourselves with what is remote from us, or diminishes the effects of the comparison.

A poet is not apt to envy a philosopher, or a poet of a different kind, of a different nation, or of The Different Types Essay a different age. All these differences, if they do not prevent, at least weaken the comparison, and consequently the passion. This too is the reason, why all objects appear great or little, merely by a comparison with those of the same species. A mountain neither magnifies nor diminishes a horse in our eyes: But when a Flemish and a Welsh horse are seen together, the one appears greater and james, the other less, than when viewed apart. From the Essay same principle we may account for that remark of historians, that any party, in a civil war, or even factious division, always choose to call in a foreign enemy at any hazard, rather than submit to their fellow-citizens. Guicciardin applies this remark to the wars in Italy ; where the relations between the different states are, properly speaking, nothing but of name, language, and contiguity. James Baldwin! Yet even these relations, when joined with superiority, by making the comparison more natural, make it likewise more grievous, and cause men to search for some other superiority, which may be attended with no relation, and by that means, may have a less sensible influence on the imagination. The Different Types! When we cannot break the short stories association, we feel a stronger desire to Types remove the superiority.

This seems to be the reason, why travellers, though commonly lavish of their praise to the Chinese and Persians , take care to depreciate those neighbouring nations, which may stand upon a footing of rivalship with their native country. 6. The fine arts afford us parallel instances. Should an author compose a treatise, of which one part was serious and profound, another light and humorous; every one would condemn so strange a mixture, and would blame him for the neglect of all rules of art and criticism. Yet we accuse not Prior for joining his Alma and ohio vs mapp, Solomon in Types, the same volume; though that amiable poet has perfectly succeeded in the gaiety of the one, as well as in the melancholy of the other. Even suppose the reader should peruse these two compositions without any interval, he would feel little or no difficulty in the change of the unique passions. The Different Essay! Why? but because he considers these performances as entirely different; and by that break in the ideas, breaks the progress. of the james short affections, and hinders the one from influencing or contradicting the other. An heroic and burlesque design, united in one picture, would be monstrous; though we place two pictures of The Different Types of Acupuncture so opposite a character in the same chamber, and even close together, without any scruple.

7. It needs be no matter of wonder, that the easy transition of the baldwin stories imagination should have such an influence on all the passions. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! It is this very circumstance, which forms all the individual relations and connexions amongst objects. The Different Of Acupuncture Essay! We know no real connexion between one thing and another. We only know, that the idea of one thing is associated with that of another, and that the imagination makes an easy transition between them. And as the easy transition of ideas, and that of sentiments mutually assist each other; we might before-hand expect, that this principle must have a mighty influence on all our internal movements and affections. And experience sufficiently confirms the theory. For, not to repeat all the foregoing instances: Suppose, that I were travelling with a companion through a country, to ohio vs mapp which we are both utter strangers; it is evident, that, if the prospects be beautiful, the roads agreeable, and the fields finely cultivated; this may serve to put me in good-humour, both with myself and fellow-traveller. But as the country has no connexion with myself or friend, it can never be the immediate cause either of self-value or of regard to Types Essay him: And therefore, if I found not the german people history passion on some other object, which bears to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay one of us a closer relation, my emotions are rather to be considered as the overflowings of an elevated or humane disposition, than as an established passion. But supposing the agreeable prospect before us to be surveyed either from german people history, his country-seat or from mine; this new connexion of ideas gives a new direction to the sentiment of pleasure, derived from the prospect, and raises the Types of Acupuncture emotion of regard or vanity, according to the nature of the connexion. There is not here, methinks, much room for doubt or difficulty. 1. It seems evident, that reason, in a strict sense, as meaning the judgment of truth and falsehood, can never, of itself, be any motive to james short stories the will, and The Different Types, can have no influence but so far as it touches some passion or affection.

Abstract relations of ideas are the object of curiosity, not of volition. And matters of fact , where they are neither good nor evil, where they neither excite desire nor aversion, are totally indifferent; and whether known or unknown, whether mistaken or rightly apprehended, cannot be regarded as any motive to action. 2. What is commonly, in a popular sense, called reason, and is so much recommended in german people, moral discourses, is nothing but a general and a calm passion, which takes a comprehensive and a distant view of its object, and actuates the will, without exciting any sensible emotion. A man, we say, is diligent in his profession from reason; that is, from a calm desire of riches and a fortune. A man adheres to justice from reason; that is, from a calm regard to public good, or to Essay a character with himself and others. 3. Sample! The same objects, which recommend themselves to reason in this sense of the of Acupuncture Essay word, are also the objects of what we call passion, when they are brought near to us, and acquire some other advantages, either of external situation, or congruity to individual our internal temper; and by that means excite a turbulent and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, sensible emotion.

Evil, at a great distance, is avoided, we say, from reason: Evil, near at digging hand, produces aversion, horror, fear, and is the object of passion. 4. The common error of metaphysicians has lain in ascribing the direction of the will entirely to one of these principles, and supposing the other to have no influence. Men often act knowingly against their interest: It is not therefore the Types view of the digging analysis greatest possible good which always influences them. Men often counteract a violent passion, in prosecution of their distant interests and designs: It is not therefore the present uneasiness alone, which determines them. In general, we may observe, that both these principles operate on of Acupuncture Essay the will; and where they are contrary, that either of them prevails, according to the general character or present disposition of the person. What we call strength of mind implies the prevalence of the german people history calm passions above the violent; though we may easily observe, that there is of Acupuncture Essay no. person so constantly possessed of this virtue, as never, on any occasion, to yield to the solicitation of violent affection and desire. From these variations of types of business organisation temper proceeds the great difficulty of deciding with regard to the future actions and resolutions of men, where there is any contrariety of motives and passions. 1. We shall here enumerate some of those circumstances, which render a passion calm or violent, which heighten or diminish any emotion. It is a property in of Acupuncture, human nature, that any emotion, which attends a passion , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions is easily converted into it; though in their natures they be originally different from, and even contrary to each other. It is german true, in order to cause a perfect union amongst passions, and make one produce the other, there is always required a double relation, according to the theory above delivered.

But when two passions are already produced by their separate causes, and Types, are both present in the mind, they readily mingle and unite; though they have but one relation, and sometimes without any. The predominant passion swallows up the inferior, and converts it into itself. The spirits, when once excited, easily receive a change in their direction; and it is individual natural to imagine, that this change will come from the The Different Essay prevailing affection. The connexion is in many cases closer between any two passions, than between any passion and indifference. When a person is once heartily in organisation, love, the little faults and caprices of his mistress, the jealousies and Essay, quarrels, to which that commerce is so subject; however unpleasant they be, and rather connected with anger and hatred; are yet found, in types, many instances, to give additional force to Types of Acupuncture the prevailing passion. It is unique a common artifice of politicians, when they would affect any person very much by a matter of fact, of which they intend to inform him, first to The Different excite his curiosity; delay as long as possible the satisfying of organisation it; and by that means raise his anxiety and impatience to the utmost, before they give him a full insight into the business. They know, that this curiosity will precipitate him into the passion, which they purpose to raise, and will assist the The Different of Acupuncture object in individual, its influence on Types the mind.

A soldier advancing to battle, is naturally inspired with courage and confidence, when he thinks on james his friends and fellow-soldiers; and The Different of Acupuncture Essay, is struck with fear and terror, when he reflects on the enemy. Whatever new emotion therefore proceeds from the former, naturally encreases the courage; as the same emotion proceeding from the digging latter, augments the fear. Hence in martial discipline, the uniformity and lustre of habit, the regularity of The Different of Acupuncture Essay figures and motions, with all the pomp and majesty of war, encourage ourselves and our allies; while the same objects in the enemy strike terror into digging analysis, us, though agreeable and beautiful in themselves. Hope is, in itself, an agreeable passion, and allied to friendship and benevolence; yet is it able sometimes to blow up anger, when that is the predominant passion. Spes addita suscitat iras. Virg . 2. Since passions, however independent, are naturally transfused into each other, if they be both present at the same time; it follows, that when good or evil is placed in Essay, such a situation as to cause any particular emotion, besides its direct passion of desire or aversion, this latter passion must acquire new force and violence.

3. Sample! This often happens, when any object excites contrary passions. For it is Types of Acupuncture observable, that an opposition of passions commonly causes a new emotion in the spirits, and produces more disorder than the concurrence of any two affections of equal force. This new emotion is easily converted into the predominant passion, and in many instances, is observed to encrease its violence, beyond the pitch, at which it would have arrived, had it met with no opposition. Hence we naturally desire what is forbid, and often take a pleasure in baldwin stories, performing actions, merely because they are unlawful. The notion of duty, when opposite to the passions, is The Different Types Essay not always able to overcome them; and when it fails of that effect, is apt rather to encrease and irritate them, by producing an opposition in our motives and principles. 4. James Baldwin Stories! The same effect follows, whether the opposition arise from internal motives or external obstacles. The passion commonly acquires new force in both cases. The efforts, which the mind makes to Types of Acupuncture surmount the obstacle, excite the analysis spirits, and Types of Acupuncture Essay, enliven the unique passion.

5. Uncertainty has the same effect as opposition. The agitation of the thought, the quick turns which it makes from one view to another, the variety of passions which succeed each other, according to the different views: All these produce an emotion in the mind; and this emotion transfuses itself into the predominant passion. Security, on the contrary, diminishes the passions. The mind, when left to itself, immediately languishes; and in order to preserve its ardour, must be every moment supported by a new flow of passion. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! For the same reason, despair, though contrary to security, has a like influence.

6. Nothing more powerfully excites any affection than to individual conceal some part of its object, by throwing it into a kind of shade, which , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions at the same time that it shows enough to prepossess us in The Different Types of Acupuncture, favour of the object, leaves still some work for the imagination. Unique Individual! Besides that obscurity is always attended with a kind of uncertainty; the effort, which the fancy makes to compleat the idea, rouzes the spirits, and gives an additional force to the passion. 7. As despair and security, though contrary, produce the same effects; so absence is observed to have contrary effects, and in Types Essay, different circumstances, either encreases or diminishes our affection. Rochefoucault has very well remarked, that absence destroys weak passions, but encreases strong; as the wind extinguishes a candle, but blows up a fire. Long absence naturally weakens our idea, and diminishes the of business organisation passion: But where the of Acupuncture Essay affection is james short so strong and lively as to support itself, the uneasiness, arising from absence, encreases the Types passion, and gives it new force and influence. 8. When the soul applies itself to the performance of any action, or the conception of any object, to which it is not accustomed, there is a certain unpliableness in the faculties, and a difficulty of the spirits moving in their new direction. As this difficulty excites the spirits, it is the german people source of wonder, surprize, and The Different, of all the emotions, which arise from novelty; and is, in itself, agreeable, like every thing which enlivens the mind to a moderate degree.

But though surprize be agreeable in itself, yet, as it puts the spirits in agitation, it not only augments our agreeable affections, but also our painful, according to the foregoing principle. History! Hence every thing that is The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay new, is most affecting, and gives us either more pleasure or pain, than what, strictly speaking, should naturally follow from it. When it often returns upon us, the novelty wears off; the passions subside; the hurry of the spirits is over; and we survey the object with greater tranquillity. 9. The imagination and affections have a close union together. The vivacity of the former gives force to the latter.

Hence the prospect of any pleasure, with which we are acquainted, affects us more than any other pleasure, which we may own superior, but of whose nature we are wholly ignorant. Of the one we can form a particular and determinate idea: The other we conceive under the general notion of pleasure. Any satisfaction, which we lately enjoyed, and of which the memory is fresh and recent, operates on the will with more violence, than another of which the individual traces are decayed and almost obliterated. A pleasure, which is suitable to the way of life, in which we are engaged, excites more our desire and appetite than another, which is foreign to it. Nothing is more capable of infusing any passion into the mind, than eloquence, by Essay, which objects are represented in the strongest and german people history, most lively colours. The bare opinion of another, especially when enforced with passion, will cause an idea to have an influence upon us, though that idea might otherwise have been entirely neglected. It is remarkable, that lively passions commonly attend a lively imagination. In this respect, as well as in others, the force of the passion depends as much on the temper of the person, as on the nature and situation of the object.

What is distant, either in place or time, has not equal influence with what is near and The Different Essay, contiguous. I pretend not to have here exhausted this subject. Individual! It is sufficient for my purpose, if I have made it appear, that, in The Different, the production and conduct of the ohio vs mapp passions, there is Essay a certain regular mechanism, which is susceptible of as accurate a disquisition, as the laws of motion, optics, hydrostatics, or any part of natural philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4. The affection of parents to children seems founded on german people an original instinct. The affection towards other relations depends on the principles here explained.

NOTE [R], p. 193. [Bea 13.] added for ease of reference. T hat property is a species of relation , which produces a connexion between the person and the object is evident: The imagination passes naturally and easily from the consideration of Types Essay a field to analysis that of the person to whom it belongs. It may only be asked, how this relation is resolvable into any of those three, viz. Types Of Acupuncture! causation , contiguity , and resemblance , which we have affirmed to be the only connecting principles among ideas. To be the proprietor of any thing is to be the types sole person, who, by the laws of society, has a right to dispose of The Different of Acupuncture it, and to enjoy the benefit of it. This right has at james baldwin short least a tendency to procure the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay person the exercise of it; and in fact does commonly procure him that advantage. For rights which had no influence, and history, never took place, would be no rights at all.

Now a person who disposes of an object, and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, reaps benefit from it, both produces, or may produce, effects on it, and is affected by it. Property therefore is ohio vs mapp a species of causation . It enables the person to produce alterations on the object, and it supposes that his condition is improved and altered by it. It is indeed the relation the most interesting of any, and occurs the most frequently to the mind. I t seems an The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, unaccountable pleasure, which the spectators of a well-written tragedy receive from sorrow, terror, anxiety, and analysis, other passions, that are in themselves disagreeable and uneasy. The more they are touched and affected, the more are they delighted with the spectacle; and as soon as the uneasy passions cease to operate, the piece is at an end. One scene of full joy and contentment and security is the The Different Types utmost, that any composition of this kind can bear; and it is sure always to analysis be the concluding one. If, in the texture of the piece, there be interwoven any scenes of satisfaction, they afford only faint gleams of pleasure, which are thrown in by way of variety, and in order to plunge the actors into The Different Types of Acupuncture, deeper distress, by means of that contrast and disappointment. The whole art of the organisation poet. is employed, in rouzing and supporting the compassion and indignation, the The Different of Acupuncture Essay anxiety and resentment of his audience.

They are pleased in proportion as they are afflicted, and never are so happy as when they employ tears, sobs, and cries to give vent to their sorrow, and relieve their heart, swoln with the tenderest sympathy and compassion. The few critics who have had some tincture of philosophy, have remarked this singular ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon, and have endeavoured to account for it. L’Abbe Dubos , in digging analysis, his reflections on poetry and The Different Essay, painting, asserts, that nothing is in organisation, general so disagreeable to the mind as the languid, listless state of indolence, into The Different of Acupuncture, which it falls upon the removal of all passion and occupation. To get rid of this painful situation, it seeks every amusement and pursuit; business, gaming, shews, executions; whatever will rouze the passions, and take its attention from itself. No matter what the passion is: Let it be disagreeable, afflicting, melancholy, disordered; it is still better than that insipid languor, which arises from perfect tranquillity and repose. It is impossible not to admit this account, as being, at least in unique, part, satisfactory. You may observe, when there are several tables of gaming, that all the company run to those, where the deepest play is, even though they find not there the best players. The view, or, at least, imagination of high passions, arising from great loss or gain, affects the spectator by sympathy, gives him some touches of the same passions, and serves him for The Different Types of Acupuncture, a momentary entertainment. Types Of Business Organisation! It makes the time pass the of Acupuncture easier with him, and is some relief to that oppression, under which men commonly labour, when left entirely to their own thoughts and meditations. We find that common liars always magnify, in their narrations, all kinds of analysis danger, pain, distress, sickness, deaths, murders, and cruelties; as well as joy, beauty, mirth, and.

magnificence. It is an absurd secret, which they have for pleasing their company, fixing their attention, and attaching them to such marvellous relations, by the passions and emotions, which they excite. There is, however, a difficulty in applying to the present subject, in its full extent, this solution, however ingenious and satisfactory it may appear. Of Acupuncture Essay! It is certain, that the same object of distress, which pleases in organisation, a tragedy, were it really set before us, would give the most unfeigned uneasiness; though it be then the most effectual cure to languor and indolence. Monsieur Fontenelle seems to have been sensible of this difficulty; and accordingly attempts another solution of the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay make searching the text easier nomenon; at least makes some addition to the theory above mentioned0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . “Pleasure and pain,” says he, “which are two sentiments so different in sample, themselves, differ not so much in their cause. From the instance of tickling, it appears, that the movement of pleasure, pushed a little too far, becomes pain; and that the movement of pain, a little moderated, becomes pleasure. Hence it proceeds, that there is such a thing as a sorrow, soft and agreeable: It is a pain weakened and diminished. The heart likes naturally to be moved and The Different Types Essay, affected. Melancholy objects suit it, and short stories, even disastrous and sorrowful, provided they are softened by some circumstance. It is certain, that, on the theatre, the representation has almost the effect of reality; yet it has not altogether that effect. However we may be hurried away by the spectacle; whatever dominion the senses and imagination may usurp over the reason, there still lurks at the bottom a certain idea of falsehood in the whole of what we see.

This idea, though weak and disguised, suffices to diminish the pain which we suffer from the misfortunes of those whom we love, and to reduce that affliction to such a pitch as converts it into a pleasure. We weep for Types Essay, the misfortune of a hero, to whom we are attached. In the same instant we com- fort ourselves, by reflecting, that it is nothing but a fiction: And it is precisely that mixture of sentiments, which composes an agreeable sorrow, and tears that delight us. But as that affliction, which is sample caused by exterior and sensible objects, is stronger than the consolation which arises from an internal reflection, they are the effects and symptoms of sorrow, that ought to predominate in the composition.” This solution seems just and convincing; but perhaps it wants still some new addition, in order to The Different Types of Acupuncture make it answer fully the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to digging analysis make searching the text easier nomenon, which we here examine. All the passions, excited by eloquence, are agreeable in of Acupuncture Essay, the highest degree, as well as those which are moved by painting and the theatre. The epilogues of Cicero are, on this account chiefly, the sample nhs essays delight of every reader of taste; and it is difficult to read some of them without the deepest sympathy and The Different Types, sorrow. His merit as an orator, no doubt, depends much on his success in this particular. When he had raised tears in his judges and all his audience, they were then the most highly delighted, and expressed the greatest satisfaction with the pleader. The pathetic description of the james stories butchery, made by Verres of the The Different Types Sicilian captains, is a masterpiece of this kind: But I believe none will affirm, that the being present at a melancholy scene of that nature would afford any entertainment.

Neither is the sorrow here softened by fiction: For the audience were convinced of the reality of every circumstance. What is it then, which in this case raises a pleasure from the digging analysis bosom of uneasiness, so to The Different Types of Acupuncture speak; and a pleasure, which still retains all the features and german people history, outward symptoms of distress and sorrow? I answer: This extraordinary effect proceeds from that very eloquence, with which the The Different Types Essay melancholy scene is represented. German! The genius required to paint objects in a lively manner, the art employed in collecting all the pathetic circumstances, the The Different of Acupuncture judgment displayed in disposing them: the exercise, I say, of james baldwin short these noble talents, together with the force of Types of Acupuncture expression, and. beauty of oratorial numbers, diffuse the highest satisfaction on the audience, and excite the baldwin short most delightful movements.

By this means, the uneasiness of the melancholy passions is not only overpowered and effaced by something stronger of Types Essay an opposite kind; but the individual whole impulse of those passions is The Different Types of Acupuncture converted into pleasure, and swells the delight which the eloquence raises in us. James Baldwin! The same force of oratory, employed on The Different of Acupuncture an uninteresting subject, would not please half so much, or rather would appear altogether ridiculous; and digging, the mind, being left in of Acupuncture Essay, absolute calmness and indifference, would relish none of people history those beauties of imagination or expression, which, if joined to passion, give it such exquisite entertainment. The impulse or vehemence, arising from sorrow, compassion, indignation, receives a new direction from the sentiments of beauty. The latter, being the predominant emotion, seize the whole mind, and convert the The Different of Acupuncture former into ohio vs mapp, themselves, at least tincture them so strongly as totally to alter their nature. And the soul, being, at the same time, rouzed by passion, and charmed by eloquence, feels on Essay the whole a strong movement, which is of business organisation altogether delightful.

The same principle takes place in tragedy; with this addition, that tragedy is an imitation; and imitation is always of itself agreeable. Of Acupuncture Essay! This circumstance serves still farther to smooth the motions of passion, and convert the whole feeling into one uniform and strong enjoyment. Objects of the ohio vs mapp greatest terror and distress please in Types of Acupuncture, painting, and please more than the most beautiful objects, that appear calm and individual, indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * . The affection, rouzing the The Different Types mind, excites a large stock of spirit and vehemence; which is all transformed into pleasure by the. force of the prevailing movement. It is thus the fiction of tragedy softens the passion, by james stories, an infusion of a new feeling, not merely by weakening or diminishing the sorrow. You may by degrees weaken a real sorrow, till it totally disappears; yet in none of its gradations will it ever give pleasure; except, perhaps, by accident, to a man sunk under lethargic indolence, whom it rouzes from that languid state.

To confirm this theory, it will be sufficient to produce other instances, where the subordinate movement is converted into The Different Types Essay, the predominant, and gives force to it, though of a different, and even sometimes though of a contrary nature. Novelty naturally rouzes the mind, and ohio vs mapp, attracts our attention; and the movements, which it causes, are always converted into any passion, belonging to the object, and join their force to it. The Different Types Of Acupuncture! Whether an event excite joy or sorrow, pride or shame, anger or good-will, it is sure to produce a stronger affection, when new or unusual. And though novelty of itself be agreeable, it fortifies the james baldwin short stories painful, as well as agreeable passions. Had you any intention to move a person extremely by the narration of any event, the best method of encreasing its effect would be artfully to delay informing him of it, and first to excite his curiosity and impatience before you let him into the secret. This is the artifice practised by Iago in the famous scene of Shakespeare ; and every spectator is sensible, that Othello ’s jealousy acquires additional force from his preceding impatience, and that the subordinate passion is here readily transformed into the predominant one. Difficulties encrease passions of every kind; and by rouzing our attention, and exciting our active powers, they produce an emotion, which nourishes the prevailing affection.

Parents commonly love that child most, whose sickly infirm frame of Types of Acupuncture body has occasioned them the greatest pains, trouble, and anxiety in rearing him. The agreeable sentiment of affection here acquires force from sentiments of uneasiness. Nothing endears so much a friend as sorrow for his death. Of Business! The pleasure of The Different Types Essay his company has not so powerful an influence. Jealousy is a painful passion; yet without some share of it, the analysis agreeable affection of love has difficulty to Types of Acupuncture Essay subsist in its full force and violence.

Absence is also a great source of complaint among lovers, and gives them the greatest uneasiness: Yet nothing is ohio vs mapp more favourable to their mutual passion than short intervals of that kind. And if long intervals often prove fatal, it is only because, through time, men are accustomed to them, and of Acupuncture, they cease to give uneasiness. Jealousy and absence in love compose the dolce peccante of the analysis Italians , which they suppose so essential to all pleasure. There is a fine observation of the elder Pliny , which illustrates the principle here insisted on. It is very remarkable , says he, that the last works of celebrated artists, which they left imperfect, are always the most prized, such as the Iris of The Different Types Aristides , the Tyndarides of Nicomachus , the unique Medea of Timomachus , and the Venus of Apelles . These are valued even above their finished productions: The broken lineaments of the piece, and the half-formed idea of the painter are carefully studied; and our very grief for that curious hand, which had been stopped by death, is an additional encrease to our pleasure0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 #x2020; . These instances (and many more might be collected) are sufficient to afford us some insight into the analogy of nature, and to The Different Types of Acupuncture show us, that the pleasure, which poets, orators, and digging, musicians give us, by exciting grief, sorrow, indignation, compassion, is of Acupuncture Essay not so extraordinary or paradoxical, as it may at first sight appear. The force of imagination, the energy of expression, the unique individual power of numbers, the charms of The Different Essay imitation; all these are naturally, of themselves, delightful to the mind: And when.

the object presented lays also hold of some affection, the german people pleasure still rises upon us, by the conversion of this subordinate movement into of Acupuncture Essay, that which is predominant. The passion, though, perhaps, naturally, and when excited by baldwin short stories, the simple appearance of a real object, it may be painful; yet is so smoothed, and softened, and mollified, when raised by the finer arts, that it affords the highest entertainment. To confirm this reasoning, we may observe, that if the movements of the imagination be not predominant above those of the The Different Types passion, a contrary effect follows; and the former, being now subordinate, is converted into the latter, and still farther encreases the pain and affliction of the sufferer. Who could ever think of it as a good expedient for comforting an afflicted parent, to exaggerate, with all the force of elocution, the irreparable loss, which he has met with by the death of a favourite child? The more power of imagination and ohio vs mapp, expression you here employ, the more you encrease his despair and affliction. The shame, confusion, and terror of Verres , no doubt, rose in proportion to the noble eloquence and vehemence of Cicero : So also did his pain and uneasiness. These former passions were too strong for the pleasure arising from the beauties of The Different Types elocution; and types, operated, though from the same principle, yet in a contrary manner, to the sympathy, compassion, and indignation of the audience.

Lord Clarendon , when he approaches towards the catastrophe of the royal party, supposes, that his narration must then become infinitely disagreeable; and he hurries over the king’s death, without giving us one circumstance of it. He considers it as too horrid a scene to be contemplated with any satisfaction, or even without the utmost pain and aversion. He himself, as well as the readers of that age, were too deeply concerned in the events, and Types of Acupuncture Essay, felt a pain from ohio vs mapp, subjects, which. an historian and a reader of another age would regard as the most pathetic and most interesting, and, by consequence, the most agreeable. An action, represented in tragedy, may be too bloody and atrocious. It may excite such movements of horror as will not soften into pleasure; and The Different Types, the greatest energy of expression, bestowed on descriptions of that nature, serves only to short augment our uneasiness. Such is that action represented in the Ambitious Stepmother , where a venerable old man, raised to the height of fury and The Different Types Essay, despair, rushes against types organisation a pillar, and striking his head upon it, besmears it all over with mingled brains and gore. The Different! The English theatre abounds too much with such shocking images. Even the common sentiments of compassion require to be softened by some agreeable affection, in order to types organisation give a thorough satisfaction to the audience.

The mere suffering of plaintive virtue, under the triumphant tyranny and oppression of vice, forms a disagreeable spectacle, and is carefully avoided by all masters of the drama. In order to dismiss the audience with entire satisfaction and contentment, the virtue must either convert itself into a noble courageous despair, or the vice receive its proper punishment. Most painters appear in this light to have been very unhappy in their subjects. As they wrought much for churches and The Different Types of Acupuncture, convents, they have chiefly represented such horrible subjects as crucifixions and martyrdoms, where nothing appears but tortures, wounds, executions, and passive suffering, without any action or affection. Unique Individual! When they turned their pencil from this ghastly mythology, they had commonly recourse to Ovid , whose fictions, though passionate and agreeable, are scarcely natural or probable enough for painting. The same inversion of that principle, which is here insisted on, displays itself in common life, as in the effects of oratory and poetry. Raise so the subordinate passion that it becomes. the predominant, it swallows up that affection which it before nourished and encreased. Too much jealousy extinguishes love: Too much difficulty renders us indifferent: Too much sickness and infirmity disgusts a selfish and unkind parent. What so disagreeable as the dismal, gloomy, disastrous stories, with which melancholy people entertain their companions?

The uneasy passion being there raised alone, unaccompanied with any spirit, genius, or eloquence, conveys a pure uneasiness, and is attended with nothing that can soften it into pleasure or satisfaction. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3. Illud vero perquam rarum ac memoria dignum, etiam suprema opera artificum, imperfectasque tabulas, sicut, Irin Aristidis , Tyndaridas Nicomachi , Medeam Timomachi , quam diximus Venerem Apellis , in majori admiratione esse quam perfecta. Quippe in iis lineamenta reliqua, ips ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to The Different Types Essay make searching the text easier que cogitationes artificum spectantur, atque in lenocinio commendationis dolor est manus, cum id ageret, extinct ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier . Lib. xxxv. cap. James! 11. NOTE [N], p. 235. Essay! [Mil 220.] added for ease of reference. P ainters make no scruple of digging analysis representing distress and sorrow as well as any other passion: But they seem not to dwell so much on these melancholy affections as the poets, who, though they copy every motion of the The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay human breast, yet pass quickly over the agreeable sentiments.

A painter represents only one instant; and if that be passionate enough, it is german people sure to The Different Types affect and delight the spectator: But nothing can furnish to the poet a variety of scenes and incidents and sample, sentiments, except distress, terror, or anxiety. Compleat joy and satisfaction is attended with security, and leaves no farther room for action. T he great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one’s observation. Men of the most confined knowledge are able to remark a difference of taste in the. narrow circle of their acquaintance, even where the Types of Acupuncture Essay persons have been educated under the same government, and have early imbibed the same prejudices. But those, who can enlarge their view to contemplate distant nations and analysis, remote ages, are still more surprized at The Different the great inconsistence and contrariety. We are apt to call barbarous whatever departs widely from our own taste and german history, apprehension: But soon find the epithet of reproach retorted on The Different Types Essay us. And the unique highest arrogance and self-conceit is at last startled, on Types Essay observing an equal assurance on all sides, and scruples, amidst such a contest of sentiment, to pronounce positively in its own favour.

As this variety of taste is obvious to the most careless enquirer; so will it be found, on examination, to be still greater in reality than in appearance. The sentiments of men often differ with regard to nhs essays beauty and deformity of all kinds, even while their general discourse is the The Different same. There are certain terms in of business, every language, which import blame, and others praise; and all men, who use the same tongue, must agree in their application of them. Every voice is united in The Different of Acupuncture, applauding elegance, propriety, simplicity, spirit in writing; and in blaming fustian, affectation, coldness, and a false brilliancy: But when critics come to particulars, this seeming unanimity vanishes; and it is found, that they had affixed a very different meaning to their expressions. In all matters of opinion and science, the case is opposite: The difference among men is there oftener found to lie in generals than in particulars; and to be less in reality than in appearance. An explanation of the terms commonly ends the controversy; and the disputants are surprized to digging analysis find, that they had been quarrelling, while at bottom they agreed in their judgment. Those who found morality on sentiment, more than on Types of Acupuncture Essay reason, are inclined to comprehend ethics under the former. observation, and to maintain, that, in all questions, which regard conduct and james baldwin, manners, the difference among men is really greater than at first sight it appears. It is indeed obvious, that writers of all nations and all ages concur in applauding justice, humanity, magnanimity, prudence, veracity; and in blaming the opposite qualities. Even poets and other authors, whose compositions are chiefly calculated to please the The Different Types Essay imagination, are yet found from Homer down to sample Fenelon , to inculcate the same moral precepts, and to bestow their applause and blame on the same virtues and vices.

This great unanimity is usually ascribed to the influence of plain reason; which, in all these cases, maintains similar sentiments in all men, and prevents those controversies, to which the abstract sciences are so much exposed. So far as the unanimity is of Acupuncture Essay real, this account may be admitted as satisfactory: But we must also allow that some part of the seeming harmony in morals may be accounted for from the very nature of language. The word virtue , with its equivalent in every tongue, implies praise; as that of vice does blame: And no one, without the most obvious and grossest impropriety, could affix reproach to a term, which in general acceptation is understood in a good sense; or bestow applause, where the analysis idiom requires disapprobation. Homer ’s general precepts, where he delivers any such, will never be controverted; but it is The Different of Acupuncture Essay obvious, that, when he draws particular pictures of manners, and represents heroism in Achilles and prudence in Ulysses , he intermixes a much greater degree of ferocity in german people history, the former, and of cunning and fraud in the latter, than Fenelon would admit of. The sage Ulysses in the Greek poet seems to delight in Types Essay, lies and fictions, and often employs them without any necessity or even advantage: But his more scrupulous son, in the French epic writer, exposes himself to the most imminent perils, rather than depart from the of business organisation most exact line of truth and veracity. The admirers and followers of the Alcoran insist on the excellent moral precepts interspersed throughout that wild and Essay, absurd performance.

But it is to be supposed, that the ohio vs mapp Arabic words, which correspond to the English , equity, justice, temperance, meekness, charity, were such as, from the constant use of that tongue, must always be taken in a good sense; and it would have argued the greatest ignorance, not of morals, but of language, to have mentioned them with any epithets, besides those of applause and approbation. But would we know, whether the Types Essay pretended prophet had really attained a just sentiment of morals? Let us attend to his narration; and we shall soon find, that he bestows praise on such instances of treachery, inhumanity, cruelty, revenge, bigotry, as are utterly incompatible with civilized society. Ohio Vs Mapp! No steady rule of The Different Types right seems there to be attended to; and every action is people history blamed or praised, so far only as it is beneficial or hurtful to the true believers. The merit of delivering true general precepts in ethics is indeed very small. Whoever recommends any moral virtues, really does no more than is implied in the terms themselves. That people, who invented the The Different word charity , and used it in a good sense, inculcated more clearly and much more efficaciously, the precept, be charitable , than any pretended legislator or prophet, who should insert such a maxim in his writings. Of all expressions, those, which, together with their other meaning, imply a degree either of blame or approbation, are the unique least liable to be perverted or mistaken. It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste ; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at The Different of Acupuncture least, a decision, decision originally 'decision,'; this comma first appeared in the 1777 edition, but from the sense it is history hard to believe that it was put there deliberately afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another.

There is a species of philosophy, which cuts off all hopes of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay success in such an attempt, and types, represents the impossibility of The Different of Acupuncture Essay ever attaining any standard of taste. The difference, it is said, is individual very wide between judgment and sentiment. All sentiment is The Different of Acupuncture Essay right; because sentiment has a reference to nothing beyond itself, and is always real, wherever a man is conscious of it. Digging Analysis! But all determinations of the understanding are not right; because they have a reference to something beyond themselves, to wit, real matter of fact; and are not always conformable to of Acupuncture that standard. James Baldwin! Among a thousand different opinions which different men may entertain of the same subject, there is one, and but one, that is just and true; and the only difficulty is to fix and ascertain it.

On the contrary, a thousand different sentiments, excited by the same object, are all right: Because no sentiment represents what is really in The Different Types Essay, the object. It only marks a certain conformity or relation between the sample nhs essays object and the organs or faculties of the mind; and if that conformity did not really exist, the sentiment could never possibly have being. Beauty is no quality in The Different Types of Acupuncture, things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty. One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty; and every individual ought to acquiesce in his own sentiment, without pretending to regulate those of others. To seek the real beauty, or real deformity, is as fruitless an enquiry, as to pretend to ascertain the real sweet or real bitter. According to the disposition of the analysis organs, the same object may be both sweet and bitter; and the proverb has justly determined it to be fruitless to dispute concerning tastes. It is The Different very natural, and even quite necessary, to james baldwin short stories extend this axiom to mental, as well as bodily taste; and thus common sense, which is so often at Types Essay variance with philosophy, especially with the sceptical kind, is german found, in one instance at least, to agree in pronouncing the same decision.

But though this axiom, by passing into a proverb, seems to have attained the The Different Types sanction of common sense; there is certainly a species of common sense which opposes it, at least serves to modify and restrain it. Whoever would assert an equality of types of business organisation genius and elegance between Ogilby and Milton , or. Bunyan and Addison , would be thought to defend no less an extravagance, than if he had maintained a mole-hill to The Different Types Essay be as high as Teneriffe , or a pond as extensive as the ocean. Though there may be found persons, who give the preference to the former authors; no one pays attention to such a taste; and we pronounce without scruple the sentiment of these pretended critics to be absurd and of business, ridiculous. The principle of the natural equality of tastes is then totally forgot, and while we admit it on some occasions, where the objects seem near an equality, it appears an extravagant paradox, or rather a palpable absurdity, where objects so disproportioned are compared together. It is evident that none of the rules of composition are fixed by Types Essay, reasonings a priori , or can be esteemed abstract conclusions of the understanding, from comparing those habitudes and relations of ideas, which are eternal and immutable. Their foundation is the same with that of all the practical sciences, experience; nor are they any thing but general observations, concerning what has been universally found to types please in all countries and in all ages. Many of the The Different beauties of poetry and sample, even of eloquence are founded on falsehood and fiction, on hyperboles, metaphors, and an abuse or perversion of terms from The Different of Acupuncture, their natural meaning. To check the sallies of the imagination, and to reduce every expression to geometrical truth and exactness, would be the most contrary to the laws of criticism; because it would produce a work, which, by universal experience, has been found the most insipid and disagreeable.

But though poetry can never submit to unique exact truth, it must be confined by rules of of Acupuncture art, discovered to the author either by analysis, genius or observation. If some negligent or irregular writers have pleased, they have not pleased by their transgressions of rule or order, but in spite of these transgressions: They have possessed other beauties, which were conformable to just criticism; and the force of these beauties has been able to overpower censure, and give the mind a satisfaction superior to The Different of Acupuncture Essay the disgust arising from the blemishes. Ariosto pleases; but not by his monstrous and improbable fictions, by his bizarre mixture of the individual serious and comic styles, by Types Essay, the want of coherence in james baldwin short, his stories, or by Types Essay, the continual interruptions of his narration. He charms by the force and clearness of his expression, by the readiness and variety of unique his inventions, and by his natural pictures of the passions, especially those of the gay and Types of Acupuncture, amorous kind: And however his faults may diminish our satisfaction, they are not able entirely to people history destroy it. Did our pleasure really arise from those parts of his poem, which we denominate faults, this would be no objection to criticism in general: It would only be an of Acupuncture Essay, objection to those particular rules of criticism, which would establish such circumstances to be faults, and would represent them as universally blameable. If they are found to please, they cannot be faults; let the pleasure, which they produce, be ever so unexpected and unaccountable. But though all the general rules of art are founded only on experience and on the observation of the common sentiments of unique human nature, we must not imagine, that, on every occasion, the feelings of men will be conformable to these rules. Those finer emotions of the mind are of a very tender and delicate nature, and require the concurrence of many favourable circumstances to make them play with facility and exactness, according to their general and established principles. The least exterior hindrance to The Different Types such small springs, or the least internal disorder, disturbs their motion, and confounds the operation of the whole machine.

When we would make an experiment of digging this nature, and would try the force of any beauty or deformity, we must choose with care a proper time and Types of Acupuncture Essay, place, and bring the fancy to a suitable situation and organisation, disposition. Types Of Acupuncture! A perfect serenity of mind, a recollection of thought, a due attention to the object; if any of these circumstances be wanting, our experiment will be fallacious, and we. shall be unable to judge of the catholic and universal beauty. The relation, which nature has placed between the form and individual, the sentiment, will at least be more obscure; and it will require greater accuracy to trace and discern it. We shall be able to ascertain its influence not so much from the operation of each particular beauty, as from the durable admiration, which attends those works, that have survived all the caprices of mode and fashion, all the mistakes of ignorance and envy. The same Homer , who pleased at Athens and Rome two thousand years ago, is of Acupuncture Essay still admired at Paris and at London . Types! All the changes of climate, government, religion, and language, have not been able to The Different of Acupuncture obscure his glory. Authority or prejudice may give a temporary vogue to a bad poet or orator; but his reputation will never be durable or general. When his compositions are examined by posterity or by foreigners, the enchantment is dissipated, and his faults appear in their true colours. On the contrary, a real genius, the longer his works endure, and the more wide they are spread, the more sincere is the james short admiration which he meets with. Envy and jealousy have too much place in Types Essay, a narrow circle; and even familiar acquaintance with his person may diminish the applause due to his performances: But when these obstructions are removed, the beauties, which are naturally fitted to organisation excite agreeable sentiments, immediately display their energy; and The Different Types, while the world endures, they maintain their authority over the minds of men. It appears then, that, amidst all the variety and caprice of taste, there are certain general principles of approbation or blame, whose influence a careful eye may trace in all operations of the mind.

Some particular forms or qualities, from the original structure of the internal fabric, are calculated to please, and others to displease; and if they fail of their effect in any particular instance, it is from types, some apparent defect or imperfection in the organ. A man in a fever would not insist on his palate as able to decide concerning flavours; nor would one, affected with the jaundice, pretend to give a verdict with regard to colours. In each creature, there is a sound and a. defective state; and the former alone can be supposed to afford us a true standard of taste and sentiment. If, in the sound state of the organ, there be an The Different Types of Acupuncture, entire or a considerable uniformity of sentiment among men, we may thence derive an idea of the analysis perfect beauty; in like manner as the appearance of objects in day-light, to the eye of a man in The Different of Acupuncture Essay, health, is denominated their true and real colour, even while colour is allowed to be merely a phantasm of the senses. Many and frequent are the defects in the internal organs, which prevent or weaken the influence of those general principles, on which depends our sentiment of beauty or deformity. Though some objects, by the structure of the mind, be naturally calculated to give pleasure, it is not to be expected, that in ohio vs mapp, every individual the pleasure will be equally felt. The Different Essay! Particular incidents and situations occur, which either throw a false light on the objects, or hinder the true from conveying to the imagination the proper sentiment and perception.

One obvious cause, why many feel not the proper sentiment of beauty, is the want of that delicacy of imagination, which is james short requisite to convey a sensibility of those finer emotions. This delicacy every one pretends to: Every one talks of it; and would reduce every kind of taste or sentiment to its standard. But as our intention in this essay is to The Different mingle some light of the understanding with the feelings of sentiment, it will be proper to give a more accurate definition of delicacy, than has hitherto been attempted. And not to draw our philosophy from too profound a source, we shall have recourse to ohio vs mapp a noted story in Don Quixote . It is with good reason, says Sancho to The Different Types the squire with the great nose, that I pretend to have a judgment in wine: This is a quality hereditary in our family. Two of my kinsmen were once called to give their opinion of a hogshead, which was supposed to be excellent, being old and of a good vintage. One of them tastes it; considers it; and after mature reflection. pronounces the ohio vs mapp wine to be good, were it not for a small taste of leather, which he perceived in it. The other, after using the Types Essay same precautions, gives also his verdict in favour of the sample wine; but with the reserve of a taste of iron, which he could easily distinguish. You cannot imagine how much they were both ridiculed for Types Essay, their judgment. But who laughed in the end?

On emptying the hogshead, there was found at the bottom, an old key with a leathern thong tied to it. The great resemblance between mental and bodily taste will easily teach us to apply this story. Though it be certain, that beauty and unique individual, deformity, more than sweet and bitter, are not qualities in objects, but belong entirely to the sentiment, internal or external; it must be allowed, that there are certain qualities in objects, which are fitted by nature to produce those particular feelings. Now as these qualities may be found in a small degree, or may be mixed and confounded with each other, it often happens, that the taste is not affected with such minute qualities, or is not able to distinguish all the particular flavours, amidst the disorder, in which they are presented. The Different Types Of Acupuncture Essay! Where the organs are so fine, as to allow nothing to escape them; and at the same time so exact as to perceive every ingredient in the composition: This we call delicacy of taste, whether we employ these terms in the literal or metaphorical sense. Here then the general rules of beauty are of use; being drawn from established models, and from the observation of what pleases or displeases, when presented singly and in types of business organisation, a high degree: And if the same qualities, in The Different of Acupuncture, a continued composition and in a smaller degree, affect not the organs with a sensible delight or uneasiness, we exclude the german people person from all pretensions to of Acupuncture this delicacy. German! To produce these general rules or avowed patterns of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay composition is like finding the key with the leathern thong; which justified the verdict of Sancho ’s kinsmen, and confounded those pretended judges who had condemned them. Though the baldwin short hogshead had never been emptied, the taste of the one was still equally delicate, and that of the other equally dull and Types of Acupuncture Essay, languid: But it would have been more difficult to stories have proved the superiority of the former, to. the conviction of Types Essay every by-stander. In like manner, though the beauties of writing had never been methodized, or reduced to general principles; though no excellent models had ever been acknowledged; the different degrees of taste would still have subsisted, and the judgment of one man been preferable to that of sample nhs essays another; but it would not have been so easy to Types of Acupuncture silence the bad critic, who might always insist upon his particular sentiment, and refuse to submit to his antagonist. But when we show him an people, avowed principle of The Different Types Essay art; when we illustrate this principle by examples, whose operation, from his own particular taste, he acknowledges to be conformable to the principle; when we prove, that the same principle may be applied to the present case, where he did not perceive or feel its influence: He must conclude, upon the whole, that the fault lies in sample, himself, and that he wants the delicacy, which is requisite to The Different Types make him sensible of every beauty and every blemish, in any composition or discourse.

It is acknowledged to be the perfection of every sense or faculty, to german history perceive with exactness its most minute objects, and allow nothing to escape its notice and observation. The smaller the objects are, which become sensible to the eye, the finer is that organ, and Types of Acupuncture Essay, the more elaborate its make and composition. A good palate is not tried by digging, strong flavours; but by a mixture of small ingredients, where we are still sensible of each part, notwithstanding its minuteness and of Acupuncture, its confusion with the rest. In like manner, a quick and acute perception of beauty and ohio vs mapp, deformity must be the perfection of our mental taste; nor can a man be satisfied with himself while he suspects, that any excellence or blemish in The Different, a discourse has passed him unobserved. In this case, the perfection of the man, and the perfection of the individual sense or feeling, are found to be united. A very delicate palate, on many occasions, may be a great inconvenience both to a man himself and to his friends: But a delicate taste of wit or beauty must always be a desirable quality; because it is the source of all the finest and most innocent enjoyments, of which human nature is susceptible.

In this decision the sentiments of all mankind are agreed. Wherever you can ascertain a delicacy of taste, it is The Different of Acupuncture sure to ohio vs mapp meet with approbation; and the best way of ascertaining it is to appeal to The Different Types of Acupuncture those models and short stories, principles, which have been established by the uniform consent and experience of nations and ages. But though there be naturally a wide difference in point of delicacy between one person and of Acupuncture Essay, another, nothing tends further to encrease and improve this talent, than practice in a particular art, and the frequent survey or contemplation of a particular species of beauty. When objects of any kind are first presented to the eye or imagination, the sentiment, which attends them, is obscure and confused; and the mind is, in a great measure, incapable of pronouncing concerning their merits or defects. The taste cannot perceive the several excellencies of the performance; much less distinguish the particular character of each excellency, and ascertain its quality and degree. If it pronounce the whole in general to be beautiful or deformed, it is the ohio vs mapp utmost that can be expected; and even this judgment, a person, so unpractised, will be apt to deliver with great hesitation and reserve. But allow him to acquire experience in Essay, those objects, his feeling becomes more exact and nice: He not only sample nhs essays perceives the beauties and defects of each part, but marks the distinguishing species of each quality, and of Acupuncture, assigns it suitable praise or blame.

A clear and distinct sentiment attends him through the whole survey of the objects; and types, he discerns that very degree and Types Essay, kind of approbation or displeasure, which each part is naturally fitted to produce. The mist dissipates, which seemed formerly to hang over the object: The organ acquires greater perfection in nhs essays, its operations; and can pronounce, without danger of mistake, concerning the merits of every performance. In a word, the same address and dexterity, which practice gives to the execution of any work, is The Different also acquired by the same means, in nhs essays, the judging of it. So advantageous is practice to the discernment of beauty, that, before we can give judgment on any work of importance, it will even be requisite, that that very individual performance be more than once perused by us, and be surveyed in different. lights with attention and deliberation. There is a flutter or hurry of thought which attends the Essay first perusal of any piece, and which confounds the genuine sentiment of beauty. The relation of the james stories parts is not discerned: The true characters of style are little distinguished: The several perfections and defects seem wrapped up in a species of confusion, and present themselves indistinctly to the imagination. Not to mention, that there is a species of beauty, which, as it is florid and superficial, pleases at first; but being found incompatible with a just expression either of reason or passion, soon palls upon Essay the taste, and is then rejected with disdain, at types of business organisation least rated at The Different Types of Acupuncture a much lower value. It is impossible to continue in history, the practice of contemplating any order of of Acupuncture Essay beauty, without being frequently obliged to form comparisons between the several species and individual, degrees of The Different of Acupuncture excellence, and ohio vs mapp, estimating their proportion to of Acupuncture Essay each other. A man, who has had no opportunity of james stories comparing the Types Essay different kinds of beauty, is indeed totally unqualified to pronounce an opinion with regard to baldwin short stories any object presented to him. By comparison alone we fix the epithets of praise or blame, and learn how to assign the due degree of each.

The coarsest daubing contains a certain lustre of colours and exactness of imitation, which are so far beauties, and Essay, would affect the mind of unique individual a peasant or Indian with the highest admiration. The most vulgar ballads are not entirely destitute of Types Essay harmony or nature; and none but a person, familiarized to superior beauties, would pronounce their numbers harsh, or narration uninteresting. Individual! A great inferiority of beauty gives pain to a person conversant in the highest excellence of the Types of Acupuncture Essay kind, and is for that reason pronounced a deformity: As the most finished object, with which we are acquainted, is naturally supposed to have reached the pinnacle of perfection, and to be entitled to the highest applause. One accustomed to see, and examine, and weigh the several performances, admired in different ages and nations, can alone rate the merits of a work exhibited to his view, and assign its proper rank among the productions of genius. But to enable a critic the of business organisation more fully to execute this undertaking, he must preserve his mind free from all prejudice , and The Different Essay, allow nothing to enter into his consideration, but the very object which is submitted to his examination. We may observe, that every work of art, in order to produce its due effect on the mind, must be surveyed in a certain point of view, and cannot be fully relished by persons, whose situation, real or imaginary, is not conformable to that which is required by the performance. An orator addresses himself to types organisation a particular audience, and must have a regard to their particular genius, interests, opinions, passions, and The Different, prejudices; otherwise he hopes in vain to govern their resolutions, and inflame their affections. Should they even have entertained some prepossessions against him, however unreasonable, he must not overlook this disadvantage; but, before he enters upon the subject, must endeavour to conciliate their affection, and acquire their good graces. A critic of a different age or nation, who should peruse this discourse, must have all these circumstances in his eye, and must place himself in the same situation as the audience, in order to form a true judgment of the oration. In like manner, when any work is addressed to the public, though I should have a friendship or enmity with the analysis author, I must depart from this situation; and considering myself as a man in general, forget, if possible, my individual being and my peculiar circumstances.

A person influenced by The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay, prejudice, complies not with this condition; but obstinately maintains his natural position, without placing himself in that point of of business organisation view, which the performance supposes. The Different Of Acupuncture! If the work be addressed to persons of ohio vs mapp a different age or nation, he makes no allowance for their peculiar views and prejudices; but, full of the manners of his own age and country, rashly condemns what seemed admirable in the eyes of those for whom alone the discourse was calculated. The Different! If the work be executed for the public, he never sufficiently enlarges his comprehension, or forgets his interest as a friend or enemy, as a rival or commentator. By this means, his sentiments are perverted; nor have the of business same beauties and blemishes the same influence upon him, as if he had imposed. a proper violence on his imagination, and had forgotten himself for a moment. So far his taste evidently departs from the true standard; and of consequence loses all credit and authority. It is well known, that in all questions, submitted to the understanding, prejudice is The Different Types of Acupuncture destructive of sound judgment, and perverts all operations of the intellectual faculties: It is no less contrary to good taste; nor has it less influence to corrupt our sentiment of sample nhs essays beauty. It belongs to The Different good sense to check its influence in both cases; and in this respect, as well as in many others, reason, if not an essential part of taste, is at least requisite to the operations of this latter faculty. In all the baldwin short stories nobler productions of The Different Essay genius, there is a mutual relation and people, correspondence of parts; nor can either the The Different Essay beauties or blemishes be perceived by sample, him, whose thought is not capacious enough to comprehend all those parts, and compare them with each other, in order to perceive the The Different Types Essay consistence and uniformity of the whole. Every work of art has also a certain end or purpose, for which it is calculated; and is to be deemed more or less perfect, as it is organisation more or less fitted to attain this end.

The object of eloquence is to The Different of Acupuncture Essay persuade, of german people history to instruct, of poetry to please by means of the passions and The Different Types Essay, the imagination. These ends we must carry constantly in our view, when we peruse any performance; and we must be able to james stories judge how far the means employed are adapted to The Different Essay their respective purposes. Besides, every kind of composition, even the most poetical, is nothing but a chain of propositions and reasonings; not always, indeed, the justest and most exact, but still plausible and specious, however disguised by the colouring of the ohio vs mapp imagination. The persons introduced in tragedy and epic poetry, must be represented as reasoning, and thinking, and concluding, and acting, suitably to their character and circumstances; and without judgment, as well as taste and invention, a poet can never hope to succeed in so delicate an undertaking. Types Essay! Not to mention, that the unique same excellence of faculties which contributes to the improvement of reason, the same clearness of conception, the same exactness of distinction, the same vivacity of The Different of Acupuncture Essay apprehension, are essential to. the operations of german history true taste, and are its infallible concomitants. It seldom, or never happens, that a man of sense, who has experience in any art, cannot judge of its beauty; and it is no less rare to meet with a man who has a just taste without a sound understanding. Thus, though the principles of taste be universal, and nearly, if not entirely the same in all men; yet few are qualified to give judgment on any work of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay art, or establish their own sentiment as the standard of beauty.

The organs of internal sensation are seldom so perfect as to allow the general principles their full play, and produce a feeling correspondent to digging analysis those principles. They either labour under some defect, or are vitiated by some disorder; and by that means, excite a sentiment, which may be pronounced erroneous. When the critic has no delicacy, he judges without any distinction, and is only affected by the grosser and more palpable qualities of the object: The finer touches pass unnoticed and disregarded. Where he is not aided by practice, his verdict is attended with confusion and hesitation. Where no comparison has been employed, the The Different of Acupuncture Essay most frivolous beauties, such as rather merit the name of defects, are the object of his admiration.

Where he lies under the influence of prejudice, all his natural sentiments are perverted. Where good sense is wanting, he is not qualified to discern the beauties of design and reasoning, which are the highest and most excellent. Under some or other of these imperfections, the baldwin stories generality of men labour; and hence a true judge in the finer arts is observed, even during the The Different Types Essay most polished ages, to be so rare a character: Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; and the joint verdict of such, wherever they are to be found, is the true standard of taste and beauty. But where are such critics to be found? By what marks are they to be known? How distinguish them from pretenders?

These questions are embarrassing; and seem to organisation throw us back into the same uncertainty, from which, during the course of The Different Types of Acupuncture this essay, we have endeavoured to extricate ourselves. But if we consider the matter aright, these are questions of fact, not of sentiment. Whether any particular person be endowed with good sense and a delicate imagination, free from prejudice, may often be the subject of dispute, and sample, be liable to great discussion and Types of Acupuncture, enquiry: But that such a character is valuable and estimable will be agreed in by all mankind. Where these doubts occur, men can do no more than in other disputable questions, which are submitted to german history the understanding: They must produce the best arguments, that their invention suggests to them; they must acknowledge a true and decisive standard to of Acupuncture exist somewhere, to wit, real existence and matter of fact; and they must have indulgence to such as differ from them in unique individual, their appeals to The Different this standard. It is sufficient for our present purpose, if we have proved, that the taste of all individuals is not upon an equal footing, and that some men in general, however difficult to be particularly pitched upon, will be acknowledged by universal sentiment to have a preference above others. But in reality the difficulty of finding, even in particulars, the german standard of Essay taste, is not so great as it is represented. Though in speculation, we may readily avow a certain criterion in science and sample nhs essays, deny it in of Acupuncture Essay, sentiment, the matter is found in practice to be much more hard to ascertain in the former case than in the latter. Theories of types of business organisation abstract philosophy, systems of profound theology, have prevailed during one age: In a successive period, these have been universally exploded: Their absurdity has been detected: Other theories and systems have supplied their place, which again gave place to their successors: And nothing has been experienced more liable to Types the revolutions of chance and fashion than these pretended decisions of science. The case is not the same with the unique individual beauties of of Acupuncture Essay eloquence and poetry. Just expressions of passion and nature are sure, after a little time, to gain public applause, which they maintain for individual, ever.

Aristotle , and Plato , and Epicurus , and Descartes , may successively yield to each other: But Terence and Virgil maintain an universal, undisputed empire over the minds of men. The abstract philosophy of Types Essay Cicero has lost its credit: The vehemence of his oratory is still the object of our admiration. Though men of delicate taste be rare, they are easily to types be distinguished in society, by the soundness of their understanding and the superiority of their faculties above the rest of mankind. The ascendant, which they acquire, gives a prevalence to that lively approbation, with which they receive any productions of genius, and The Different, renders it generally predominant. Many men, when left to themselves, have but a faint and dubious perception of beauty, who yet are capable of relishing any fine stroke, which is pointed out to ohio vs mapp them. Every convert to the admiration of the real poet or orator is the The Different Types Essay cause of some new conversion. And though prejudices may prevail for a time, they never unite in celebrating any rival to the true genius, but yield at unique individual last to the force of nature and just sentiment. Thus, though a civilized nation may easily be mistaken in the choice of their admired philosopher, they never have been found long to err, in their affection for a favourite epic or tragic author.

But notwithstanding all our endeavours to fix a standard of taste, and reconcile the discordant apprehensions of men, there still remain two sources of variation, which are not sufficient indeed to confound all the boundaries of beauty and deformity, but will often serve to produce a difference in the degrees of our approbation or blame. The one is the different humours of particular men; the Types of Acupuncture Essay other, the particular manners and opinions of our age and country. The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature: Where men vary in their judgments, some defect or perversion in the faculties may commonly be remarked; proceeding either from prejudice, from nhs essays, want of practice, or want of delicacy; and there is just reason for approving one taste, and condemning another. But. where there is such a diversity in of Acupuncture Essay, the internal frame or external situation as is entirely blameless on unique both sides, and leaves no room to give one the preference above the other; in Types, that case a certain degree of diversity in digging analysis, judgment is unavoidable, and we seek in Types of Acupuncture, vain for a standard, by which we can reconcile the contrary sentiments.

A young man, whose passions are warm, will be more sensibly touched with amorous and tender images, than a man more advanced in years, who takes pleasure in wise, philosophical reflections concerning the conduct of life and moderation of the passions. Unique! At twenty, Ovid may be the favourite author; Horace at forty; and perhaps Tacitus at fifty. Vainly would we, in such cases, endeavour to enter into the sentiments of others, and divest ourselves of those propensities, which are natural to us. We choose our favourite author as we do our friend, from a conformity of humour and Essay, disposition. Analysis! Mirth or passion, sentiment or reflection; whichever of these most predominates in The Different Types Essay, our temper, it gives us a peculiar sympathy with the writer who resembles us. One person is more pleased with the sublime; another with the tender; a third with raillery.

One has a strong sensibility to german people history blemishes, and is extremely studious of correctness: Another has a more lively feeling of beauties, and Essay, pardons twenty absurdities and defects for one elevated or pathetic stroke. The ear of this man is entirely turned towards conciseness and energy; that man is delighted with a copious, rich, and ohio vs mapp, harmonious expression. Simplicity is affected by one; ornament by Types Essay, another. Comedy, tragedy, satire, odes, have each its partizans, who prefer that particular species of writing to all others. It is plainly an error in a critic, to confine his approbation to ohio vs mapp one species or style of writing, and condemn all the rest. But it is almost impossible not to feel a predilection for that which suits our particular turn and disposition.

Such preferences are innocent and Essay, unavoidable, and can never reasonably be the individual object of dispute, because there is no standard, by which they can be decided. For a like reason, we are more pleased, in the course of our. reading, with pictures and characters, that resemble objects which are found in our own age or country, than with those which describe a different set of customs. It is not without some effort, that we reconcile ourselves to the simplicity of The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay ancient manners, and behold princesses carrying water from the spring, and kings and heroes dressing their own victuals. We may allow in general, that the representation of such manners is no fault in the author, nor deformity in digging analysis, the piece; but we are not so sensibly touched with them. For this reason, comedy is not easily transferred from one age or nation to The Different Types Essay another. A Frenchman or Englishman is not pleased with the nhs essays Andria of Terence , or Clitia of Machiavel ; where the fine lady, upon whom all the The Different Essay play turns, never once appears to the spectators, but is always kept behind the scenes, suitably to the reserved humour of the ancient Greeks and modern Italians . Sample Nhs Essays! A man of learning and reflection can make allowance for these peculiarities of manners; but a common audience can never divest themselves so far of their usual ideas and The Different of Acupuncture, sentiments, as to relish pictures which no wise resemble them. But here there occurs a reflection, which may, perhaps, be useful in examining the celebrated controversy concerning ancient and modern learning; where we often find the one side excusing any seeming absurdity in the ancients from the of business organisation manners of the age, and the other refusing to The Different Types of Acupuncture admit this excuse, or at least, admitting it only as an apology for the author, not for the performance. In my opinion, the proper boundaries in this subject have seldom been fixed between the contending parties. Where any innocent peculiarities of manners are represented, such as those above mentioned, they ought certainly to be admitted; and a man, who is shocked with them, gives. an evident proof of false delicacy and refinement.

The poet’s monument more durable than brass , must fall to the ground like common brick or clay, were men to make no allowance for the continual revolutions of individual manners and customs, and would admit of nothing but what was suitable to the prevailing fashion. Must we throw aside the Types pictures of our ancestors, because of of business their ruffs and fardingales? But where the ideas of morality and decency alter from one age to another, and where vicious manners are described, without being marked with the proper characters of blame and disapprobation; this must be allowed to disfigure the poem, and to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay be a real deformity. I cannot, nor is baldwin stories it proper I should, enter into The Different Types Essay, such sentiments; and however I may excuse the poet, on german account of the manners of his age, I never can relish the composition. The want of The Different Types of Acupuncture humanity and of decency, so conspicuous in people history, the characters drawn by several of the ancient poets, even sometimes by Homer and the Greek tragedians, diminishes considerably the merit of their noble performances, and gives modern authors an of Acupuncture, advantage over them.

We are not interested in the fortunes and sentiments of such rough heroes: We are displeased to find the limits of vice and sample nhs essays, virtue so much confounded: And whatever indulgence we may give to the writer on The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay account of his prejudices, we cannot prevail on ourselves to enter into his sentiments, or bear an affection to types of business characters, which we plainly discover to be blameable. The case is not the The Different Types same with moral principles, as with speculative opinions of any kind. These are in continual flux and revolution. The son embraces a different system from the father. Nay, there scarcely is any man, who can boast of great constancy and uniformity in this particular. Whatever speculative errors may be found in unique, the polite writings of any age or country, they detract but little from the value of those compositions. There needs but a certain turn of thought or imagination to make us enter into all the opinions, which then. prevailed, and The Different Types of Acupuncture, relish the sentiments or conclusions derived from them. But a very violent effort is requisite to change our judgment of digging analysis manners, and excite sentiments of approbation or blame, love or hatred, different from those to The Different Types which the mind from people history, long custom has been familiarized.

And where a man is confident of the rectitude of that moral standard, by which he judges, he is The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay justly jealous of it, and will not pervert the sentiments of his heart for a moment, in complaisance to any writer whatsoever. Of all speculative errors, those, which regard religion, are the most excusable in compositions of stories genius; nor is it ever permitted to judge of the civility or wisdom of any people, or even of single persons, by the grossness or refinement of their theological principles. The same good sense, that directs men in the ordinary occurrences of life, is not hearkened to in religious matters, which are supposed to be placed altogether above the cognizance of human reason. On this account, all the absurdities of the pagan system of theology must be overlooked by every critic, who would pretend to form a just notion of ancient poetry; and our posterity, in their turn, must have the same indulgence to their forefathers. No religious principles can ever be imputed as a fault to any poet, while they remain merely principles, and Types of Acupuncture Essay, take not such strong possession of short his heart, as to lay him under the imputation of bigotry or superstition . Where that happens, they confound the sentiments of The Different Essay morality, and alter the natural boundaries of vice and individual, virtue. They are therefore eternal blemishes, according to Types of Acupuncture the principle above mentioned; nor are the prejudices and false opinions of the age sufficient to types of business organisation justify them.

It is The Different of Acupuncture Essay essential to digging analysis the Roman catholic religion to inspire a violent hatred of Essay every other worship, and to represent all pagans, mahometans, and heretics as the objects of divine wrath and vengeance. Such sentiments, though they are in reality very blameable, are considered as virtues by the zealots of that communion, and are represented in their tragedies and epic poems as a kind of divine heroism. This bigotry has. disfigured two very fine tragedies of the French theatre, Polieucte and Athalia ; where an intemperate zeal for particular modes of worship is set off with all the pomp imaginable, and forms the predominant character of the heroes. “What is this,” says the unique individual sublime Joad to Types Josabet , finding her in discourse with Mathan , the priest of Baal , “Does the daughter of David speak to this traitor? Are you not afraid, lest the earth should open and pour forth flames to unique individual devour you both? Or lest these holy walls should fall and crush you together? What is his purpose? Why comes that enemy of God hither to poison the air, which we breathe, with his horrid presence?” Such sentiments are received with great applause on the theatre of Paris ; but at London the spectators would be full as much pleased to hear Achilles tell Agamemnon , that he was a dog in his forehead, and a deer in his heart, or Jupiter threaten Juno with a sound drubbing, if she will not be quiet. Religious principles are also a blemish in any polite composition, when they rise up to of Acupuncture Essay superstition, and intrude themselves into every sentiment, however remote from any connection with religion. It is no excuse for the poet, that the customs of his country had burthened life with so many religious ceremonies and observances, that no part of it was exempt from that yoke.

It must for ohio vs mapp, ever be ridiculous in Petrarch to compare his mistress, Laura , to Jesus. Christ . Nor is it less ridiculous in that agreeable libertine, Boccace , very seriously to give thanks to God Almighty and the ladies, for their assistance in defending him against his enemies.

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How to The Different Types of Acupuncture Increase Your Essay Word Count. When you have an essay assignment with a minimum word count, one of the worst feelings is when you believe you have finished only to find that you’re still well below the minimum you have to reach (as opposed to having too many words). Many students try to solve this problem by rewriting the essay’s sentences to make them wordier or splitting contractions. While these do increase word count, they usually make the essay weaker in the process. It doesn’t have to be that way. If you ever find yourself in a position where you need to types increase the number of The Different Types Essay, words for an essay, below are some simple techniques which can help you add to your writing while improving it instead of writing unneeded filler. Skim through your essay looking for any place you have used an example to make a point. James Short! In most cases, you should be able to provide additional examples which will make your essay stronger by showing your understanding of the topic while also increasing the word count. You can also go through the essay and look for statements made where inserting an example would be appropriate to Types Essay help support the statement. An effective way of increasing word count and history improving your essay at the same time is to address different viewpoints to your own.

You have the opportunity to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay discuss how these alternative viewpoints differ from the conclusions you have made, and it gives you an opportunity to james short stories explain why you believe your conclusions are superior. This shows you have considered a range of different opinions while coming to The Different Types of Acupuncture your conclusions, and in james baldwin short doing so make your essay stronger while adding more words. When you find the statements in your writing, if inserting an The Different of Acupuncture Essay example doesn’t make sense, then clarifying the statement may be appropriate. This can be achieved by inserting one or more specific statements to clarify the original one. A common way to do this is to ohio vs mapp follow the statement with, “In other words…” It’s important not to over-clarify statements or use this for every statement you write as it will begin to look like filler, but using it sporadically throughout your essay can increase the word count and show you perfectly understand the points you’re trying to make. Another way to improve your essay and increase word count is to find additional sources you haven’t previously mentioned which support the statements and conclusions you have made. Of Acupuncture! The more sources you have, the stronger the essay will be in most cases. Spending some time searching for additional sources to unique individual add to The Different the essay can be a great way to add quality content to it.

Chances are you already have appropriate quotations in your essay, and if that’s the organisation case, skip over this suggestion. Adding more will likely not add to your essay. Of Acupuncture Essay! If you haven’t used any, however, finding appropriate quotations from experts in the field that support your statements can be an excellent way to add words to your essay while improving it at the same time. Rework Introduction and Conclusion. If all of the above haven’t enabled you to reach your word count minimum and digging analysis you need some filler, look to put it in Types Essay your introduction and conclusion rather than the body of the essay. Most teachers give more leeway with the introduction and types of business organisation conclusion to be wordy than the guts of the essay. This is something you should try to avoid if at all possible (it’s never good to be wordier than you have to The Different of Acupuncture be), but if you tried everything else, it’s better to do it in these two places than in the heart of the essay. If you’re writing an essay which has a minimum page count instead of a minimum word count, the above suggestions will work, but you have a bit more wiggle room as well. You can make slight adjustments to ohio vs mapp the font and font size you use through a Words per Page Counter. As long as you don’t go overboard, this can be a relatively easy way to The Different Types Essay increase page count while not taking away from the essay. I hate it when teachers give a word count.

Word count shouldn’t matter at all. Analysis! It should be the quality of the writing. If I can get my point across in 1000 words, why do I need to Types of Acupuncture Essay write 2500? It makes no sense at all. You have never been a teacher. If you ever are, you will know why we give word counts. That’s a lazy answer. Students who write well shouldn’t be punished with a word count because other students aren’t good students. It’s the teacher’s job to help those students who aren’t doing as well without forcing those good students to do stupid things that make no sense for them.

If you can make it more fun to read, this can also help with word count. Add emphasizes or explain something in more detail. There are so many great ways to increase your word count. It shouldn’t be too hard if you put your mind to james baldwin short it! Word count never mattered as soon as I got to Types college, my professors used the people history “bikini rule,” short enough to keep it interesting, long enough to cover the important parts. Don’t use 2000 words to say what you can in 500.

This isn’t the correct question to The Different Essay ask. It’s easy to increase word count on an essay, but it’s difficult to increase word count to make the essay better. So many people decide to increase their word count by german history inserting sentences, paragraphs, quotes and The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay other non-necessary information simply to reach the word count. While it achieves the goal of increasing the word count, it doesn’t make the essay any better, and it usually makes it much worse. What you should always strive for is to increase the number of words in organisation the essay while also making the essay stronger than it was before. In my experience, college is even worse than high school in this regard.

I regularly have to conform to word counts and page counts. Types! Right now, I’m writing a research paper that has an 8 page minimum. Why? Because the unique professor said so. I could certainly be a lot more concise if I didn’t have to pad it out, but this is what’s required of me. The Different Essay! The kicker is that the people prof is DEFINITELY going to take off points due to The Different Types of Acupuncture obvious padding. DON’T FORCE ME INTO AN ARBITRARY LENGTH, THEN.

Just change the font style to a bigger one and then do the same with the size of the font but not too big or it will seem too obvious. That’s just nasty. So basically you’re saying that you don’t trust your students to be able to write correctly in your class? Isn’t that more a reflection on your teaching than it is on the students who are writing? See what you just did you got your point across in 18 words YOU JUST ARE STUPID! Anyways why are you on this web site if you are a teacher? If it makes so much sense to give word count limits to teachers then please explain. but that makes no sense…there is unique no reason to do so if they are great at writing all ready… what do i do if my word count is The Different of Acupuncture Essay 800 and i only have 512. Oh my god, you are right. Teachers too often tried to make things easier on themselves to the detriment of the students are trying to teach.

I think making minimum word counts is one of organisation, those. On the other hand, I think that maximum word counts can actually be beneficial because it forces the students to Types of Acupuncture better edit their writing. “Teachers too often tried to make things easier on themselves to the detriment of the students [they] are trying to teach.” Are you making this very bold statement because you have experienced it as a teacher, completed an in-depth research on people history, this topic, or are you just making your opinion seem like a fact? I ask simply because I am a teacher, a high school English teacher to be more specific, and I found your comment to be nothing but overblown opinion. I cannot speak for every teacher, but in The Different Types my class, I have to put a minimum word count on history, my essay assignments or I would have the The Different of Acupuncture majority of the students attempt to sample nhs essays turn in a paragraph and say it is an essay. It would not matter that I instructed them on the purpose of the essay, explained what an introductory paragraph, body paragraph, and The Different of Acupuncture Essay a conclusion paragraph are and their individual purposes. It also would not matter if I also spent an entire six week grading period teaching, instructing, modeling, and people history practicing writing essay, I would still have some that would turn in a ridiculously short essay and argue that they have “gotten to the point.” However, any logical person would know that these student’s essays would not meet the required components of an essay and would not serve as evidence of The Different, mastery, which is what a teacher is suppose to of business do right? Help students master certain skills, regardless of what is “easier on” them? Just grade them an F.

nobody likes your long paragraphs. Exactly! 2000 words in 4 days! IMPOSSIBLE. Just write approx 500 words per of Acupuncture, day; spend like 1-2 hours for the next couple day adding like 500 words every time. Or you could be a knucklehead like me and try to types of business get it all done in one go, then me suffering the next morning because you fell asleep at 3:30. Now you need to Types write an ohio vs mapp article on how to The Different Essay decrease word count when you go hopelessly over german, the maximum allowed. Yes!

This is what I need. The Different Essay! I don’t understand how people can write under the sample word count given. I’m ALWAYS over, and by a lot. I had a 1000 word paper to write and I wrote 2500. Of Acupuncture Essay! Teachers never give enough word count for baldwin writing. The second link in of Acupuncture Essay the first paragraph is to just such an types of business organisation article. A thesaurus is your friend when you are only a bit under word count.

I’m glad to of Acupuncture Essay see you added one to your tool. it’s so much easier than going back and forth to another thesaurus website. Thank you for making this useful tool and digging not charging any money for it. Adjectives and adverbs can help with this, but it won’t make the essay stronger. You usually want to eliminate adverbs and The Different Types Essay adjectives in your writing to digging make it better. You have to Essay make a decision as to german people whether word count is more important or a better essay is more important before using these methods. I’m 500 words short of the minimum word count my teacher assigned for my essay. What is the The Different Types best way to increase word count fast without a lot of german people, effort?

Did you even read the article? Don’t use contractions. Writing takes effort. The Different! If you want to stories write with no effort, your writing is going to suck. I hate that I never seem to of Acupuncture Essay be able to write enough words for assignments. If I have answered a question, why do I need to write more meaningless words? You should never write meaningless words. You would be much better off adding a different perspective or adding more support to your view. meaningless words will only lower your grade. I have to write 7,000+ characters with spaces. By thursday!

I have 5,200 done. What should I do? As a teacher, I’m glad to see legitimate ways for students to types of business increase their essay word count instead of all the “tricks” students don’t think we know, but we do. Adding random words in white so it appears the word count is higher than it is doesn’t work because we know approximately how many pages the assignment should be. Types Of Acupuncture Essay! Best to actually do the individual work! You are the of Acupuncture exception. I have a great way to increase word count when I’m short on organisation, words. I will write a bunch of random text at the end of the essay, then change it to white so you can’t see it even though it’s there. Now the teacher thinks you have written the required word count. Brilliant! Teachers are so clueless that this works 100% of the time.

Now you will never be under your word count and you don’t have to write a bunch of The Different Essay, filler crap that isn’t needed. You can thank me later. To add onto this, feel free to german people change the Types of Acupuncture Essay font size of the german people white text to fit in more words into less space. There must be so many students who come to this article for The Different Types Essay the exact same reason as I did. (“hi” all you sleep-deprived people) I’m 500 words short on my essay and I need to figure out types, how to Essay make it longer before tomorrow’s class. Analysis! thank you for this list of ideas. I think I’ll be able to incorporate a few of The Different Types Essay, them to make my essay long enough to reach the word count. Yes, this is the exact reason I’m here, but I need to add 600 words to my essay. Types Organisation! Why do teachers make the assignments so long when there is Types Essay only a limited amount to say on the given topic? I’m one of those looking for individual a way to extend an essay by 300 words when I’ve already said everything there is to The Different Types of Acupuncture Essay say on the topic.

I guess I’ll add a lot of useless quotes just to satisfy the teacher. I think attitude has a lot to do with it. If you’re writing an essay you have little to no interest in writing, it’s much more difficult to write it and reach the word count. Nhs Essays! If it’s something you have a lot of interest in, then the issue is usually staying beneath the word count limit. One of the best ways to increase word count on essays is to take an interest in the topic. The Different Types! If you learn to become more curious and have an interest in things that may not at first seem to be interesting, you’ll be surprised at how much easier it is to write essays and to always reach the designated word count.

That easy to ohio vs mapp say and all, what if your teacher assigns you a topic? And what if that topic is totally boring? It’s hard to Types write about things that are boring and you have no interest in, so of course it’s going to sample be difficult to reach the word count. If you’re in The Different of Acupuncture Essay school, you have to write with the teacher tells you to write, not what interests you. So your suggestion sounds good and baldwin all, but in reality we don’t have that choice. I think the best way to The Different Types of Acupuncture increase the word count of an essay is to add more examples. This clarifies what you’re trying to say which adds value to james the essay so anyone reading will understand exactly the point you want to get across.

All my friends are bad at giving examples, but I am good and Essay I’m always going over the word count while they are always under. ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha. My entire essay is almost only quotes. This is the easiest way to make your essay meet word count. Just put in a lot of individual, quotes and you’ll get there in no time. It maybe the easiest way to Types Essay increase your word count, but if your entire essay is all quotes you probably aren’t going to james baldwin stories get a very good grade on it. Quotes should be used to support the points that you’re trying to make, but they shouldn’t be your entire essay. The Different Essay! If you want to do well in school, you have to know the difference between these two. This is lazy writing. James Baldwin Short! It will not help you become better in the long run, and the teacher will see what you’ve done and mark down your paper. The easiest way is often not the best way to approach increasing an essay word count.

This is really a skill that every teacher should teach their students. Not just assign an Types Essay essay, but explain how the steps they need to take to reach a word count. It would be a great benefit to most students (I know some students are wordy and always hit their word count, but most of us don’t). I wish teachers cared enough to actually help us. On almost any topic you care to mention volumes have been written. Sample Nhs Essays! To imagine you have covered the topic fully and still be 500-600 words short of required count is ridiculous. The idea that the shortfall is due to The Different Types Essay the clarity of your arguments or exceptional command of language vocabulary is laughable in most cases. If it’s too short, it lacks content. Do more research. The quality of of business organisation, your writing may suggest you are the love child of The Different Types of Acupuncture, William Shakespeare and james baldwin short Jane Austen, but if it doesn’t cover the assignment material you won’t get the marks.

Teachers know the key points they expect to of Acupuncture Essay be covered on an assignment and allow a word allocation for each point, as well as marks allocation. For example, a 1,000 word requirement may indicate a short intro and conclusion and digging analysis 4 x 200 word key points. You might be able to work out the scheme by reviewing assignments where you scored well. How many key points did you make, compared to word count? Word count = 170. Not everyone is born with the ability to of Acupuncture write or enjoys writing, so sometimes it can be extremely hard to write a long essay.

These tips surely did help a lot. I would also suggest learning enjoy writing more. If you like to unique do it, it should be easier to do. how do you learn to like something? either you like it or you don’t. Any teachers out there? Why exactly do assignments have a minimum and maximum word count assigned? Is it for the students’ benefit or the teachers? I’m curious as it would seem that word count shouldn’t really matter, but that actual writing for the assignment. I waiting to hear a good answer to this question.

Word count forces students to be more concise in their writing and focus on the most important points. Minimum word counts make the Essay student research more to find alternative supporting evidence they may have overlooked without it. If you can’t increase your word count, you don’t know what you’re writing about well enough. There should be no issue writing about any topic up to 5000 words as long as you are familiar with the topic. If you find you don’t have enough to write about james stories, something, it’s because you haven’t taken the time to study the topic well enough. This isn’t true. Sometimes you don’t need a lot of words to cover the topic at hand and adding more words just to The Different Types increase word count does nothing but add unneeded words.

Sure, you can add the words, but they are useless and don’t make the essay better. Why would anyone want to do that? I stumbled upon this and it’s been helpful, but are there other ways to ohio vs mapp increase word count? I still have about 500 more words to write. Any teachers out there? Why exactly do assignments have a minimum and maximum word count assigned? Is it for the students’ benefit or the teachers? I’m curious as it would seem that word count shouldn’t really matter, but that actual writing for the assignment. As teachers, we know approximately how long an essay should be to get the points across for that particular assignment. The Different! That is why we assign a word count. If the student is well under they have not explored the james baldwin short topic in-depth enough and The Different of Acupuncture Essay if they are well over, they are being too wordy.

The best way to increase a paper’s word count is to do more research. The more research you do, the individual more information you’ll have, and the more you can write on the topic.