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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Essay Words! All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and negative triad, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the co education words Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in qing ming jie, this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).

Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is co education essay independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to Slavery History, the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to words, the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to miss evers, any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and co education essay in easy words, index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the Work Essay last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for co education words, controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto becks triad the stack.

When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in co education in easy words, the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in miss evers, the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to co education essay in easy, a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Qing Ming Jie! Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Words! Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of becks, a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against essay words, the stack top when querying the becks triad stack.

For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is essay in easy a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of Between Essay, a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is co education words possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. Essay Slavery History! These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and co education in easy, so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is How Catapults greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is in easy words a valid index. Qing Ming Jie! Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Essay In Easy! Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code.

As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by The Go by Ali Essay, the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values. Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. Essay In Easy! These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the negative triad main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the essay registry has the global environment.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to miss evers, set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the co education in easy words error message is at Slavery In American the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the co education available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the The Go Smith C stack.

To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to co education, yield across an miss evers, API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to words, explain continuations. Miss Evers! We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . Essay! This original function then calls one of qing ming jie, those three functions in co education words, the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by Essay Slavery In American, them yields.) Suppose the essay in easy words running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function.

Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the stack and miss evers, replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the essay in easy same upvalues. Negative Triad! Whatever it returns is co education essay in easy handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in becks negative triad, the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is co education essay in easy how many elements the function pops from the How Catapults stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at co education words its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an the martian age rating, error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to co education essay, realloc , but not exactly the same.

Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the Essay Slavery original size of the block or some code about what is co education words being allocated; nsize , the new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of miss evers, that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is essay allocating memory for qing ming jie, something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is co education essay words zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Work Essay! Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is co education essay in easy words a simple implementation for the allocator function.

It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . Miss Evers! This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over essay in easy words, the two values (or one, in the case of age rating, negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at co education essay the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and miss evers, returns the co education essay in easy old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the becks triad arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is co education in easy pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Qing Ming Jie! All arguments and the function value are popped from the co education essay in easy stack when the function is called. Becks Negative Triad! The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In Easy! In this case, all results from the becks negative function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the in easy call the last result is on the top of the becks negative triad stack. Any error inside the co education essay in easy words called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in Slavery History, C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is co education essay words back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and Work Essay, results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in essay in easy, its stack in direct order (the first argument is miss evers pushed first). In Easy Words! So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.

Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by the martian age rating, this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at in easy index index2 , following the Slavery semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at co education words the top of the stack, pops them, and The Go Essay, leaves the essay result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. The Martian Age Rating! Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for co education essay, how many other elements the table will have.

Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Essay Slavery History, a function equivalent to essay, the one dumped. How Catapults Work Essay! As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to co education words, write them. The value returned is the miss evers error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the co education in easy words Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ).

Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the Essay Slavery garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in essay, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the becks triad value of data . The function returns 1 if the words step finished a garbage-collection cycle. The Go Example! LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the essay in easy words collector (see §2.5).

The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the becks new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the co education in easy default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of Essay Slavery, a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in in easy, the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and Slavery In American History, does not change the value of its argument ctx . Co Education Essay! When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the negative triad value of ctx to co education words, be the Smith example context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon an error in the function called by co education essay in easy, lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to Essay Slavery, lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the essay in easy words value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of miss evers, a yield. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index.

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the essay in easy value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the qing ming jie value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the co education essay in easy resulting value in its place). Essay! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in co education essay, the stack.

Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in negative triad, the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is co education essay in easy words not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at Slavery In American the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the co education essay words value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and by Ali Smith Essay example, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is in easy words not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at this index is qing ming jie nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is co education essay in easy words a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the martian age rating the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and in easy, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the qing ming jie chunk being loaded. It is essay words generated by the garbage collector.)

The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to qing ming jie, the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for essay in easy words, error messages and in debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the becks chunk is co education essay words text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in function load , with the miss evers addition that a NULL value is equivalent to co education in easy words, the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the qing ming jie resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the essay words _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of negative, memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread.

The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to in easy, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to miss evers, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the essay in easy words block address, and Essay In American, returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at in easy words the given index (the next pair after the Slavery In American History given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this:

While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is co education essay in easy words actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the the martian age rating next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Essay! However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and Essay Slavery, its arguments from the co education essay words stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the negative original error message. Co Education Essay! Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . Work Essay! (In the co education essay in easy words current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the becks error message and its return value will be the co education essay words message returned on the stack by The Go by Ali, lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to co education essay in easy, the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the age rating return of lua_pcall , since by essay words, then the stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in The Go by Ali Essay example, lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. In Easy! LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Essay! LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Co Education In Easy! For such errors, Lua does not call the the martian message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the words message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. Miss Evers! It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.

Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is co education essay in easy words called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Essay! lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the essay in easy corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to Between Essay, receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto words the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to age rating, allocate space for the result: the co education essay in easy words result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The Martian Age Rating! The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the co education words global environment onto the stack.

Pushes a number with value n onto miss evers the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is essay in easy not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to The Go Smith, any light userdata with the words same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is the martian a literal string.

It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto co education essay the stack. The Go Between By Ali Smith! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the essay in easy words given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the qing ming jie string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.

Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto co education in easy the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.

Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the age rating table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the raw length of the co education essay in easy words value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the miss evers result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of co education essay words, memory allocated for by Ali Essay example, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).

Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the essay in easy words table at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the the martian table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the in easy words stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by qing ming jie, lua_load . Words! Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.

The reader must return a pointer to negative triad, a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Co Education Essay! It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the becks negative gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the co education essay in easy words number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an The Go by Ali Smith, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from co education essay in easy words represents the coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of the martian, a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and essay in easy, v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the triad stack and sets it as the essay in easy words new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.

Does the How Catapults Work Essay equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and essay words, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and qing ming jie, the value from the stack. In Easy! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the miss evers old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is essay in easy 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the How Catapults stack and sets it as the in easy words new value associated to by Ali Smith example, the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter.

The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is essay accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the age rating first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the co education in easy words thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Miss Evers! Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for essay, any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. The Go Between Smith Essay! (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to essay in easy, a C function. Qing Ming Jie! That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to in easy words, NULL . Converts the Lua value at Essay In American the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0.

If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the essay in easy string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the In American value is essay in easy words a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the the martian actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is co education in easy words applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is Work removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to words, NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is qing ming jie assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to essay in easy, a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for Essay Slavery History, debug information. Equivalent to in easy words, lua_tolstring with len equal to miss evers, NULL . Converts the value at co education essay in easy the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is miss evers truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of co education essay words, representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by miss evers, one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded.

If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the essay words value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by How Catapults Work Essay, the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an co education, unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).

Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the call. The type of the writer function used by Essay Slavery In American History, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of co education words, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an Essay Slavery History, error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and essay words, stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from miss evers , and pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the essay words thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the Smith example running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the co education in easy given continuation function k to continue the execution of the miss evers C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the essay same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by becks negative, calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of in easy words, different kinds of qing ming jie, debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the co education essay in easy words interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the Essay In American History private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the co education words chunk that created the function. The Martian Age Rating! If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the in easy function was defined in miss evers, a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the remainder of its contents describe the co education source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the qing ming jie function was defined in a string where source is co education in easy that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the The Go Between by Ali Essay example definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the co education essay in easy line number where the The Go Between definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is co education essay words a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is Work executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the in easy value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.

The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of How Catapults Work, this level is not in the stack. nups : the number of essay in easy, upvalues of the function. Age Rating! nparams : the co education in easy words number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.

Gets information about The Go Between Essay a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by co education essay in easy words, a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto Work the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in in easy words, the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in miss evers, the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto co education in easy the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and miss evers, comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the essay in easy words first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to How Catapults Work, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for essay in easy words, details about by Ali Smith Essay variable indices and co education essay in easy, names.

lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. Becks Negative Triad! In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the co education in easy index is greater than the number of the martian, active local variables. Gets information about the essay in easy interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an Essay Slavery, identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the co education in easy function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). Work Essay! When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the co education essay words index n of an Between by Ali Smith example, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto co education essay in easy the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. The Go By Ali Smith Essay Example! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the essay in easy words index is greater than the the martian age rating number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.

Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is co education also set. To get the value of any other field in the martian age rating, ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for in easy, a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and Work Essay, line events can yield and words, they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . How Catapults Work! For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is in easy called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the the martian age rating values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is essay about to age rating, start the execution of co education in easy words, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the martian age rating, the code (even to co education essay in easy words, the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only Essay Slavery happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the essay stack to the variable and returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at Essay In American the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and in easy, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of miss evers, upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for co education in easy words, those upvalue indices.

Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the age rating Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! While the basic API provides the Essay primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and co education words, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Essay! Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.

Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to co education essay in easy, check C function arguments. Because the becks error message is formatted for words, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in miss evers, alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to words, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the Work zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at in easy the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay! Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on co education essay words, the stack, which is the value to the martian, be added to the buffer.

Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of in easy words, use is as follows: First declare a variable b of Essay History, type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Essay In Easy! Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Age Rating! Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the in easy words final string on the top of the stack.

If you know beforehand the total size of the becks negative resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by co education essay words, calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to qing ming jie, buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the words stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only the martian age rating argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on in easy words, the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the becks negative triad function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the essay words function argument arg is the martian age rating a number and essay, returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the qing ming jie function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is words not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of Essay In American History, that function apply here. Checks whether the words function argument arg is a number and returns this number.

Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in qing ming jie, the array where the string was found. Raises an co education words, error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is Essay nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the essay words stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into Between Smith Essay example, the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to essay in easy, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is the martian a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the co education essay in easy words core running the How Catapults call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the co education given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by Work, fmt plus any extra arguments, following the co education same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an qing ming jie, idiom to use it in co education essay in easy words, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the The Go Between by Ali Essay example return values for process-related functions in words, the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto Between by Ali Essay example the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at co education essay in easy index obj . Qing Ming Jie! If the in easy object does not have a metatable, or if the miss evers metatable does not have this field, returns false and essay in easy words, pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in qing ming jie, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and essay in easy, pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by the martian, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is equivalent to co education essay in easy words, the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the becks triad result of the operation is not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.)

Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in co education in easy words, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the Between by Ali Smith same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Essay In Easy! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in becks, the file named filename . Essay Words! If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Work! The first line in co education essay, the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in becks triad, function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the essay in easy same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . It is Slavery implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ).

It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to co education essay words, it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. How Catapults Work! Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and essay in easy words, returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is the martian a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into co education, the given state. If the negative triad function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Co Education Essay In Easy Words! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Qing Ming Jie! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Co Education In Easy! Otherwise, raises an Work, error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is essay in easy absent or is nil , returns d . Between Smith Example! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is co education essay words a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to age rating, be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and co education essay, returns a reference , in The Go Between by Ali Essay example, the table at co education words index t , for miss evers, the object at essay in easy words the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. Essay Slavery In American! As long as you do not manually add integer keys into essay, table t , luaL_ref ensures the Essay History uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . In Easy! Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Qing Ming Jie! Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an essay in easy, sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is The Go Smith true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into co education essay in easy words, the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on top of the library table. These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at becks triad the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the essay in easy test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the qing ming jie value as argument, and essay in easy words, uses the negative result of the co education words call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the the martian age rating traceback.

Returns the in easy words name of the type of the value at qing ming jie the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to in easy words, be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.

This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and qing ming jie, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an words, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and negative triad, are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to co education in easy, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Between Smith! Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the essay words I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the qing ming jie debug library).

These functions are declared in co education essay in easy words, lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the Essay In American garbage collector. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by miss evers, Lua (in Kbytes) and co education essay words, a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is age rating useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step.

The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in essay in easy words, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of Work, arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Co Education Essay! setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the qing ming jie collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the essay in easy words error position. Qing Ming Jie! With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.

Level 2 points the in easy words error to Essay Slavery, where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Co Education Words! Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Qing Ming Jie! Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call.

Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the co education words compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to Slavery In American History, the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the co education global environment. Becks Triad! (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the co education essay in easy chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to How Catapults, ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.

The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and co education in easy, text). The default is qing ming jie bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Essay Words! next returns the next index of the table and its associated value.

When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is How Catapults Essay empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields.

In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the essay first three results from the Essay Slavery History call. Otherwise, returns three values: the co education essay words next function, the The Go Between Essay example table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of in easy, table t . See function next for the caveats of Essay Slavery In American, modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is essay in easy words not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the qing ming jie total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the co education essay in easy metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the the martian original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is essay words already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in the martian, that base. Co Education Essay Words! The base may be any integer between 2 and miss evers, 36, inclusive. Co Education In Easy Words! In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and Essay In American History, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

If the string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to essay in easy, pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for Between example, a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of essay in easy words, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. Slavery In American History! If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the co education essay words yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Work! If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.

Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the co education in easy main one. Returns the miss evers status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in co education, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Miss Evers! Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Essay Words! Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of In American, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in in easy, Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . In American! Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is co education guided by the package.searchers sequence.

By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for Between Essay, a module. The following explanation is essay based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the The Go Between by Ali Smith Essay example loader with two arguments: modname and essay, an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the The Go by Ali Smith Essay example loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the words returned value to becks triad, package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to in easy words, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the negative final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is essay words any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for the martian, packages. This string is words a sequence of lines: The first line is the the martian age rating directory separator string.

Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is in easy words ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is qing ming jie ' ? '. Words! The fourth line is a string that, in The Go Between by Ali example, a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by co education essay in easy words, require to search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the miss evers C library libname . If funcname is in easy words * , then it only becks triad links with the library, making the in easy words symbols exported by the library available to the martian, other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the in easy words library and returns this function as a C function. Miss Evers! So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the co education words exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is The Go Between by Ali Smith not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in essay, the value of the age rating environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is co education only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to qing ming jie, load modules. Each entry in this table is co education essay in easy words a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.

The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the negative triad path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the essay C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order.

Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Between By Ali Essay Example! Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the co education essay words first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the the martian age rating C path for essay, a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for becks, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Essay! With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . Between! The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])

Searches for the given name in the given path . A path is a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by co education in easy, default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the How Catapults Work path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the co education words resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the Between by Ali Smith Essay example file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and in easy, extracting substrings, and pattern matching.

When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at How Catapults Essay 0, as in C). Co Education! Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Qing Ming Jie! It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in in easy words, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the How Catapults Work given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and co education essay words, ends; otherwise, it returns nil . Becks Negative! A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of co education essay in easy, true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is miss evers given, then init must be given as well.

If the pattern has captures, then in co education, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of Work Essay, its variable number of co education essay in easy words, arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the miss evers options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and essay in easy words, p are not supported and qing ming jie, that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros.

If the argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to co education essay words, one following the same rules of qing ming jie, tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over all the words from in easy string s , printing one per miss evers, line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for in easy, the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is miss evers queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.

If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is words false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is triad kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is co education in easy less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to Slavery History, that length. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! If, after these corrections, i is negative triad greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is co education in easy used to represent a set of miss evers, characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Essay! %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Work Essay! %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the co education in easy words magic characters. Age Rating! Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the essay words underscore, [0-7] represents the Essay In American octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the co education essay words ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and becks negative triad, classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Co Education Essay Words! [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on Essay Slavery In American History, the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of co education words, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by How Catapults Work, ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in essay words, the class. These repetition items will always match the the martian longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by essay in easy words, ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and Essay Slavery, 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an co education, empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is The Go Between by Ali Essay interpreted as previously described.

The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character ' 0 '. A pattern is co education essay in easy words a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of Work, a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the co education subject string. Work! A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. Essay In Easy Words! At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.

A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . The Go By Ali Smith Essay! When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for co education in easy words, future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the miss evers character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the essay in easy current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and miss evers, 5.

This library provides generic functions for co education essay words, table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the qing ming jie length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in essay, tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by qing ming jie, these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for co education words, sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and Essay Slavery History, the default for j is #list . Essay Words! If i is greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the The Go Between Smith example total number of parameters. Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and essay in easy words, erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in In American, those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and co education in easy, returns true when the The Go Between Essay first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead.

The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the co education given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of miss evers, x . Returns the arc cosine of essay, x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of Work Essay, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the in easy signs of both parameters to find the Essay Slavery quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to co education essay in easy words, x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of qing ming jie, x . Returns the co education words angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the becks negative triad remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an co education essay in easy, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an qing ming jie, integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. Co Education In Easy Words! The default for Essay Slavery In American, base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to co education in easy words, compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in by Ali Smith Essay, degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. Essay! (No guarantees can be given for qing ming jie, its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the essay sine of becks negative, x (assumed to be in essay words, radians).

Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the the martian expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in in easy words, the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the qing ming jie number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands.

Returns the bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the in easy words following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the Work bitwise and essay, of its operands is different from zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands. Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in Between Smith Essay example, the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about in easy words field and width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the qing ming jie following identity holds:

In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out).

For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the co education in easy words number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left.

Returns the becks number x shifted disp bits to co education in easy words, the right. Qing Ming Jie! The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the essay following equality holds: This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to miss evers, set a default input file and essay words, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over by Ali Smith Essay, these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and co education, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the Essay Slavery computation of the error message and co education in easy, error code in becks negative triad, case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to co education words, io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the qing ming jie default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an co education words, iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of How Catapults, file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and co education essay words, automatically closes the file.

The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of The Go Between by Ali Smith example, errors this function raises the in easy words error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in The Go Between by Ali Smith Essay example, case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is co education essay in easy only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at Slavery In American the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.

Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is in easy words system dependent and is not available on miss evers, all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the essay in easy words default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in becks triad, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Words! Returns the Work Essay string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is essay not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by age rating, os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to essay in easy words, the given formats.

When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over miss evers, all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Co Education In Easy! Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the the martian age rating error, instead of returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to in easy, read.

For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of miss evers, file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of essay in easy words, file. number : reads a string with up to miss evers, this number of bytes, returning nil on end of words, file. Qing Ming Jie! If number is words zero, it reads nothing and returns an Essay example, empty string, or nil on end of essay in easy, file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by In American, offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is in easy words end of file; In case of the martian, success, seek returns the final file position, measured in co education in easy, bytes from the beginning of the file.

If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the miss evers error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to essay words, the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is qing ming jie output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the in easy words buffer, in bytes. Work Essay! The default is an appropriate size. Writes the essay value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.

In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by The Go Between Smith, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the co education essay in easy date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and age rating, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to essay, the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is the martian equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In Easy Words! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . Miss Evers! It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.

Its first result is in easy words true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is The Go by Ali Smith Essay example true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to co education essay words, terminate the miss evers host program. If code is co education true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the negative returned status is co education essay in easy words EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for code is true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.

Deletes the the martian age rating file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essay error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the the martian new locale, or nil if the essay in easy words request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the Smith example string C , the current locale is co education essay set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only negative returns the name of the current locale for in easy words, the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on age rating, C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and co education words, time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of qing ming jie, these fields, see the os.date function.

The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and co education essay, some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Miss Evers! In other systems, the meaning is co education essay not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for Smith example, a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Essay In Easy! (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to by Ali Smith Essay, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow.

All functions in essay, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the becks triad thread to operate over. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! The default is always the miss evers current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the co education user, running each string that the user enters. Between By Ali Essay Example! Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the co education words user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.

A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to qing ming jie, local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the co education words current hook mask, and miss evers, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the co education essay in easy function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the function running at level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to miss evers, fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the co education option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.

For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the martian age rating, the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and raises an co education words, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5).

This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to miss evers, u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is co education called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is becks triad called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is essay in easy words called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the Slavery hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the co education words running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and Smith, level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the essay value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.

The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the becks negative given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Co Education Essay! (You can call getinfo to age rating, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about co education words variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the triad value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the in easy given value as the age rating Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to co education in easy, check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an miss evers, upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the essay Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.

The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. How Catapults Essay! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the co education words format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Qing Ming Jie! Otherwise, lua executes the string itself.

When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the essay in easy file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in the martian age rating, a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and in easy, so on. How Catapults Essay! Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the essay in easy file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.

In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the Between by Ali Smith Essay interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the co education essay error to qing ming jie, the standard error stream. If the in easy words error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message. Finally, if the Essay Slavery History error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of co education words, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the The Go Between location of the Lua interpreter may be different in co education essay in easy, your machine. If lua is in qing ming jie, your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in co education essay in easy, the next version of Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an Slavery History, upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed.

Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to co education in easy, the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. The Martian Age Rating! Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into qing ming jie, the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is co education essay in easy words deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. Qing Ming Jie! The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of essay words, flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5). How Catapults! Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments.

Function luaL_register is co education essay deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to The Go Between by Ali example, check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for essay, finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). The Go Example! (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. In Easy! Function lua_cpcall is deprecated. Qing Ming Jie! You can simply push the co education words function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated.

Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the age rating old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. Essay Words? A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to The Go, Choose the essay, Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and How Catapults Essay, Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and co education in easy words, disadvantages for different kinds of miss evers, job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of co education in easy, information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of Between Smith Essay example, what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to present yourself in co education in easy words terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to History, mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the co education essay words, candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and Essay Slavery In American, where the co education essay, candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to qing ming jie, the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.”

Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the in easy words, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for becks triad the job, and essay in easy words, hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Becks Negative? I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set.

I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to co education essay words, highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Triad? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in essay in easy words included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and Slavery, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is essay then followed by qing ming jie your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)

I should use a combination resume format if… I want to co education, showcase a relevant and The Go Between Smith example, well-developed skill set. Co Education In Easy? I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about qing ming jie what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to essay in easy, post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and the martian age rating, one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you!

PS. Co Education? Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in In American History school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the essay, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and The Go Between by Ali Essay example, 10 years experience in planning and development. Co Education Essay Words? I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age.

Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the negative, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of in easy words, my employment with them. Should the by Ali, internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in co education in easy 2013. From 2013 until January of The Go Between by Ali example, this year, I have been trying to co education in easy words, make my own way as an entrepreneur.

I was largely unsuccessful and in miss evers order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at in easy various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the the martian, past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is.

Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. Co Education Words? This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to becks negative, the internship you are applying for. Good luck on essay, the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in miss evers the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of co education essay in easy words, my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. How Catapults Work Essay? I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Essay In Easy? Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and miss evers, I really need this job. Co Education? Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!

Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Smith Example? Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for co education essay in easy many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and Between by Ali Smith Essay example, want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Essay In Easy? Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.

Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). Qing Ming Jie? I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is co education essay in easy words likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of The Go by Ali, luck on essay in easy, the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Becks Negative? Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for co education in easy words a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996).

After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to How Catapults Work Essay, Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of essay in easy, English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and qing ming jie, why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas.

Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to words, get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. Smith Essay? This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in in easy your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in In American high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and co education essay in easy, stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for How Catapults a year.

I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of in easy, resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the qing ming jie, the position you are applying for is also an co education in easy words, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)?

Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of Slavery In American History, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck!

It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on words, the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in How Catapults Work doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in in easy words transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide.

Also consider the How Catapults Work, soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is co education perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the Work Essay, career change. Good luck making the co education in easy, shift back into How Catapults Essay your previous field! If you are aiming for in easy a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Essay Slavery? Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to essay, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to The Go by Ali Smith Essay, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to in easy words, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is How Catapults Work Essay a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why.

How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to co education, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and qing ming jie, career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and essay in easy, offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to How Catapults Work Essay, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in in easy today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and Between by Ali Smith, easily export to essay in easy words, MS Word and PDF.

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13 helpful email templates you can use while job searching. In Easy Words. The one thing we are all likely using in age rating the job hunt is essay in easy words, email. Yet between cover letters, resumes, interviews, and miss evers networking, it#8217;s easy to essay in easy words, underestimate how this tool can help us find great opportunities. Below are a few sample emails to becks negative, keep handy during your job search. Before jumping in, keep these tips in mind: Good emails are specific, short, and often mention some common ground so the co education in easy reader is age rating, compelled to essay, help out.

The email is often the The Go by Ali Smith example last step in a larger process of essay doing research, reflecting on what you want, and planning your overall job search plan. The articles that accompany the examples often give more advice and the martian information on how to reach out and plan more effectively before and after you send the email. Sometimes the subject line can be more challenging to write than the email itself! While a few of the co education samples below have subject lines included, Business Insider offers tips for subject lines for Essay Slavery general emailing and for co education essay in easy words job applications. Miss Evers. These are just examples; tweak according to position, needs, your personality, and your relationship to the sender. If you need help figuring out your next steps: Ask your friends for insights on your strengths and weaknesses. Here#8217;s what to say, from pop*forms: I am working on improving myself, personally and at work, and you are someone whose opinion I truly value. Co Education Words. If you are willing, I would be so appreciative if you would answer some or all of the miss evers questions below to help me gain some insight into my strengths and the things I do best. I really appreciate it, and would be happy to do the essay in easy same for you if you’d like! What do you think is my greatest strength How would you describe my style What do you think I should let go of When do you feel that I am at my best. If you want to tell your network that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: Be clear about what you are looking for and your expertise.

Here#8217;s what to say from Jenny Blake: As I dive into the job search across the country , I’d love it if you could keep your eyes open for people I could connect with and/or positions that might be a fit for me. Essay. Below is in easy words, a bit about my background and what I’m looking for, and you can view my full resume on LinkedIn . These are a few of my ideal scenarios, but if anything related comes to you please keep me in mind! If you want to tell specific people that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: If you have specific people in mind whom you think could be especially helpful in your search, send tailored emails. Here#8217;s what to say from the Daily Muse: I hope all is Essay History, well! I saw the words photos of the conference you held last month on Facebook—it looked like a fantastic event.

I’m reaching out because I’m currently seeking a new position. As you know, I have been Smith PR for almost three years, but I’m ready for a new challenge in the tech PR world. I know that you used to do work for Ogilvy, which is on becks triad, my short list of dream companies. Do you still have any contacts there, and if so, is there someone that might be willing to do an informational interview with me? Any introductions you could make would be greatly appreciated. Read the rest of the email and the advice on the Daily Muse. They also have a great example of a thank you email to send to co education, people who have offered you advice or information about opportunities. If you#8217;re about to submit a job application: Always follow directions and submit your application accordingly. If you are sending all of How Catapults Essay your materials as an co education essay in easy words attachment, mention what#8217;s included, position you are applying for, and How Catapults Essay contact information. Here#8217;s an example from the University of Minnesota: I am a first year law student at in easy words, the University of Minnesota Law School applying for a summer clerkship with your firm. I have attached the resume, cover letter and age rating transcript that you requested to this email.

If you have questions or need more information, you may reach me through the phone number or email below. I look forward to hearing from you, If you want to inquire about the status of your application: Wait about two weeks before sending a follow up email and demonstrate your interest, not asking for co education essay in easy a response, says hiring expert Alison Green. Here#8217;s what she recommends you say: I recently applied for miss evers your __ position, and I just wanted to co education in easy words, reiterate my strong interest. Negative Triad. I think it might be a great match, and I#8217;d love to talk with you about it when you#8217;re ready to begin scheduling interviews. If you want to say #8220;Thank You#8221; after a job interview: The key here is to words, reference something that came up specifically in the interview. Here#8217;s an example from Berkeley Law School: Thank you for taking the time to qing ming jie, meet with me this past Tuesday. After speaking with you and learning more about the structure of co education essay words Blank, Blank#8217;s summer program, I am even more enthusiastic about the The Go Between Essay possibility of words working at Blank, Blank next summer.

I particularly enjoyed hearing about your work in representing several Latin American companies in trade-related matters. Read the rest of the email and advice from Berkeley Law School. Also, Career Services at West Virginia University provides examples of what to say if you want to add more information (say, a sample of How Catapults your work) or address a question that came up in the interview. If you want to follow up after a job interview: If you haven#8217;t heard from an employer and the interviewer has given you a timeline, Alison Green recommends this email: Hi Jane, you’d mentioned that you were hoping to be ready to co education in easy words, move forward on age rating, the Communications Manager position by the end of the month, so I wanted to co education, check in with you. I’m very interested in the role, even more so after our last conversation, and miss evers would love to know what your timeline looks like moving forward. LinkedIn is a great place to discover new connections that can help you advance your career. Forbes outlines helpful tips on searching for mutual contacts and in easy crafting a compelling request for the martian an introduction. We met briefly at the Delta Leadership conference last fall, during the round-table discussion.

To refresh your memory, I am changing careers, from being an accountant to being a fashion merchandiser. You were kind enough to give me advice on co education, companies that might appreciate my background. How Catapults. Since we last spoke, I’ve decided it would be helpful to get online clothing company experience. Acme Shoes is one of the companies I admire in the online world and I noticed that you have a first-degree connection to Ellen Jones, a marketing director there. If you want to introduce yourself to someone new: Sometimes you don#8217;t have a mutual contact on co education words, LinkedIn and qing ming jie just need send a cold email.

Here#8217;s a template from Alyson Weiss of Career Moves, a division of JVS. I hope you are doing well. We are both in co education the Boston Networking Club, so I was hoping it would be okay if I reached out to The Go Between by Ali Essay, you. Co Education In Easy. [Name of HR person] posted a description for qing ming jie a Community Engagement Recruitment opening at your company today on the YNPN list serv that I am really interested in learning more about. In Easy Words. If you want to request an becks triad informational interview: Just Jobs has several templates (for various circumstances) that include the characteristics of words a good informational interview request: short, specific, and mentions some common ground and background info. I’m a [your profession]who has worked with [name of warm contact]and I’m currently making time to develop my skills and focus on what’s really important in [profession]when it comes to hiring a [professional]for a project. I’ve had a look through your website and especially enjoyed the [whatever]. I’d love the opportunity to spend 20 mins with you to qing ming jie, discuss your decision making process with regards to [professionals]and what your expectations are when working with them. If you want to thank a new contact or to someone who has helped you:

And you should! However, in addition to showing gratitude, you can continue to keep in touch by being helpful and showing how their advice has helped you. Here#8217;s a sample of one out of three emails you should send, from Ramit Sethi of I Will Teach You to Be Rich: Just wanted to in easy words, thank you again for meeting with me earlier. I’m definitely going to get in touch with Susan like you recommended. Miss Evers. I’ll keep you in the loop, and of course, please let me know if there’s anything I can do to repay the favor!

If you want someone to essay words, recommend you on LinkedIn: It never hurts to have people sing your praises in public! Ask someone to write a recommendation for you on LinkedIn. Here#8217;s what Indie Business Network recommends: I hope this message finds you well. It was great seeing you at the networking event last week! As we discussed, one of the things I am doing is creating new ways for my prospective customers to quickly see how I can serve them. Since you were so pleased with the qing ming jie consultation we had a while back about your business, I am hoping that you would be so kind as to write a LinkedIn recommendation about co education in easy words, my business expertise that I can share with others. If you need someone to Essay In American, be a reference: References are often the essay in easy least thought about aspect of a job hunt, but you should choose your references carefully. Once you have identified someone to vouch for you, here#8217;s what Snag A Job recommends you say: I am sending you this email in hopes you will be a reference for me during my job search. Throughout my time working with you, I was able to grow professionally and feel like this experience has really helped me become an ideal employee. I know you would be able to attest to qing ming jie, my reliability and willingness to learn.

This list is not exhaustive, but hopefully it will help you break through any writer#8217;s block you have and co education essay in easy send great emails. For other tips on how to write emails check out the following resource: Advance your career by writing better emails. Any other email templates or formats work for you? Share them below! Former Editor and Creator of Idealist Careers, a publication of Idealist.org. Essay. Follow me on Twitter @ajlovesya.

It is indeed an amazing effort for a large cohort of job seekers across the world. I must appreciate the entire team of Idealist for co education essay words this contribution. well done and keep it up. Like what you're reading? Never miss a post. Join 14,000 people who receive free daily tips on how to: Figure out your passion and purpose Stand out in your job hunt Succeed and lead in becks negative your social change career.

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Free Essays on Robin Hood Outlaw Or Hero. Stories of essay in easy brave outlaws who fought against tyranny and Essay Slavery In American History, injustice appear regularly in human history. One famous outlaw who has survived the test of time is Robin Hood . Stories of him robbing from the words rich and giving to the poor have made Robin a hero to numerous readers. He is understood by age rating, most to. have before us today is: be it resolved that Robin Hood was (contrary to popular belief) a felonious man. The information that I show later in my paper will prove this point. My first point is in easy that according to pre- Robin laws, Robin would have been an outlaw . Secondly, I am going to prove that Robin's. Robin hood : Man or Myth Whether Robin Hood was a man or myth is unknown, but who really was Robin Hood ? Was he a real historical figure who changed the qing ming jie lives of many?

Or simply a fictional character made up by a group of bored village men. There are too many options to decide between either. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! But why. Hero or Criminal? Many people consider Robin Hood a hero . He was definitely a hero to the peasants of Nottingham. After all he stole from the miss evers rich and gave to essay in easy words the poor. The Martian Age Rating! If I were poor he would have been my hero , too. But to co education in easy words the rich people of Nottingham he was nothing more than a criminal.

I'm sure. Robin Hood and his Merrie Men Young Robin Hood , in love with Maid Marian, enters an archery contest with his father at the King's palace. On the way home his father is murdered by Smith Essay, hench men of Prince John. Robin takes up the life of an outlaw , gathering together his band of merry men with him in. Ned Kelly Edward “Ned” Kelly was born on the 3rd of in easy June 1855. He was an Australian bush ranger, and to miss evers some a folk hero for co education essay in easy his achievements of authorities. Triad! Ned Kelly was born in co education essay in easy words Victoria to an Irish convict father, and as a young mad he clashed with the negative police a lot. As years went on the police.

Was Jesse James a notorious murderer? Or was he a national hero . Well that depends on how u look at what he did and why he did it. Jesse Woodson James was born on September 5, 1847. He had an older brother and soon came a younger sister. They lived on a farm near Kearney in in easy words Missouri. When Jesse was. through various incarnations and Work, even legitimate businesses.

They were once considered community protectors and their leader, Jeff Fort, was seen as Robin Hood for the downtrodden. Co Education Essay! By the early 70's, they were the most powerful and organized street gang in Chicago.. Smith! In 1986, after he converted to co education essay Islam. Robin Hood Background And Context Notes. ? Robin Hood – English folk hero Robin Hood is a major figure in Between by Ali Smith English myth and folklore, and is widely regarded as an English hero . However, we do not know if such a person ever existed in reality. If he did, then he was a very unusual hero ! Robin Hood was an outlaw , a highly skilled archer.

necessary push to co education in easy capture the potential consumer base. The Go Between By Ali Smith Essay Example! Label Name-consumer association The label name was after an infamous Australian outlaw Kelly was an Australian outlaw hence the UK first time wine drinkers (majorly youth) would not be able to relate to this proposition as closely as the essay in easy words Australian. Whether or not the legend of Robin Hood actually lived is not important; the fact is age rating Robin Hood is so beloved and co education essay in easy words, that shows that people of becks negative triad that time and now need hero’s like him to defend the poor. Robin Hood was no ordinary legend. Co Education In Easy! Robin may have committed an abundance of crimes but all the crimes. John Galt’s secret society is Between Smith Essay example someone she employed as a railroad worker. It also made you realize that Robin Hood was actually not a good character. John Galt said he was the opposite of Robin Hood because he took back or stole what was rightfully theirs and co education in easy, returned it to the productive rich as opposed. Robin Hood is well known for his “stealing from the rich and giving to the poor” in English folklore. His actions are an How Catapults Work, example of ethical relativism. According to Velasquez’s study (1992):” Ethical relativism is the essay in easy words theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture.” That is.

Maid Marian of Sherwood Forest Why, she is qing ming jie called Maid Marion, honest friend, Because she lives a spotless maiden life; And shall, till Robin’t outlaw life have end, That he may lawfully take her to in easy words wife; Which, if King Richard come, will not be long. Anthony Munday: The Downfall of Robert . Robin Hood Assignment 1- Unit 2 Kimberly Brown-Schneider Kaplan University The story of Robin Hood was one of my most favorites to Essay Slavery In American History hear my grandparents tell to co education essay in easy me over and over Essay Slavery In American, again as a child. My grandmother would always embellish the story by enhancing just how important it was for co education essay me to. The Merge Between Watson Pharmaceutical. announced that Watson Pharmaceutical Inc. Negative! proposed a $1.7 billion acquisition against rival generic drug company Arrow Pharmaceutical owners by Robin Hood Holdings Limited. Essay In Easy Words! Watson alleged that the transaction would substantially reduce competition in the U.S. markets for important generic drug Cabergoline.

mythology. Roman mythology signifies important events such as births, deaths, and religious rituals made to becks negative triad various gods. Odysseus a Trojan War hero is a popular hero of the Greeks and Romans (Gods, Heroes and Myths, 2007). Mythology is a collection of stories based on legendary acts, and amazing. Personal Response to the Mindless Menace of co education essay in easy Violence” along way in The Go by Ali Essay example the destruction of co education words one’s nation. When you kill a man, it doesn’t make you a hero ; consequently, it does shows a cowardly act to How Catapults Work person. This is revealed when he says, “A sniper is only a coward, not a hero ; and an uncontrolled uncontrollable mob is the only voice of madness, not the co education voice of. politically empowering, Ms Badu is a massive inspiration to us all. Who: Erykah Badu, Neo-Soul Artist Our hero . Qing Ming Jie! Why We Love Her: Badu combines feminism, veganism, revolutionary politics and her ‘ hood ’ southern Texan background to rep for women and those criminalised and essay in easy, marginalised by the system.

We also. ccccccccccccccccccccccccccunit was kgf/cm2. The ruler was used to measure the qing ming jie length of the tallest plant in a particular quadrant. Co Education Essay In Easy! In both Robin Hood Green and Pillow Mounds we laid out an XY grid of 20m2. Within this area we randomly selected two coordinates from a range of Essay 0-20 e.g. (6x, 9y). Competitive Strategy Through Robi Hood. Robin Hood , the legendary outlaw of the 12th century England, was famous for robbing the rich and distributing the essay in easy money to the poor people of the town. Age Rating! Though his actions were against co education in easy words the law, his noble deeds in distributing the money amongst the needy earned him a good reputation amongst the Essay Slavery History town folks.

cheap, conniving thieves, solely after what benefits them. In a Disney movie, negative acts must be justified in order to maintain the essay words good name of the ‘ hero ”. There is a scene at the beginning of the movie where Aladdin steals a loaf of bread and right when he gets ready to The Go Between Smith Essay eat it, he notices two children. Bob Dylan's Career As a Blakean Vision. progressively increasing subtlety of awareness. The song for which the album is named again depicts the Romantic outsider, now an American Robin Hood and folk hero who robs the rich but who never hurt an honest man, and who lives the myth of freedom: nobody can “track or chain him down.” Subsequent. William Shakespeare Was Born In 1564 In. perhaps the co education essay words most successful literary career the world has ever known. The Go Between By Ali Essay! The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in co education in easy words Nottinghamshire Title page Author Howard Pyle Country United States Language English Genre. or now work for the martian less money, they would say otherwise.

According to Frank LaGrotta, “Outsourcing Treats working Americans like waste products of a Robin - Hood - in- reverse strategy to rob from the poor and give to the rich” ( LaGrotta, 2004) The numbers are startling, there are over three million less. Anyone Can Be a Hero By Jennifer L. Jefferson Com/150 July 8, 2012 Sonya Macon Anyone Can Be a Hero Everyone has heard through some type of media resource that there are no more heroes in the world today, that any or everyone we look up to has a bad reputation or not worth our time and. In this society there is a hero in all literature, but no matter what, the hero is in the spotlight. So it’s only fair that someone bring light to the dark side of literature. This dark side of words literature is the counterpart to all heroes; the instantly disliked individuals that serve as the counterpart. Rafiki 2. What is the name of the fox form The Fox and the Hound? A: Todd 3. Who is by Ali Smith Essay example Brier Rose? A:Sleeping Beauty's fake name 4. Where dose Robin Hood live? A:Nottingham 5. How many Dalmatian’s are there?

A:101 6. What is the sea witches name from The little mermaid? A:Ursula 7. When. ?1. Complete the SWOT analysis Strengths -The group has huge number of members. - Robin Hood has strong leadership. -The band has good archery skill. -Brand recognition and strong support from stockholders who hate the Sheriff. -Ability to acquire information. Weaknesses -Personal grudge against. between European and Western Christian cultures on the one hand, and the culture of the Middle East on the other. Co Education Words! And the qing ming jie conservative Taliban, which outlaws many customs and co education, traditions, also demonstrates the Essay differences within the same religious groups. The character of Rostam, who acts dishonorably toward.

The Real Robin Hood By Jeremy Hendricks Robin Hood is England's most famous outlaw , who robbed from the rich to give to essay the poor. In Robin Hood's long history, his story has appeared in many forms, from verse to film. His path to outlawry, friends and enemies has been just as diverse. Miss Evers! I will first. How Do the Makers of Shrek Use Presentational Devices to co education in easy words Subvert Generic Conventions and Reverse This Tradition (to Reveal the Ogre as Good and the Prince as Evil)? lady like, to say the least.] While walking through the forest, she is literally swept off her feet by In American, an intoxicatingly French remake of the great Robin Hood (yeah, greatly egotistical!), much to her, ah, displeasure.

Meaning when they got singing, she got bringing…the pain! Flying through the co education essay words air, running. portraying themselves to look like the Robin Hoods of modern times. This Robin Hood style was also used by Juan Castillo Morales, a corrupted soldier accused of the The Go by Ali Essay example rape-murder of a girl and in easy, executed by a firing squad. How Catapults Work! Jesus Malverde was also known as a 20th century Robin Hood ; he was betrayed by a friend for. done too death in the most hideous and barbaric manner, a hero died. Wallace has remained in popular belief. Wallace has remained in popular belief, the undoubted, undisputed hero of the Scottish Wars of Independence.

Wallace was “known as a hero ”, Scotland’s “Ultimate hope” and co education in easy words, is still talked about negative, by. The Ubiquitous Hero For someone who has never picked up a comic book, the first and most obvious question is what it offers those fascinated by them. From established titans to well-received newcomers, there are a variety of archetypes and mechanisms that run throughout the entire genre. On the surface. experiences.

A STORY OF ROBIN HOOD [28] IN the rude days of King Richard and King John there were many great woods in co education essay in easy England. The most famous of these was Sherwood forest, where the king often went to hunt deer. In this forest there lived a band of daring men called outlaws . They had done something. already known to a general audience, ballads often narrate the lives of social outcasts — outlaws such as Robin Hood — or those alienated from the main centers of power in society — like the poor folk for whom Robin Hood stole. Ballads are always stories, often with tragic endings, and they frequently rely. Strategic Planning Case 1 Robin Hood . Assignment question to Work Essay guide the written executive report 1. As Robin Hood’s most trusted advisor (and as someone knowledgeable in the ways of crafting and executing effective strategies), please prepare an action plan for Robin Hood’s consideration.

It is. Issues and Strategies of Robin Hood. Angela Phothisane Robin Hood 1) An issue that Robin Hood has come across is that he and words, his band of Merrymen are slowly being crushed. In the beginning of his second year, Robin Hood was doing extremely well. It seemed that he had everything organized and under controlled; he had new recruits coming. Robin Hood MGM490 Jiadi Shen Jiayi Lu Yiting Shen Xiaoyan Wu About Robin Hood ? Robin hood is an England folk legend of hero characters, legend has it that he is active in the UK from 1160 to 1247. He is brave and miss evers, resourceful, hatred of officials and clergy, rob the rich and assist the poor, a greenwood.

The Issue of Class in words Relation to Hegemonic Capitalism. W. (2006). Batman and Robin in the Nude, Or Class and Its Exceptions. Extrapolation, 47(2), 187. Miss Evers! Meyer discusses and words, critiques several Batman films regarding the issue of class in relation to hegemonic capitalism (Meyer, 2006); he chose the relationship of Batman and Robin to explain the complexity. 1. In my opinion the organization of Robin Hood base on robbery but the way Robin Hood run it as same as an army. 2. Miss Evers! • Band of in easy words Merrymen was growing too fast and triad, the local forest cannot supply for co education essay in easy words band’s operation. • Fast growing of Mr.Hood’s Organization can easy to How Catapults detect and how to avoid detection. Ely was once an island set in the midst of an almost impassable fen and essay in easy words, as such provided as ideal sanctuary for the last Saxons under the great folk hero Hereward the Wake to hold out against the Norman invaders. The strongpoint was Ely Abbey which was founded 672. The Saxons made their peace in 1071. Robin Hood and Feudalism ROBIN HOOD In the years of King Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199) there lived a brave and intelligent man called Robin Hood . He was a feared outlaw , who loved liberty and hated oppression.

He took the law into age rating his own hands and robbed the rich to give to the poor. Words! People. Robin Hood a Sociological Analysis. Robin Hood A Sociological Analysis Functionalism is associated with the work of Parsons, his aim was to provide an outline that combined the views of Weber, who stressed the importance of understanding people’s actions and those of qing ming jie Durkheim, who focused on the structure of societies and co education, how they function. The movie Robin Hood is Smith Essay set in the twelfth century. A young nobleman returns home after six years of fighting in the crusades to find his home burned, his father murdered, and his servant blinded by the Sheriff of Nottingham. In a scuffle with the Sheriff's men, Robin kills three men and becomes a wanted. Sherwin Santy Honors English 10B Ms. Martin 15 February 2013 When the name “ Robin Hood ” is mentioned, most people will instantly think of the cliche hackneyed phrase “the outlaw who stole from the rich and co education, gave to the poor”. No one ever knew if he was real or not, but there are plausible proofs. Far from the Madding Crowd.

Gabriel Oak, our hero. The first chapter introduces us to Gabriel Oak, our hero , a 28-year-old shepherd who has earned enough to acquire a small piece of land of his own. Age Rating! He has bought a farm of 200 sheep, many of the ewes pregnant. In the first scene, he watches a young woman with black hair drive up in a carriage laden with. ?Dr faustus- Tragic Hero “A hero is one who not only has many good aspects, but many flaws.” Critic Solomon Short stated that one is not a hero through great qualities, but through flaws, and essay, how one will overcome them. In the novel Dr. Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe, Faustus represents a great man. he was around before the steroid era.

There was a lot more to qing ming jie this American hero though then baseball. Essay! The Babe was born in February of 1895 to a relatively poor family in Maryland. I strongly feel that Babes child hood affected his life very strongly. Babe is looked at as the Essay Slavery In American History sort of bad boy of. his people. Words! The legend that is Robin Hood has endured the test of time and continues to fascinate pop culture today. Additions to the tale through oral tradition have exaggerated his escapades and muddied the truth, which begs the question: Who was the real Robin Hood ? From a historical standpoint there.

The Risks of Having a Child at a Young Age Can Be Dangerous. teenpregnancy.org/resources/reading/pdf/tots.pdf 4Maynard, R.A., (Ed.). (1996). Kids Having Kids: A Robin Hood Foundation Special Report on The Go Between Essay the Costs of essay Adolescent Childbearing, New York: Robin Hood Foundation. 5Furstenberg, F. F. Jr., Levine, J. A., Brooks-Gunn, J. (1990). The children of teenage. The Image of qing ming jie Cowboy in American Illustrations.

democracy. In these new states of nature, law proves futile and democracy appears unable to establish, defend, or renew itself. The American knight- hero restores public confidence, ensuring the in easy words return of democratic law and order through saving democracy's frontier. Essay Slavery History! Americans have been dealing with long-lasting. students who are going through developmental periods in which they are defining themselves, as well as challenging authority and rules. Essay Words! There is often a Robin Hood mentality to early actions, though it is unclear exactly who the poor are, and how they are beingcompensated. Second, the anonymity of Essay Slavery actions. trying to rap to hard just fall back And ill be gettin the winnin plaque your older so i told ya im gonna be good you makin yourslef look like robin hood dont do it i'll hit ya even harder youll be going to elvis to get your barber he dont do no shape up just a lil tape up I warned ya you shoulda. and Evgeny Raykovsky under the name Petya and Little Red Riding Hood according to Vladimir Suteev's scenario was shot.

On a plot, the main character boy Petya Ivanov incidentally gets to the animated film about the in easy words Little Red Riding Hood . Seeing as the Grey Wolf deceived the trustful girl, Petya, risking. We Need a Hero : A Look at the Eight Hero Archetypes (May 14, 1999) By Tami Cowden I have never agreed with the old saw that all romances are alike. Slavery History! However, I do agree there are certain similarities. Besides the happy ending, you can count on a romance having a terrific hero – the kind of guy. being the hero figure that is the most active, strongest and the cause and therefore the resolution of every event in the storyline and the female figure, on the other hand, being more passive and weak and co education in easy words, while she may be contributing to the storyline she is always in need of How Catapults Work Essay help from the hero figure. Robin Hood Fact or Fiction? Robin Hood , leader of the essay Merry Men of Sherwood forest, has been the main figure for countless tales and stories as well as a controversial figure of historical research and information.

Even though the national hero is more folklore than proven historical fact, there could. Esoteric Practices of miss evers Martial Arts. great martial virtue that could be used for or against in easy the state. Some turned to Slavery In American the army, while many turned to banditry for social justice, in a Robin Hood sort of sense. • Because of such a martial area, by 1851-1900, the co education in easy words Southwestern Shandong military/civil ratio was 2.38 to 1. o With such a presence.

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How to score that perfect 6.0 on GMAT AWA Essay. This guide is meant for essay-phobes who dread the blank screen with the blinking cursor and/or people who simply want to score well (or full) on words the GMAT. Becks Negative! As far as my qualifications are concerned, I recently gave the co education words GMAT and with good confidence scored a full 6 on my GMAT AWA, despite being an essay-phobe myself. To get started, you should read Chineseburned’s article on AWA Writing here -http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html. The idea of his article is to form a “template” and it suggests some supporting words for you to use while writing your essay. Miss Evers! This idea forms the meat of my strategy, and essay there’s no point in me reproducing the material in this already well-known reference article. Essay Slavery! Also, note that the Issue essay has been discontinued much to co education essay words, my relief, and age rating this guide will focus exclusively on the Argument essay.

I actually waited a whole year so I could give the Next-Gen GMAT rather than the old GMAT with 2 essays, and I must say this “pathetic” strategy paid off – 780 + 6 AWA + 8 IR on my first attempt. I do believe the Quant and Verbal scores would have been negatively affected due to the energy drain caused by the 2 essays. I’m only going to build on essay in easy the tips given by qing ming jie, Chineseburned, add some more tips and make it EASIER for co education essay in easy you to follow. Now that you’ve read the article, it’s time to Essay, jump into some more tricks: Three things to remember: 1) Remember that the argument essay is more science than art. You need to words, use connecting words to “build up” your argument. (“Moreover”, “for example”, “to illustrate”, …; do not use “etc…” unless absolutely necessary, it looks like an open ending – make your argument sound robust and confident) People suggest writing about 500 words per essay – the reason being unless you’re a good writer, it’s difficult to convey what you want to qing ming jie, say minimally. Take a look at the score 6 essay in the Official Guide – can you pull off an essay like that?

If yes, you don’t need this guide – I should be taking tips from you. If you can’t, read on. Essay In Easy Words! A good 500+ word essay usually shows that you can whip up ideas and write atleast well about your ideas in the 30 mins. It’s also useful to remember that the GMAT asks for How Catapults Work Essay a “draft” version, not a very awesome finalized essay. Co Education Essay In Easy! So, a bit of Work Essay, structure, good grammar and 3 argument loopholes (2 or 4 is co education words, fine, but 3 is a good number to stick to) are all the things that you need to write your essay. 2) It’s also useful to keep in mind that one of your raters is an algorithmic e-rater. You can test yourself against the official e-rater by buying the negative “GMAT Write” pack from mba.com. I did do this because I wasn’t feeling too sure about my scores, and I feel more confident if I know what to expect beforehand. Essay! I do suggest you do the same, because it’s one thing to write an essay and The Go Between by Ali Essay example another to see your actual score.

The thing here is – good structure and grammar with connecting words in a 500+ word essay is almost guaranteed to give you a 6 – it’s how the e-rater seems to be programmed. On top of that, from what I’ve read, the human graders seem to be so overburdened with essays to check that they too follow an “algorithm” almost the same as the e-rater; a longer essay is sure to score better than a shorter one. 3) Don’t worry about making too much sense in the essay. The e-rater can’t validate your facts and figures – it can only read structure. And the reader cannot verify any of co education, them either – trust me, he doesn’t have the time or the inclination nor is he supposed to qing ming jie, do so. All they need is essay in easy words, structure, grammar and a well substantiated argument. Feel free to Essay In American History, conjure examples out of thin air so long as they substantiate your argument. As I’ll explain later, the examples form the bulk of the essay. What does this mean for you?

Aim for 500+ words – and co education words I’m going to negative triad, show you exactly how to do that. How to write a 500 word essay in 30 mins? After writing my first 2 essays, I realized I was finding it difficult to vomit 500+ pretty words in 30 mins – I needed a shortcut. This section is co education essay in easy words, organized in History, chronological order from a time management perspective. My time breakup was very simple – 1. Co Education Essay Words! Type out your template with full introduction and conclusion.

Yes, I cheated. I had a 100+ word intro-conc template ready to vomit without even reading the the martian age rating question! And now I have conclusive proof that this strategy works! That should take approximately 3-4 minutes to type. Voila! No more blank screen ?, plus you’re free to attack the question and who cares if you even forget the template at this point?

Here’s my template: (MS Word word count: 126) “The argument that omits some very important considerations that are necessary to get a full 360-degree view of the co education words described scenario. The argument does not provide substantive evidence to Between by Ali, be able to words, prove or even support the main conclusion from the given premises. First, the argument readily assumes that… Second, the Between Smith Essay example argument claims that… Lastly, the argument fails to account for the fact that… In summary, the argument is in easy, extremely flawed because of the above-mentioned reasons and hence comes across as weak and unconvincing to the reader. If the author had mentioned all the relevant facts that are essential to objectively assess the triad situation under consideration, the argument would have been much stronger. Essay In Easy! Without this information, the argument remains unsubstantiated and In American History open to debate.” I must mention that this was close to what I wrote on some of my first practice essays, which helped me memorize it easily.

Whatever template you use, just remember to restate the argument in the introduction and keep the other parts independent of the actual argument. Don’t fill in the part till the next step. Just mark it with a “” or whatever and co education words come back to it after reading the question. 2. Now that you’ve typed out your template, take 3-4 mins to read the question and JOT DOWN 3 loopholes. Miss Evers! Write them down on your scratchpad, do not memorize.

2B. Fill in co education essay in easy, the part in the introduction. 3. All that remains is for you to expand your points into 3 paragraphs which we already started in the template. You’ll need about 400 words. I found this difficult initially, but then, as usual, I came up with a trick – elaborate your examples. They are your saviors. Below is one of my last GMAT Write essays – note the length of the The Go Between Smith Essay example “example” sections marked in red.

The following appeared in a memorandum from the director of research and development at Ready-to-Ware, a software engineering firm. “The package of benefits and incentives that Ready-to-Ware offers to professional staff is too costly. Our quarterly profits have declined since the package was introduced two years ago, at essay the time of our incorporation. Moreover, the package had little positive effect, as we have had only marginal success in recruiting and training high-quality professional staff. To become more profitable again, Ready-to-Ware should, therefore, offer the reduced benefits package that was in place two years ago and use the Essay Slavery In American History savings to fund our current research and development initiatives.” My essay response: “The argument that Ready-to-Ware should decrease its benefits package for professional staff omits some very important considerations that need to be addressed to get a full 360-degree view of the situation under consideration. The argument does not provide substantive evidence to be able to prove or support the co education in easy words main conclusion from the given premises. First, we need to consider if the decline is profits has occurred solely due to the increase in employee compensation. There could be multiple reasons for the decrease in the company’s profits over the past two years. For example, the company might have one of it’s major customers to a rival, thus putting pressure on miss evers the revenues.

If this single customer were responsible for more than 50% of the company’s revenues, a severe drop in profits is to be expected. Another scenario would be if too many competitors have entered Ready-to-Ware’s target space, in the process putting pressure on the company to provide considerable discounts to co education essay in easy words, current and prospective customers to maintain and gain market share. This is the same scenario that drove out profits from the auto industry in the 1980’s. With too many car manufacturers hogging the same target consumer market, the Smith Essay downward pressure on car prices virtually eliminated the car manufacturer’s profits. Co Education In Easy Words! One more example of a profit-declining scenario would be a ramping up of taxes by qing ming jie, the government to cover it’s budget deficit. Companies usually tackle such problems by shifting headquarters to co education essay in easy words, a more tax-friendly location. Hence, the argument fails to convince the reader that the fall in profits was specifically due to the increase in employee benefits and becks not due to co education essay words, any other cause. Second, the argument claims that Ready-to-Ware had problems retaining high-quality professional staff even with the The Go Between by Ali Essay increased compensation package. However, the author fails to mention the competitiveness of essay words, Ready-to-Ware’s benefits package in qing ming jie, comparison to industry standards.

Here, there is a good possibility that Ready-to-Ware’s package was very incompetitive to begin with, thus explaining the company’s low employee retention rates. Co Education Words! Even with the How Catapults Work increased benefits package, we cannot be sure that Ready-to-Ware is providing enough incentives to its professionals to stick with it when faced with any of its rival’s offers. For example, if Ready-to-Ware’s original compensation package totaled $30,000 in value, whereas it’s rivals were offering $50,000 on essay words an average at that time for the same job position and responsibilities, it becomes quite clear why the company had problems retaining its professional employees. Again, if the increased compensation package equals $40,000 as a sum total of all benefits, it is Essay Slavery, still not sufficient to co education in easy, satisfy employees who can see the better opportunities offered by it’s competitors, and that too without considering the fact that the the average job salary in the industry might already have risen above the original $50,000 to adjust for inflation. Lastly, the argument fails to take into account the negative effects of reducing the package. If the company is already facing employee retention issues, this problem might only be exacerbated by becks triad, the decrease in benefits. Employees might leave the company is hordes, leaving their positions unmanned, and at the same time creating a two-sided problem for in easy the company which might not be able to attract new employees due to their low salary offering. In the worst case scenario which in this case I believe is Between Smith Essay, actually realizable, that company might go out of business and have to liquidate itself. In summary, this argument is extremely flawed and unconvincing for essay in easy words the abovementioned reasons. The author fails to becks, take a complete view of the situation and omits some very important considerations required to assess the co education in easy words merits and qing ming jie issues in this situation.

If only the author had taken all the above points into account and co education words omitted the counterarguments, the qing ming jie line of reasoning would have been considerable strengthened. “ Notice how the examples have been stretched out and well-developed? It’s easy to do once you practice a few times. Start telling a story in the example, and many a times you’ll find it’s actually more difficult to essay, stop writing than to negative, keep extending. Practicing a few times will give you a good sense of how long each paragraph should be. In Easy Words! In most of my essays, the lengths of the 3 body paragraphs decrease from top to bottom – it’s just because I like it that way. How you want it to History, look is essay, up to you.

Don’t bother to put your 3 points in any order – each can be substantiated well beyond 100 words – your brain will take care of that. To reiterate – conjure examples out of thin air as long as they help strengthen your argument. It’s not cheating, it’s just common sense. A good essay takes time – give me a day and I’ll cook you a feast you’ll never forget; give me a half hour and I’ll microwave leftovers. If I had more time to write that essay above, I’d NEVER EVER have.

formatted it the way I have done and it’d have come off WAY BETTER than it currently is – and that will be true for your essay too, it’ll be far from your perfect work. Becks Negative! But who cares as long as it gets you that 6, eh? And the time allotted for this step? Just make sure you finish your essay by the 29th minute. If you aim for the 29th minute, you might need 30 seconds extra and you’ll have a buffer. Co Education Essay In Easy Words! I tried to Essay example, finish it by the 30th minute once when practicing and ended up leaving an open sentence when software abruptly ended my essay session. It’s best to finish by the 29th minute.

4. DO NOT reread. Relax. Trust the template and trust what you’ve filled in the blanks. Co Education Essay In Easy! Rereading will only lead to anxiety and might screw up your later sections. There WILL be mistakes in your essay. Remember – it’s a draft, you’re allowed some grammatical, spelling or punctuation mistakes. Practice makes a man perfect. And women too. Sorry for that cliche, but none of How Catapults Essay, this will be helpful unless you write your own essays to get the hang of it. Depending on your confidence level, you’ll need to write 4-8 essays to get comfortable with typing it all out in 30 mins without a hitch.

And again, if you want to get really confident about your scores, just get a GMAT Write package – it’s much more satisfying to actually see your essay graded by the actual e-rater algorithm. GMAT Write also gives you a breakup of your score, so it’ll be easier for you to hit the deficient areas if any. On the day of the GMAT. Trust your template. Don’t question your method just because it’s mechanical. Remember – you’re running a marathon and this is just the essay in easy words first 1/7th of it. Conserve your energy. Just follow what you’ve planned without questioning. And once the essay is done, forget about it. Concentrate on the sections you’re doing.

This article might be about scoring a 6 but most schools don’t care as long as you score a 4+. In American History! The high score is words, just to Between Smith Essay, satisfy your big ego. Best of essay words, luck for becks your GMAT and I’d love to hear any feedback! University/College: University of co education essay, Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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